3. After studying this unit students will be able;
* Indicate the specific contribution of Higher Education in the various
*Determine the relationship of Higher Education with employment
situation in the developing countries.
*Analyze the emerging trends in the role of Higher Education as a
*Relate the role of Higher Education within the framework of respective
*Objectives of the unit
4. Higher education in developed countries is playing a major role in their social
and economic development as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD 2008) points out that tertiary education contributes to
social and economic development.
A developing country, also known as a less-developed country (LDC),is a
nation with a low living standard, undeveloped industrial base, and Low Human
Development Index(HDI) relative to other countries
Development entails a modern infrastructure (both physical and institutional)
Higher Education & Developing
5. Increasing phase in GDP per capita
Ability of self-production
Good economic stability
Qualities of a developing country
6. Factors affecting developing countries
1. Rapid growth in population
2. Increase in poverty
3. Lack of industries which leads to increase in foreign investment
7. Philosophy of education emphasis the training of independent and self contained
individual who could face the problems of life and of the society they live in.
Its objectives is to create intellectual awareness in the economic and social
growth of the country.
India's higher education system is the world's third-largest in terms of students,
next to China and the United States.
India's Higher Education sector has witnessed a tremendous increase in the
number of Universities/University level Institutions & Colleges since
Higher Education in India
8. India has been home to the institutions of higher education. At the
time of independence, it has twenty universities and five hundred
colleges. But it has become the largest higher education system in the
world having 42000, institutions of higher education.
Indian Higher Education system is third largest system in the world.
The university Grant Commission is main governing body to handle
the matters of higher education .it is monitor the standard of Education
, advises the Government and co-ordinate between the center and
9. Enrolment: The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of India in higher
education is only 25.2% which is quite low as compared to the
developed and other major developing countries.
Equity:There is no equity in GER among different sections of
society. GER for males (26.3%), females (25.4%), SC (21.8%) and
Quality: Higher Education in India is plagued with rot learning, lack
of employability and skill development due to the low quality of
Issues and Challenges in India’s
Higher Education Sector
10. Outdated Curriculum: Outdated, irrelevant curriculum that is dominantly
theoretical in nature and has a low scope for creativity. There is a wide gap
between industry requirements and universities’ curriculum that is the main
reason for the low employability of graduates in India.
Research: Poor fund allocation in research, Low levels of PhD enrolment,
fewer opportunities for interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research, Low
levels of industry engagement, Low quality of research work, etc. are some of
the factors affecting the research ecosystem in India.
11. 1. Education Quality Upgradation and Inclusion Programme (EQUIP) has been recently
This is a five-year vision plan to improve the quality and accessibility of higher education over
the next five years (2019-2024).
Double the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in higher education and resolve the geographically and
socially skewed access to higher education institutions in India.
Position at least 50 Indian institutions among the top-1000 global universities.
2. All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE): The main objectives of the survey are to-
identify & capture all the institutions of higher learning in the country; and collect the data from
all the higher education institutions on various aspects of higher education.
Recent Initiatives Taken by the
12. While higher education is free for all Egyptians; foreign students pay modest
tuition fees. Hostels are provided for Egyptian students from distant rural regions
who need financial assistance. Separate hostels are available for males and
females. Meals, medical care, and social services are also provided.
Fifty million Egyptian pounds have been allocated to upgrade university
laboratories and relevant equipment. Ten million pounds have also been allocated
for upgrading computer laboratories and computer instruction. An additional 50
million pounds are earmarked for upgrading university libraries.
Higher Education in EGYPT
13. The National Institute for Higher Administration in Cairo provides training in
administration for various levels of in-service personnel from all ministries
Schools of art and music include the Academy of Arts (Giza), Higher Institute
of Ballet (Cairo with branches in Alexandria and Ismailia), Higher Institute of
Cinema (Cairo), Higher Institute of Theatre Arts (Cairo), Higher Institute of
Arab Music (Cairo), Higher Institute of Music (Cairo), Higher Institute of
Folklore (Cairo), Higher Institute of Art Criticism (Cairo), and the Higher
Institute of Child Arts (Cairo). The French University in Egypt (Cairo) offers
a wide range of courses and hosts study-abroad students.
14. Postsecondary colleges and institutes were created to offer non-traditional
disciplines and to respond rapidly to societal needs.
Engineering and Technological Education Institutes, established in the 1990s,
produce engineers who combine both theoretical and applied expertise.
In 1995-1996, five institutes enrolled 3,854 students. Specialized Education
Institutes offer training in music education, technical education, kindergarten
education, home economics, educational technology, educational media,
physical education, one-room school teaching, special education, and English.
In 1995-1996, enrollment was 14,019 students. Private institutes offer training
in areas such as computer technology, social work, tourism, hotel
management, agricultural and management cooperatives, economics media,
15. The university and college libraries are said to be very poor and, in
many cases, outdated.
They suffer from lack of funds; from poorly trained, poorly paid,
uninterested librarians with limited English facility; and in some cases,
from deteriorating facilities.
The main gaps in holdings are in periodicals, reference books,
bibliographies, abstracts, and indexes.
Reasonable quantities of Arabic books and journals are available, as are
audiocassettes and quantities of microfilmed journals from the 1960s
and 1970s, donated by USAID.
16. The higher education sector is under the jurisdiction of the
Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE).
The establishment of this ministry on 27 March 2004 was a
result of the re-structuring of the Ministry of Education and
marked an important part of history in Malaysia, particularly in
the development and expansion of the higher education sector.
The establishment of MOHE is in line with the vision of the
government in making Malaysia a centre of educational
excellence and internationalising Malaysian education.
Higher Education in Malaysia
17. MOHE's Vision
To make Malaysia a centre of higher education excellence by the
To build and create a higher education environment that is
conducive for the development of academic and institutional
excellence and to generate individuals who are competent,
innovative and of noble character to serve the needs of the nation
and the world.
18. Some of MOHE's key functions include :
Determining policies and the direction of the higher education sector in
order to build an excellent and outstanding nation that is rich in
knowledge, culture and civilization
Acting as a catalyst to develop the sector that enables the nation to
compete in the era of globalization
Dealing with the challenges of the present global economic scene, in
line with the government's aspiration to produce adequate human
resource with knowledge and high moral values (National Higher
Education Strategic Plan and Vision 2020)
Functions of MOHE
19. MOHE comprises four departments / sectors :
1. The Department of Higher Education
2. The Department of Polytechnic Education
3. The Department Community College Education
4. The Management Sector
5. The Development Sector
Structure of MOHE
20. Higher Education Funding
The education at primary and secondary schools in Malaysia is free at
government schools. Students studying at public universities need to pay tuition
fees. However, the fees are highly subsidised by the government. Students at
private institutions pay full fees.
There are many types of financial aid readily available for Malaysian students
who pursue higher education in the country. These include scholarships and
study loans from the public and private sectors.
Fee waiver schemes are offered by many private higher educational institutions
and many study loan schemes are offered by various organizations.
21. National Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education -
The national quality assurance agency of Malaysia is known as the Malaysian
Qualifications Agency (MQA) which was established on 1 November 2007 under the
Malaysian Qualifications Agency Act 2007. Its key function is to quality assure all
programmes and qualifications offered by higher education providers. MQA comes under
the responsibility of the Ministry of Higher Education.
1. MQA was established to replace the following three quality assurance agencies, namely
2. Lembaga Akreditasi Negara (established under Act 556 in 1996), for private higher
3. The Quality Assurance Division of MOHE, for public universities
4. The Quality Assurance Division of MOHE, for polytechnics and community colleges
22. MQF consists of eight levels of qualifications in four
sectors of education.
The four sectors of education are the :
1. skills sector
2. vocational and technical sector
3. life-long learning sector and
4. higher education (university) sector
23. The eight levels of higher education
qualifications are :
Levels 1 to 3
These are the levels for skills certificates awarded by the skills sector; vocational and technical
certificates awarded by the Vocational & Technical Sector; and certificates (Level 3) awarded
by the Higher Education sector.
Levels 4 and 5
These levels are for diplomas and advanced diplomas (general degree) respectively awarded by
the Technical and Vocational Sector, Skills Sector and Higher Education Sector.
Level 6 to 8
Level 6 is for the first tertiary qualification, i.e. bachelor degree with honours while Level 7 is
for master degrees and Level 8 for PhD / doctoral degrees. Under the lifelong learning
category, there are graduate certificates and diplomas and postgraduate certificates and
The well structured higher education system in Malaysia is key in enabling the
government to achieve its aspirations to have a resilient nation, encourage the
creation of a just society, maintain sustainable economic growth, develop global
competitiveness, build a K-economy and innovative culture, strengthen human
resource development and maintain sustainable environmental development.
The efforts of the government and education entrepreneurs to constantly enhance
and improve the infrastructure of higher education, human resource
development, and curricula in order to provide better quality education for
students have earned the country international recognition. Malaysia has also
been recognized for its success in the democratization of higher education.
25. Higher education in Thailand is predominantly provided at universities
and colleges. Major universities are Chulalongkorn University,
Thammasat University, Mahidol University, Ramkamheng University
and Chiang Mai University.
There are also many non-formal education services for adults in
Thailand. Instead of offering normal, scheduled classes, these services
aim to provide education through community learning centres, TV
programs and other channels. Amazingly there are a total of 780
institutions offering some type of higher education.
Higher Education in Thailand
26. In recent years the growing demand for higher education has stimulated
the private sector to offer more opportunities for students to finish
secondary school. These institutions tend to be more expensive than the
There are 49 private universities in Thailand, enrolling 199,464 students
(1999), serving almost as many students as the original selective public
Fifty-five percent of these private universities are located outside of
Bangkok, thus, help to serve higher education needs in the regions.
27. Students should apply directly to the university of their choice.
There are usually no restrictions on foreign students enrolling in a
Thai university, as long as there are places available. To apply, you
will usually need the following documentation:
1. High School Certificate or equivalent
2. Academic records from previous schools
3. Non-immigrant ED visa
Enrolment conditions for foreign
students in Thailand
28. The academic year in Thailand lasts from June to March and
is divided into two semesters. It has a two or three week break
between the two semesters in September.
The long summer break is during the hottest part of the year -
the traditional Thai new-year celebrations, Songkran.
Academic year in Thailand
29. Most bachelor degrees in Thailand have four years full-time attendance
programmes. Exceptions are pharmacy and architecture that require five years,
and medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine that require six years of study.
Master degrees generally require either one or two years of study. On
completion of a Masters degree, students may apply for an admission exam to a
2-5 year doctoral study program.
A doctoral thesis is regarded as the highest academic achievement. Students are
also expected to produce study reports and give academic seminars during the
University programs in Thailand
30. Tuition fees for Thai universities vary between 15,000-
300,000 Baht per semester depending on the university.
Fees for foreign students in Thailand
31. China celebrated the 70th anniversary of the founding of the
People’s Republic of China (also called New China) on 1 October
Despite twists and turns, China has established one of the largest
higher education systems in the world.
For example, Chinese universities and colleges have
accommodated the largest numbers of undergraduate students
worldwide, with more than 30 million students on campuses.
Higher Education in China
32. China’s gross enrolment ratio for higher education reached 48% of
the 18-year-old population in 2018. This indicates that its higher
education system will soon offer near-universal access to higher
education according to United States sociologist Martin Trow’s
Also, it produced and trained more than 60,000 doctoral graduates in
2018. This number is even larger than that for US universities.
34. 1. China’s educational system is one of the largest in the world.
China is not only a big country with an enormous population. It also
has one of the most extensive educational systems in the world.
China has 2,529 regular higher education institutions and 1,327
colleges. Not to mention 1,187 short-term vocational schools. The
country currently has 38 million students.
5 Facts Interesting Facts bout Higher
Education in China
35. 2. China is a popular study abroad destination.
With its developed and advanced system of education, China is the
number one study destination in Asia for international students.
It is ranked third globally, behind the U.S. and the U.K. In 2018,
China’s Ministry of Education released reports that there are almost
500,000 international students enrolled in Chinese universities.
This number is expected to rise in the coming years because of
government initiatives for international students.
36. 3. Chinese universities are amongst the best in the world.
Many Chinese universities have consistently made it to the 100 best
universities in the world every year. This includes Tsinghua
University, Peking University, University of Science and Technology
of China, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Fudan University,
and Zhejiang University.
As an economic powerhouse, China is home to the best business
schools globally. This includes CEIBS, CKGSB, and HKUST
Business School, to name a few. Search for the best MBA programs
37. 4. China has a C9 league.
The C9 League is an alliance of nine of the most prestigious universities in mainland China.
The People’s Daily calls the C9 League as the Ivy League of China. Included in the league are:
1. Peking University
2. Tsinghua University
3. Fudan University
4. Shanghai Jiao Tong University
5. University of Science and Technology of China
6. Zhejiang University
7. Nanjing University
8. Xi’an Jiaotong University
9. Harbin Institute of Technology
If you get into one of the C9 League, you’ll have the opportunity to tap into special resources and
arrangements between these universities. These universities also receive huge funding, are centres of
research and development, and are visited by world-renowned scholars.
38. 5. China supports Chinese students to study abroad than any other
China has a large international student population, but the country also
sends students abroad. In 2016 alone, there are currently 700,000
Chinese students abroad.
China is one of the most progressive countries in the world. In addition,
it has a beautiful language and a rich culture.
Don’t miss out on the chance to study in China. Contact China
Admissions to fast-track your university application