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Integrated nutrient management

  2. SUBMITTED TO: Dr. P. Kavitha, Assistant professor and head, Department of Soil science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural college, Mahanandi. SUBMITTED BY: M. Ashok Naik, MAM/2016-01, Department of Agronomy, Agricultural college, Mahanandi.
  3. What is INM?
  4. Introduction Integrated Nutrient Management is a practice where all sources of nutrients namely organic ,inorganic (chemical fertilizer), biofertilizer can be combined and applied to soils so that crop growth is enhanced and we can get good yield with quality product . Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) has to be considered an integral part of any sustainable agricultural system.
  5. Integrated nutrient management is the maintenance or adjustment of soil fertility and plant nutrient supply at an optimum level to sustain the desired crop productivity. This is done through optimization of the benefits from all possible sources of plant nutrients in an integrated manner. In other words, integrated nutrient management is the use of different sources of plant nutrients integrated to check nutrient depletion and maintain soil health and crop productivity.
  6. Concept of INM India is predominantly an agriculture-based country and more than two-third of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihood. India with geographical area of 329 M ha presently supports 17% of the world’s population on merely 2.5% world’s land area and 4% world’s fresh water resources. India made a spectacular achievement in attaining the self sufficiency in food production by the introduction of high yielding dwarf and fertilizer responsive varieties of cereals, particularly wheat and rice in the mid- 1960s .
  7. With the use of improved varieties coupled with increased fertilizer and agro-chemicals use, price support and other policy initiatives, the food grain production increased from 50.8 mt in 1951 to 213.18 mt during 2003 – 04. Chemical fertilizer enhancing yield In the early 1990s, however, fertilizer became the target of criticism, mainly because of heavy use in the developed countries, where it was suspected of having an adverse effect on the environment through nitrate leaching, eutrophication, greenhouse gas emissions and heavy metal uptakes by plants.
  8. Consequently, fertilizer use per se was mistakenly identified as harmful to the environment. But, if for any reason fertilizer use were discontinued today, world food output would drop by an estimated amount of 40 per cent. While fertilizer misuse can contribute to environmental contamination, it is often an indispensable source of the nutrients required for plant growth and food production. Unless all the soil nutrients removed with the harvested crops are replaced in proper amounts from both organic and sustained; soil fertility will decline.
  9. If in the past, the emphasis was on increased use of fertilizer; the current approach should aim on educating farmers to optimize use of organic, inorganic and biological fertilizer in an integrated way. Plant nutrition to day requires judicious and integrated management of all sources of nutrients for sustainable agriculture. Regular supply for optimum crop growth and higher productivity. Improvement and maintenance of soil fertility. Zero adverse impact on agro- ecosystem quality by balanced fertilization.
  10. Why is INM needed? The increasing use of chemical fertilizers to increase the production of food and fibre is causing concern for the following reasons : • Soils which receive plant nutrients only through chemical fertilizers are showing declining productivity despite being supplied with sufficient nutrients. • The decline in productivity can be attributed to the appearance of deficiency in Secondary and micronutrients. • The physical condition of the soil is deteriorated as a result of long-term use of chemical fertilizers, especially the nitrogenous ones. It also aggravates the problem of poor fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). • Excess nitrogen use leads to groundwater and environmental pollution apart from destroying the ozone layer through N2O production
  11. ADVANTAGES OF INM 1. Enhance the availability of applied as well as native soil nutrient. 2. Synchronizes the nutrient demand with the native supply from native and applied sources. 3. Provide balanced nutrition to the crops. 4. Improves and sustain the Physical, Chemical and biological functioning of soil. 5. Minimizes the deterioation of soil, water & ecosystem by promoting carbon sequestration. 6. Reducing nutrient losses to ground surface water bodies and atmosphere. 7. Minimize the antagonistic effects resulting from hidden deficiency and nutrient imbalance.
  13. CLASSIFICATION OF FERTILIZERS Fertilizer FERTILIZERS Fertilizer is any material of natural or synthetic origin added to the soil to supply one or more plant nutrients.
  14. 1. Straight fertilizers Straight fertilizers are those which supply only one primary plant nutrient, namely nitrogen or phosphorus or potassium. E.g. Urea, ammonium sulphate, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate. 2. Complex fertilizers Complex fertilizers contain two or three primary plant nutrients of which two primary nutrients are in chemical combination. These fertilizers are usually produced in granular form e.g. Diammonium phosphate, nitrophosphates and ammonium phosphate. 3. Mixed fertilizers: Physical mixtures are straight fertilizers. They contain two or three primary plant nutrients. Mixed fertilizers are made by thoroughly mixing the ingredients either mechanically or manually.
  15. Fertilizers can also be classified based on physical form Solid fertilizers Liquid fertilizers
  16. Urea prills Granulated ureaAmmonium sulphate Solid fertilizers are in several forms: • Powder (single superphosphate) • Crystals (ammonium sulphate) • Prills (urea, diammonium phosphate, superphosphate), • Granules (Holland granules) • Supergranules (urea supergranules) • Briquettes (urea briquettes).
  17. General Classification of manures DEFINITION : Organic manure is defined as the product resulting from the controlled biological decomposition of organic matter.
  18. MAJOR SOURCES OF MANURES • Cattle shed wastes • Human habitation wastes • Poultry litter • Slaughterhouse wastes • Byproducts of agroindustries • Crop wastes • Weeds • Green manure crops
  19. Composition of Manures Bulky organic manures Nitrogen (%) Phosphorous (%) Potassium (%) 1. Farm Yard Manure 0.5 0.3 0.5 2. Compost 0.5 0.15 0.5 3. Sheep and Goat manure 3.0 1.0 2.0 4. Poultry manure 1.5 1.2 0.5 5. Sewage and sludge 2.5 0.6 0.5 6. Bagasse 0.25 0.12 0 7. Press mud 0.35 2.0 ---
  20. Introduction Organic manures The use of chemical fertilizer is increasing day-by day for the sake of increasing production. By excess use of it, the fertility of soil and health also deteriorate. Therefore the use of organic manure is one of the alternative ways for enhancing production and improving the soil health. It is not only cheaper; easily available ensures sustainable agriculture too.
  21. Major differences between organic manures and inorganic fertilizers INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ORGANIC MANURES 1. More or less chemical substances. 1. Complex mixture from animal, human and plant residues. 2. High analytical. 2. Low analytical. 3. Release nutrients more rapidly. 3. Release nutrients slowly. 4. When applied at high rates at planting or too close to seeds or seedlings, salt damage is likely. 4. Salt damage is less likely. 5. Highly water soluble; so more likely to be lost through leaching. 5. Less water soluble; less likely to be lost through leaching. 6. Supply mostly one or two nutrients chosen for the purpose. 6. Supply more nutrients in addition to some micronutrients in small amounts. 7. Generally, no effect on physical condition of the soil 7.Improve soil physical condition due to addition of large quantities of organic matter. 8. Some of the inorganic fertilizers can be applied to crop as foliar spray. 8. No scope for foliar spray. 9. Scope for fixation of nutrients in the soil complex. 9. No scope for such fixation. 10. N and P fertilizers can be applied in split doses. 10. No such split applications.
  22. Concentrated organic manures Nitrogen (%) Phosphorous (%) Potassium (%) 1. Groundnut cake 7.3 1.5 1.3 2. Cotton seed cake Undecorticated Decorticated 3.9 6.4 1.8 2.9 1.6 2.2 3. Castor cake 4.3 1.8 1.3 4. Linseed cake 4.9 1.4 1.3 5. Mahua cake 2.5 0.8 1.3 6. Neem cake 3.0 1.9 1.8 7. Niger cake 4.7 1.8 1.3 8. Sesame cake 6.2 2.0 1.2 9. Rapeseed and mustard cake 5.2 1.8 1.2 10. Karanja cake 4.0 1.0 1.3 11. Blood meal 11.0 1.5 ---- 12. Fish meal 10.5 2.5 ---- 13. Bone meal 1.5 27.0 ---- 14. Hoof and horn meal 12.0 1.0 2.5 15. Coconut cake 3.0 1.9 1.8
  23. BULKY ORGANIC MANURES • FARM YARD MANURE 1. Traditional manure 2. Decomposed mixture of dung and urine of farm animals . 3. The waste material of cattle shed is collected daily and placed in trenches 4. The top of the heap is to be made dome shaped and plastered over with cow dung earth slurry. 5. It becomes ready after 3-4 months.
  24. Advantages of Farm Yard Manure • Increasing Fertility 1. It contains about the same ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as a balanced commercial fertilizer but in much smaller quantities. 2. It also contains calcium, magnesium, zinc, sulfur, copper, manganese and sodium. Nutrient FYM 1. N (%) 0.5 2. P (%) 0.2 3. K (%) 0.5 4. Ca (ppm) 0.9 5. Mg (ppm) 0.2 6. Fe (ppm) 146.5 7. Mn (ppm) 69 8. Zn (ppm) 14.5 9. Cu (ppm) 2.8 10. C: N ratio 31.3
  25.  Organic Matter 1. One of the most important benefits of using manure is the addition of organic matter. 2. Organic matter breaks down into small particles called humus. 3. In sandy soil these particles hold both nutrients and water in the soil. 4. In clay soils they help to break apart the lumps of clay.
  26.  Microorganisms 1. Cow manure contain up to 30 per cent bacteria and other microorganisms. 2. They help to break down organic matter into humus, change nutrients from unavailable forms to available forms. 3. They can also break down pollutants in the soil and play a vital role in the nitrogen cycle.
  28. WHERE IT HAS STARTED • It was first started in the Lock hart district of North South Wales, Australia in 1996. • Goodens were among the first farmers to adopt this practice. Why it was started • They employed this practice against the herbicide resistant rye grass population in winter crops of Australia. • They planted a cover crop with the intention of spraying it out prior to weed seed set. • This practice has assisted in rotating the chemical groups, maintaining ground cover, preventing weed seed set and adding valuable nitrogen from pulse nitrogen fixation, as well as providing agronomic benefits of improved soil health and water holding capacity to the farm’s cropping system
  29. BROWN MANURING –WHY WE NEED IT We need an ecologically safe and economically viable agriculture technique in the context of changing scenarios of climate, labour availability, resource scarcity etc.
  30. CONCEPT OF BROWN MANURING BROWN MANURING No till Herbicide usage Mulch
  31.  It is the no till version of green manuring, where herbicides are used to kill the manure crop instead of using cultivation.(Department of Agriculture and food, Western Australia,2009 )  After killing the colour of the manure crop residue become brown so it called brown manuring.
  32.  Post emergence herbicides are used for the knock down of manure crops. often a second knockdown herbicide application is necessary to kill surviving weeds, particularly those sheltered from the first spray by manure crops-Double knockdown.  Double knockdown is the application of two herbicides with different modes of actions sequentially, which is held to be a highly effective intervention to prevent the development of herbicide resistance.(Walsh and powles,2007)
  33. Crops which permit brown manuring 37 Rice Sugar caneMAIZE Wheat
  34. BROWN MANURING IN RICE 38 It involves seeding rice and sesbania crops together and then killing sesbania with 2, 4-D ester about 25-30 DAS. Sesbania grows rapidly and suppresses weed.
  35. BROWN MANURING 10 DAS of rice and sesbania 30 DAS of rice and sesbania Sprayin g with selective herbicide After spraying SOWING OF RICE AND SESBANIA
  36. GREEN VERSUS BROWN MANURING 40 Green manuring  It refers to the incorporation of a manure crop by tillage prior to seed set usually around flowering.  Risk of Surface erosion  Moisture is neccessary for incorporation and decomposition.  Microbial population is necessary for decomposition Brown manuring  It is a no till version of green manuring, where herbicides are used to kill the manure crop and weeds .  The plants are left standing, providing protection to lighter soil at risk from erosion.  Moisture is conserved.  Chemical desication.
  37. ADVANTAGES OF BROWN MANURING OVER GREEN MANURING  Organic matter tends to be preserved.  Saving of fuel and labour costs .  There is potentially better weed control.  The risk due to erosion is reduced.  More soil water is conserved.
  38. Timing of Herbicide application  If it is for weed control, then timing of the herbicide application is determined by the growth stage of the weed rather than the crop. Eg: Grassy weeds- before the milky dough stage Early flowering weed species such as wild oats- flowering of the weed  For maximising nitrogen fixation ,spraying is delayed until plants reach peak biomass.
  39. What makes an ideal brown manure plant ? Crop species that are most suited to brown manuring enable growers to maximise weed control and nitrogen fixation while minimising cost and risk. The main criteria to consider in selection includes:  Cost and availability of seed.  It is easy to cultivate.  Relative dry matter production at the time of spraying with the first knockdown herbicide.  Competitiveness with target weeds.  The degree of ground cover provided by the stubble to reduce wind erosion and conserve moisture.  It does not compete with a main crop
  40. Common crops for brown manuring
  41. ADVANTAGES Weed control Disease contol in crops Soil fertility Soil biology and function Erosion control Increase in grain yield
  42. COMPOST • Bulky organic manures obtained as a result of decomposition of farm/town wastes in the absence of cattle excreta, is called Compost. • Farm compost. • Super digested compost. • Town compost. • Rural compost • Urban compost
  44. VERMICOMPOST • Its is a system of composting in which organic wastes are ecomposed using biological agent ,earthworm, in making vermicompost . • Earthworms along with soil microbes play a vital role in degrading organic wastes and thus maintain a nutrient flux in the system. • Earthworm is physically an aerator, crusher, mixer, chemically a degrader and pathogen controller.
  45. Advantages of compost • Compost binds soil particles 1. Compost helps sandy soils to retain water and nutrients. 2. Compost loosens slightly bound particles in clay or silt soil . 3. Compost alters soil structure, making it less likely to erode. 4. Compost can hold nutrients tight enough to prevent them from washing out, but loosely enough so plants can take them up as needed.
  46. Compost brings and feeds diverse life in the soil. 1. Compost bacteria breaks down organics into plant available nutrients. 2. Some bacteria convert nitrogen from the air into a plant available nutrient. 3. Compost enriches the soil with lots of beneficial insects. 4. Compost may suppress diseases and harmful pests that could overrun poor ,lifeless soil.
  47. • Compost increases soils ability to retain water and decreases runoff 1. Compost encourages healthy root system ,which decreases runoff. 2. Compost can reduce or eliminate use of synthetic fertilizers. 3. Compost can reduce chemical pesticides since it contains beneficial micro-organisms that may protect plants from diseases and pests. 4. Only a 5 per cent increase in organic material quadruples soil water holding capacity.
  48. GREEN MANURE Green undecomposed material used as manure is called as green manure. Crops grown for green manure are known as green manure crops. TYPES 1. Green manuring in-situ 2. Green leaf manuring
  49. Incorporation of sunhemp into the soil
  50. Green leaf manure
  51. Vigna unguiculata Crotolaria junceaSesbania aculeata
  52. Advantages of green manuring • Soil structure and tilth improvement : 1. Green manuring builds up soil structure, improves tilth. 2. Promotes formation of crumbs in heavy soils leading to aeration and drainage. 3. Increases water holding capacity of light soils. 4. Forms a canopy cover over the soils ,reduces the soil temperature and prevents from erosive action of the rain and water.
  53. • Fertility improvement of the soils 1. Absorbs nutrients from the lower layers and leave them in surface when ploughed. 2. Prevent leaching of nutrients to lower layers. 3. Harbor N fixing bacteria, rhizobia in root nodules and fix atmospheric N @ 60-100 kg N/ha. 4. Increase the solubility of lime phosphate ,trace elements etc., through the activity of the soil microorganisms and by producing organic acids during decomposition.
  54. Nutrient content of green manure crops CROP SCIENTIFIC NAME N (%) P (%) K (%) 1. Sunhemp Crotolaria juncea 2.30 0.50 1.80 2. Dhaincha Sesbania aculeata 3.50 0.60 1.20 3. Sesbania Sesbania speciosa 2.71 0.53 2.21 4. Wild indigo Tephrosia purpurea 3.10 0.50 2.50 5. Pillipesara Phaseolus tribulos 2.80 0.55 2.00 6. Blackgram Vigna mungo 2.23 0.50 2.40 7. Greengram Phaseolus aureus 2.11 0.50 2.25
  55. Nutrient content of selected green leaf manures Green leaf manure N (%) P (%) K (%) 1.Neem 2.83 0.28 0.35 2. Delonix elata 3.51 0.31 0.13 3. Delonix regia 2.76 0.46 0.50 4. Peltophorum ferrugenus 2.63 0.37 0.50 5. Cassia nigricans 2.73 0.18 0.50 6. Pongamia glabra 3.15 --- --- 7. Glyricidia maculata 2.50 --- --- 8. Albizzia lebbeck 3.25 --- ---
  56. Removal of soil problems 1. Sesbania aculeata (dhaincha) applied to sodic soils continuously for four or five seasons improves the permeability and helps to reclaim sodic soils. 2. Tamarindus indica has a buffering capacity when applied to sodic soils. Dhaincha Tamarind
  57. CONCENTRATED ORGANIC MANURES  These manures have higher nutrient content than bulky organic manures. Important concentrated organic manures are oilcakes, blood meal, fish manure, etc.  These are also called as organic nitrogen fertilizers.  Before their organic nitrogen is used by the crops, it has to be converted through bacterial action into readily usable ammonical nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen.  These organic fertilizers are, therefore, relatively slow acting, but they supply available nitrogen for a longer period.
  58. OILCAKES After oil is extracted from oilseeds, the remaining solid portion is dried as cake for use as manure or cattle feed. Oilcakes are of two types: 1. Edible oilcakes which can be fed to livestock : groundnut cake, coconut cake, sesame cake, etc. 2. Non edible oil cakes which are not fit for feeding livestock : castor cake, neem cake, mahua cake.
  59. Edible oil -cakes Groundnut cake Sesamum cake Coconut cake
  60. OTHER CONCENTRATED ORGANIC MANURES Blood meal when dried and powdered can be used as manure. The meat of the dead animals is dried and converted into meat meal which is a good source of nitrogen.
  61. Crop residue
  62. The crop residue is the material left after the harvesting of crop and byproduct of agriculture based industry. Introduction
  63. Present status of crop residue management As the crop residues may interfere with tillage and seeding operations for the next crop, many farmers prefer to burn the residues left in the field that lead to air pollution and wastage of nutrients. Farmers have been burning large quantities of crop residues, particularly in areas with high yield potential.
  64. Crop residue Field residue e.g. stalks, leaves, and stems etc Processed residue e.g. seed, bagasse, and roots etc
  65. Field residue Good management of field residue can increase efficiency of irrigation and control of erosion. Field residue are materials left in an agricultural field or orchard after the crop has been harvested These residue includes stalks and stubble (stems), leaves and seed pods.
  66. Process residues They can be used as animal fodder and manufacture of organic manure viz. vermicompost. Process residue are those materials left after the processing of the crop into a usable resource These residue include husks, seeds, bagasse and roots
  67. Potential uses of crop residues Biomass energy production Livestock feed Bedding material for animals Compost Biogas generation Mushroom Culture Raw material for industry
  68. BIOFERTILIZERS Biofertilizers are defined as preparations containing living cells or latent cells of efficient strains of microorganisms that help crop plants uptake of nutrients by their interactions in the rhizosphere when applied through seed or soil. Applications of biofertilzers : 1. Seed inoculation method 2. Root inoculation method 3. Soil application
  69. Importance of Biofertilizers • Biofertilizers are known to make a number of positive contributions in agriculture. • Supplement fertilizer supplies for meeting the nutrient needs of crops. • Add 20 – 200 kg N/ha (by fixation) under optimum conditions and solubilise/mobilise 30-50 kg P2O5/ha. • They liberate growth promoting substances and vitamins and help to maintain soil fertility. • They suppress the incidence of pathogens and control diseases. • Increase the crop yield by 10-50%. N2 fixers reduce depletion of soil nutrients and provide sustainability to the farming system. • Cheaper, pollution free and based on renewable energy sources. • They improve soil physical properties, tilth and soil health.
  70. BIOFERTILIZERS: USE IN INDIA India is one of the important countries in biofertilizer production and consumption. In order to encourage the organic agriculture by biofertilizers, five biofertilizers namely Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and mycorrhiza  It estimated that the present level of bio fertilizer use is quite low and there is a substantial potential to increase it to 50,000-60,000 tons by 2020. In 2013-2014 production is 51,867 tons. 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 2009-102010-112011-122012-132013-14 Production (T)
  71. STATE PRODUCTION (T) IN 2013-14 Andhra Pradesh 2137.14 Arunachal Pradesh 59 Assam 149 Bihar 52.4 Chhattisgarh 664.79 Delhi 396 Goa 66.26 Gujarat 2173.71 Haryana 1029.79 Himachal Pradesh 6.44 Jharkhand 14.2 Karnataka 9146.34 II Kerala 1139.74 Madhya Pradesh 3124.54 Maharashtra 5719.74 III Nagaland 7.45 Odisha 1083.12 Puducherry 52.36 Punjab 1916.43 Rajasthan 1315 Sikkim 10.1 Tamil Nadu 12964.78 I Tripura 225 Uttar Pradesh 2578.94 Uttarakhand 4195.71
  72. Important Biofertilizer Producing States 6930 3257 8691 6318 2455 2925 1000 1217 Uttar Pradesh Karnataka (2) Kerala (4) Tamil Nadu (1) Andhra Pradesh (5) Maharashtra (6) Madhya Pradesh (3) Gujarat
  73. bie
  74. This belongs to bacterial group The classical example is symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The bacteria infect the legume root and form root nodules within which they reduce molecular nitrogen to ammonia which is reality utilized by the plant to produce valuable proteins, vitamins and other nitrogen containing compounds. The site of symbiosis is within the root nodules. It has been estimated that 40-250 kg N / ha / year is fixed by different legume crops by the microbial activities of Rhizobium Rhizobium Nitogen Fixing Biofertilizer for Legumes
  75. Contribution o Direct contribution of N symbiotically with legumes. o Residual nitrogen benefit for the succeeding crop. o Yield increase is by 10-35%. o Improve soil structure. o Produces plant growth hormone. o Recommended for legumes (Pulses, oilseeds, fodders) o Promising strains: NGR 6, NC 92, CC 1, CRR 6, CRU 14, COBE 13.
  76. Quantity of biological N fixed by Rhizobium in different crops Host Group Rhizobium Species Crops N fix kg/ha Pea group Rhizobium leguminosarum Green pea, Lentil 62- 132 Soybean group R. japonicum Soybean 57- 105 Lupini Group R. lupine Lupinus 70- 90 Alfafa Group R. melliloti Melilotus 100- 150 Beans group R. phaseoli Phaseoli 80- 110 Clover group R. trifoli Trifolium 130 Cowpea group R. species Moong, Redgram, Cowpea, Groundnut 57- 105 Cicer group R. species Bengal gram 75- 117
  77. Method and rate of application Crops Method of application Quantity required /ha Time of application Chick pea,Peas,Beans, Groundnut, Soybean Seed treatment 1.0-2.0 kg Sowing time Lentil,Lucene,Berseem, Greengram,Blackgram, Cowpea, Pigeanpea,Guar Seed treatment 0.4-0.6 kg Sowing time Sun hemp Seed treatment 0.8-1.0 kg Sowing time
  78. METHODS OF APPLICATION OF RHIZOBIUM INOCULANTS : • The seed treatment has been found to be the suitable method of Rhizobium inoculation. • Some adhesive is used to make proper contact between seeds and inoculants (bacteria). • About 900 g soil base culture is sufficient to inoculate the seeds for one hectare area in case of legumes. • A 10 % jaggery solution is used as sticker for Rhizobium cells to seed. • First the solution is spread over the seeds and mixed to build up a thin coat over the seeds. • After ascertaining the proper coating of slurry over the seeds, the inoculants is sprinkled over the seeds and the content is again mixed thoroughly. • Then content is dried in the shade by spreading thinly on a polythene sheet at least for overnight.
  80. Nitrogen Fixing Biofertilizers for Cereals 1. Blue Green Algae 2. Azolla 3. Azotobacter 4. Azospirillum
  81. 1.Blue Green Algae • It is a suitable nitrogen fixer for paddy soils ,fixing 25 kg N/ha/year. • It releases the amino acid in the soil. • It brings the insoluble phosphate to the available form of plant. • It makes the plant hormone like Auxin, Indole Acetic Acid (ACC), Gibberellic Acid.
  82. 2.Azolla • It fixes 30-40 kg nitrogen/ha/year. • It increase the organic matter content on the field and thereby improves soil texture, structure and water holding capacity. • There is leaching loss. It release plant nutrient slowly like slow releasing fertilizer. • Weed infestation is less when azolla is grown as dual crop.
  83. Method of inoculation of Azolla to rice crop The Azolla biofertilizer may be applied in two ways for the wetland paddy. In the first method, fresh Azolla biomass is inoculated in the paddy field before transplanting and incorporated as green manure. This method requires huge quantity of fresh Azolla. In the other method, Azolla may be inoculated after transplanting rice and grown as dual culture with rice and incorporated subsequently.
  84. 3.Azotobactor o Azotobactor is a heterotrophic free living nitrogen fixing bacteria present in alkaline and neutral soils. o Azotobactor chrococcum is the most commonly occurring species in arable soils of India.
  85. Benefits  Ability to fix atmospheric N2 – 20-40 kg N/ha.  Production of growth promoting substances like vitamin B, Indole acetic acid, GA.  Biological control of plant diseases by suppressing Aspergillus, Fusarium.  Ability to produce thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxin, cyanogobalanine, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, etc.  Recommended for Rice, wheat, millets, cereals, cotton, vegetables, sunflower, mustard and flowers.
  86. Method and rate of application Crops Method of application Quantity required /ha Time of application Wheat,Oat,Barly Seed treatment 1.0-2.0 kg Sowing time Mustard,Sesamum,Lineseed Seed treatment 0.2 kg Sowing time Sunflower, Castor Seed treatment 0.5-0.8 kg Sowing time Cotton, Jute Seed treatment 0.8-1.0 kg Sowing time Onion,Brinjal,Tomato,Chillies Seedling treatment 1.5-2.0 kg Transplanting
  87. Effect of seed inoculation with biofertilizers on yield attributes, seed yield and economics of Safflower under rainfed cunditions Treatment Plant height(cm) Seed yield(kg/ha) B:C ratio Control 64 540 1.33 50% N 69 635 1.35 100% N 73 766 1.56 Azotobacter seed inoculation 68 575 1.34 Azospirillum seed inoculation 67 637 1.48 Azoto+ Azospi seed inoculation 66 642 1.50 50% N + Azotobacter seed inoculation 69 640 1.29 50% N + Azospirillum seed inoculation 74 790 1.60 50% N + Azoto + Azospi seed inoculation 79 829 1.68 CD(P=0.05) 3.14 29 - Sudhakar etal
  88. 4.AZOSPIRILLUM  This is a free living or non -symbiotic bacteria (does not form nodules but makes association by living in the rhizosphere).  Azospirillum species establish an association with many plants particularly with C4 plants such as maize, sorghum,sugarcane, etc.  It is the most common organism and can form associative symbiosis on a large variety of plants.  Azospirillum is recognized as a dominant soil microbe.
  89. Benefits • Promotes plant growth. • Increased mineral and water uptake, root development, vegetative growth and crop yield. • Inoculation reduced the use of chemical fertilizers (20-50%, 20-40 kg N/ha) • Increases cost benefit ratio. • Reduces pathogen damage. • Inhibit germination of parasitic weeds. • Restoration of arid zone, margine mangrove ecosystem. • Reduces humic acid toxicity in compost. • Recommended for rice, millets, maize, wheat, sorghum, sugarcane and co-inoculant for legumes.
  90. Effect of Combined Inoculation of Azospirillum and AM Fungi on the Growth and Yield of Finger Millet Var.Co 12 Treatments No. of finger/Pl Haulms yield(t/ha) Grain yield(t/ha) control 4.0 5.21 3.16 N control 6.4 5.88 3.76 P control 6.0 5.44 3.63 Azospirillum 7.0 5.88 4.07 AM fungi 6.8 5.69 3.73 Azospirillum+AM fungi 7.3 6.29 4.31 CD(p=0.05) - 0.33 0.22 Ezhil Bama etal Journal of Expermental Sciences
  91. Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria • The common Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungus are Pseudomonas straita, Bacillus polymixa, Penicillium digitatum, Aspergillus awamoori. • They posses the ability to solubilize the bound phosphates in the soil and increase its availability to plants by secreting organic acids such as acetic acid, propionic acid, glycolic, fumaric and succinic acids. • These acids lower the pH and bring about dissolution of insoluble form of phosphate
  92. Effect of seed biopriming using Phosphobacteria on speed of germination of hybrid maize COH(M) 5. Karthika etal, Department of Seed Science and Technology, TNAU Coimbatore (2013)
  93. Multiple functions of Phosphorous solubilizing bacteria
  94. Phosphate Absorber Mycorrhiza or Vascular Arbicular Mycorrhiza • Are mutualistic symbiosis or associations between soil fungi and plant roots. • VAM helps in phosphorus nutrition by not only increasing its availability but also increasing the mobility. • VAM improves the uptake of Zinc, Copper and water. • VAM enhances the resistance to root disease and improve hardness of transplant stock. • VAM helps in wasteland reclamation by providing extended arm to plant root.
  95. Benefits  The beneficial effect on plant growth and yields following inoculation with VAM is attributed to  improved mineral nutrition, especially P (P, Zn, Cu, K, S, NH4)  Mobilization of nutrients through greater soil exploration.  Protection of host roots against pathogen infection.  Improved water relation  Better tolerance to stress like salinity, heavy metal pollution  Protection against transplantation shock.
  96. Precautions for usage of Biofertilizers  Store biofertilizer packets in cool and dry place away from direct sunlight and heat.  Use right combination of biofertilisers  Rhizobium is crop specific, so use in specified crop.  Do not mix with chemicals.  While purchasing ensure that each packet is provided with necessary information like name of the product, name of the crop for which intended, name and address of the manufacturer, date of manufacture, date of expiry, batch No and instructions for use.  Use the packet before expiry, only on the specified crop, by the recommended
  97. Advantages of biofertilisers • They supplement chemical fertilizers for meeting the integrated nutrient demand of the crops. • They can add 20-200 kg N/ha year under optimum soil conditions and thereby increases 15-25 percent of total crop yield. • They can at best minimize the use of chemical fertilizers • Application of Biofertilizers results in increased mineral and water uptake, root development, vegetative growth and nitrogen fixation. • Some Biofertilizers (eg, Rhizobium BGA, Azotobacter sp) stimulate production of growth promoting substance • Phosphate mobilizing or phosphorus solubilizing Biofertilizers / microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, mycorrhiza etc.) converts insoluble soil phosphate into soluble forms by secreting several organic acids and under optimum conditions they can solubilize / mobilize about 30-50 kg P2O5/ha due to which crop yield may increase by 10 to 20%. • Mycorrhiza or VA-mycorrhiza (VAM fungi) when used as Biofertilizers enhance uptake of P, Zn, S and water, leading to uniform crop growth and increased yield and also enhance resistance to root diseases and improve hardiness of transplant stock. • They liberate growth promoting substances and vitamins and help to maintain soil
  98. Limitations of biofertilizers  These fertilizers require special care for storage.  These should be used before the expiry date.  Biofertilizers are not useful in the dry or hot soil.  These are not useful, if there is un availability of the micro organisms  Lower density of nutrients  Hard to locate in some areas.  Require skill in production and application
  99. References: Integrated nutrient management for sustainable crop production, improving crop quality and soil health, and minimizing environmental pollution Milkha S. AulakhA ACollege of Agriculture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab, India, Email Principles of Agronomy- SR REDDY 4th edition, Kalyani publishers Delhi.