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Physiology of noseSandeep singh (89)
Functions of nose1. breathing2. Air conditioning of inspired air3. Protection of lower airway4. Ventilation and drainage o...
1.Breathing Nose is the natural pathway for breathing. Mouth  breathing is acquired through learning newborn infant with...
• Air current passes  along mid portion of  nasal cavity in  lammellar flow• Resistance of nasal  valve and turbinates  le...
This results in ventilation of paranasalsinus
Nasal cycle  Under autonomic nervous system Nasal mucosa  undergoes rhythmic cyclical congestion and  decongestion, thus c...
Nasal cycle
Congested nose
2. Air conditioning Nose is called the "air-conditioner" for lungs. adjusts temperature and humidity of inspired air befor...
Humidificationhumidity of atmospheric a ir varies depending onclimatic conditions.Nasal mucosa adjusts the relative humidi...
3. Protection of lower airway  Filtration and purification.particles >3 um are trapped by Nasal vibrissae Particles smalle...
Muco-ciliary blanket           goblet cells in nasal mucosa secrete a           mucous blanket; moved backward like       ...
Transportation of trappedd particlesto nasopharynx
Factors compromising themucociliary functions   dry atmostphere   Smoking   Air pollutants and nasal irritants   Infection...
Enzymes and immunoglobulins   Nasal secretions also contain an   enzyme called muramidase   (lysozyme)   which kills bacte...
Sneezing protective reflex. Foreign particles which irritate nasal mucosa a re expelled by sneezing Copious flow of nasal ...
4. Ventilation of paranasal sinuses    Inspiration creates negative pressure in    nasal cavity thus sucks the air out fro...
Ventilation during expiration andinspiration
5.Nasal resistance• Nasal resistance to expired air keeps positive  pressure and doesn’t let the alveoli colapse
6.Vocal resonance            Nose forms a resonating chamber for            certain consonants            in speech.      ...
Olfaction
Olfactory area of nose
Olfactory neural pathway
Olfaction is disturbed in
Olfactory disorders are classified as
Types of olfactory dysfunction are…
Thank you
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Physiology of nose

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Physiology of nose

  1. 1. Physiology of noseSandeep singh (89)
  2. 2. Functions of nose1. breathing2. Air conditioning of inspired air3. Protection of lower airway4. Ventilation and drainage of p.n.s.5. Olfaction6. Nasal resistance7. Vocal resonance8. Nasal refluxes
  3. 3. 1.Breathing Nose is the natural pathway for breathing. Mouth breathing is acquired through learning newborn infant with choanal atresia may asphyxiate to death if urgent measures are not taken to relieve it The nose also permits breathing and eating to go on simultaneously During expiration, air current follows the same course as during inspiration, but the entire air current is not expelled directly through the nares. Friction offered at limen nasi converts it into eddies under cover of inferior and middle turbinates and this ventilates the sinuses through the ostia.
  4. 4. • Air current passes along mid portion of nasal cavity in lammellar flow• Resistance of nasal valve and turbinates leads to formation of eddy currents in expired air
  5. 5. This results in ventilation of paranasalsinus
  6. 6. Nasal cycle Under autonomic nervous system Nasal mucosa undergoes rhythmic cyclical congestion and decongestion, thus controlling the air flow through nasal chambers. When one nasal chamber is working, total nasal respiration, equal to that of both nasal chambers, is carried out by it. cycle lasts 2-12 hours (average 2.5-4 hours)
  7. 7. Nasal cycle
  8. 8. Congested nose
  9. 9. 2. Air conditioning Nose is called the "air-conditioner" for lungs. adjusts temperature and humidity of inspired air before it passes it on to the lungs Temperature control of the inspired air is regulated by large surface of nasal mucosa, particularly in the region of middle and inferior turbinates and adjacent parts of the septum ( highly vascular with cavernous venous spaces) This makes an efficient "radiator" mechanism to warm up the cold air. Inspired air which may be at 20°C or O°C or even at subzero temperature is heated to near body temperature in one-fourth of second Similarly, hot air is cooled to the body temperature
  10. 10. Humidificationhumidity of atmospheric a ir varies depending onclimatic conditions.Nasal mucosa adjusts the relative humidity oftheinspired air to 75% or more.Moisture is essential for integrity and function oftheciliary epitheliumHumidification also has a significant effect ongas exchange in the lower airways.
  11. 11. 3. Protection of lower airway Filtration and purification.particles >3 um are trapped by Nasal vibrissae Particles smaller than 0.5 um seem to pass through the nose into lower airways without difficulty. Muco-cilliary blanket traps pathogens in inspired air >0.5 microns and transports them to nasopharynx for swallowing Sneezing protects against irritants
  12. 12. Muco-ciliary blanket goblet cells in nasal mucosa secrete a mucous blanket; moved backward like a conveyer belt into nasopharynx It consists of  Superficial mucus or gel layer  Deep serous and sol layer
  13. 13. Transportation of trappedd particlesto nasopharynx
  14. 14. Factors compromising themucociliary functions dry atmostphere Smoking Air pollutants and nasal irritants Infections0 Excessive summer and excessive cold Hypoxia Drugs (anaesthetics, sedatives, topical nasal decongestants, beta blockers)
  15. 15. Enzymes and immunoglobulins Nasal secretions also contain an enzyme called muramidase (lysozyme) which kills bacteria and viruses. ImmunoglobulIns IgA and IgE, and interferon are also present in nasal secretions and provide immunity against upper respiratory tract infections.
  16. 16. Sneezing protective reflex. Foreign particles which irritate nasal mucosa a re expelled by sneezing Copious flow of nasal secretions that foltows initation by noxious substance helps to wash them out.
  17. 17. 4. Ventilation of paranasal sinuses Inspiration creates negative pressure in nasal cavity thus sucks the air out from paranasal sinuses via their ostium Expiration creates positive pressure in nasal cavity thus ventilates the para nasal sinuses via there ostium
  18. 18. Ventilation during expiration andinspiration
  19. 19. 5.Nasal resistance• Nasal resistance to expired air keeps positive pressure and doesn’t let the alveoli colapse
  20. 20. 6.Vocal resonance Nose forms a resonating chamber for certain consonants in speech. In phonating nasal consonants (MINING), sound passes through the nasopharyngeal isthmus and is emitted through the nose. When nose (or nasopharynx) is blocked, speech becomes denasal, i.e. MINING are uttered as B/D/G respectively
  21. 21. Olfaction
  22. 22. Olfactory area of nose
  23. 23. Olfactory neural pathway
  24. 24. Olfaction is disturbed in
  25. 25. Olfactory disorders are classified as
  26. 26. Types of olfactory dysfunction are…
  27. 27. Thank you

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