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DEFINITION AND NATURE OF
COMPANY LAW - 2013
ARUN VERMA
1
(c) ARUN VERMA
DEFINITION OF COMPANY LAW
• Meaning of a company:
The term company means an association of a group of
persons who have come together for a common purpose
that is to do business and earn profit.
• Definition Of a Company:
Sec 2(20): a company means a company which is
incorporated under this Act or under any previous
company act.
Definition of the company as given by lord
justice Lindley
“A company is an association of many persons who
contributed money or moneys worth to a common stock
and employ it in some trade or business and who share
profit and loss arising therefrom.
2
(c) ARUN VERMA
Characteristics (or) features of a company
(or) advantages of incorporation
1) Incorporated Association:
Every company must be compulsorily registered or
incorporated under the company’s act, 2013.
According to Sec. 3 the minimum no. of persons
required for forming a private company is two, seven
for a public company and one for one person
company. These persons are also known as the
subscribers to the memorandum.
2) Separate legal entity:
The company is distinct and different from the
members who formed it. It is recognized as a separate
entity by law.
Case: Solomon Vs Solomon & Company limited
3
(c) ARUN VERMA
3) Artificial Person:
A company being an artificial person is dependent on
natural person such as Directors, shareholders, and
officers for its day to day functioning however the
company without suffer from illness, old age and death.
4) Limited liability of members:
This is applicable to all these company’s which
incorporated with the limited liability. It should be noted
that the liability of the company is unlimited but the
liability of the members is limited.
5) Separate Property:
The share holders of the company cannot be described as
the owners of the property of the company belongs to the
company not to the share holders.
Case: Bacha F Guzdar Vs CIT (Agri Income case)
4
(c) ARUN VERMA
6) Transferability of shares:
In case of a public company the shares are freely
transferable but in the case of a private company there
will be certain restrictions on the transferability of
shares.
7) Perpetual succession:
Members may come members may go but the company
goes on forever.
Example: All members of a private company were
killed by a bomb while in general meeting.
Held, The Company continues to exist through the legal
heirs of the deceased parties or members.
8) Common seal:
The official signature of the company is called the
common seal. It is made of metal and it is not a rubber
stamp.
The name of the company and the date of incorporation
and place of registered office are engraven.
5
(c) ARUN VERMA
9) Infinite Membership:
In case of a public company there is no maximum limit
on no. of members.
10) Mobilization of huge resources:
In a public company there is no limitation on the no. of
the members therefore all the members contribute small
amounts huge capital can be mobilized for the benefit of
the company.
11) Separation of ownership from management:
In a company The shareholders contribute capital but
the management of the company will be in the hands of
the of professional directors therefore shareholders
enjoy dividend without being burdened by the
management of affairs.
12) Voluntary Association:
In a company, members come together only out of there
own free will without any force or compulsion.
6
(c) ARUN VERMA
13) Capacity to sue and being sued:
A company being a separate legal entity has the legal entity to
sue others such as members, directors, debtors, outsiders etc.
Similarly, a company may also be sued by others such as
members, directors, creditors, outsiders.
14) Profit motive:
Generally speaking all companies are incorporated only to make
profits from their business activity. There is only one exception
in the form of their association Not for profits Sec 8. (formation
of companies with charitable objects etc)
15) Contractual rights and obligations:
A company has the capacity to enter into the various contracts
with several persons. Therefore it enjoys its contractual rights
and suffers from the contractual liabilities.
16) Termination of existence:
A company was formed as a voluntary association of its
members. Therefore its existence can also be terminated by its
members. Therefore its existence can also be terminated by its
creditors or by an order of tribunal.
7
(c) ARUN VERMA
Disadvantages of incorporation
• Every company must comply with various formalities and incur
expenses for formation.
• In a company capital belongs to the shareholders but
management will be in the hands of directors. Therefore there is
a diverse of control from ownership.
• Every activity undertaken by the company will involve a greater
public accountability.
• There will be absolute no privacy in the working and
functioning of the company.
• In a company there is a possibility of frauds by the directors and
the employees because the share holders are not involved in the
management.
• In a company there can be any no. of share holders but the no.
of directors cannot exceed 12 ( Public Company)
• Therefore the control of the company will be in the hands of a
very few individuals.
• There is a detailed winding up procedure involving time money
and expense.
8
(c) ARUN VERMA
9
(c) ARUN VERMA

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Wurz Financial - Wealth Counsel to Law Firm Owners Services Guide.pdf
 

Definition and nature of company law

  • 1. DEFINITION AND NATURE OF COMPANY LAW - 2013 ARUN VERMA 1 (c) ARUN VERMA
  • 2. DEFINITION OF COMPANY LAW • Meaning of a company: The term company means an association of a group of persons who have come together for a common purpose that is to do business and earn profit. • Definition Of a Company: Sec 2(20): a company means a company which is incorporated under this Act or under any previous company act. Definition of the company as given by lord justice Lindley “A company is an association of many persons who contributed money or moneys worth to a common stock and employ it in some trade or business and who share profit and loss arising therefrom. 2 (c) ARUN VERMA
  • 3. Characteristics (or) features of a company (or) advantages of incorporation 1) Incorporated Association: Every company must be compulsorily registered or incorporated under the company’s act, 2013. According to Sec. 3 the minimum no. of persons required for forming a private company is two, seven for a public company and one for one person company. These persons are also known as the subscribers to the memorandum. 2) Separate legal entity: The company is distinct and different from the members who formed it. It is recognized as a separate entity by law. Case: Solomon Vs Solomon & Company limited 3 (c) ARUN VERMA
  • 4. 3) Artificial Person: A company being an artificial person is dependent on natural person such as Directors, shareholders, and officers for its day to day functioning however the company without suffer from illness, old age and death. 4) Limited liability of members: This is applicable to all these company’s which incorporated with the limited liability. It should be noted that the liability of the company is unlimited but the liability of the members is limited. 5) Separate Property: The share holders of the company cannot be described as the owners of the property of the company belongs to the company not to the share holders. Case: Bacha F Guzdar Vs CIT (Agri Income case) 4 (c) ARUN VERMA
  • 5. 6) Transferability of shares: In case of a public company the shares are freely transferable but in the case of a private company there will be certain restrictions on the transferability of shares. 7) Perpetual succession: Members may come members may go but the company goes on forever. Example: All members of a private company were killed by a bomb while in general meeting. Held, The Company continues to exist through the legal heirs of the deceased parties or members. 8) Common seal: The official signature of the company is called the common seal. It is made of metal and it is not a rubber stamp. The name of the company and the date of incorporation and place of registered office are engraven. 5 (c) ARUN VERMA
  • 6. 9) Infinite Membership: In case of a public company there is no maximum limit on no. of members. 10) Mobilization of huge resources: In a public company there is no limitation on the no. of the members therefore all the members contribute small amounts huge capital can be mobilized for the benefit of the company. 11) Separation of ownership from management: In a company The shareholders contribute capital but the management of the company will be in the hands of the of professional directors therefore shareholders enjoy dividend without being burdened by the management of affairs. 12) Voluntary Association: In a company, members come together only out of there own free will without any force or compulsion. 6 (c) ARUN VERMA
  • 7. 13) Capacity to sue and being sued: A company being a separate legal entity has the legal entity to sue others such as members, directors, debtors, outsiders etc. Similarly, a company may also be sued by others such as members, directors, creditors, outsiders. 14) Profit motive: Generally speaking all companies are incorporated only to make profits from their business activity. There is only one exception in the form of their association Not for profits Sec 8. (formation of companies with charitable objects etc) 15) Contractual rights and obligations: A company has the capacity to enter into the various contracts with several persons. Therefore it enjoys its contractual rights and suffers from the contractual liabilities. 16) Termination of existence: A company was formed as a voluntary association of its members. Therefore its existence can also be terminated by its members. Therefore its existence can also be terminated by its creditors or by an order of tribunal. 7 (c) ARUN VERMA
  • 8. Disadvantages of incorporation • Every company must comply with various formalities and incur expenses for formation. • In a company capital belongs to the shareholders but management will be in the hands of directors. Therefore there is a diverse of control from ownership. • Every activity undertaken by the company will involve a greater public accountability. • There will be absolute no privacy in the working and functioning of the company. • In a company there is a possibility of frauds by the directors and the employees because the share holders are not involved in the management. • In a company there can be any no. of share holders but the no. of directors cannot exceed 12 ( Public Company) • Therefore the control of the company will be in the hands of a very few individuals. • There is a detailed winding up procedure involving time money and expense. 8 (c) ARUN VERMA