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  1. 1. Common name: Cashew Botanical name: Anacardium occidentale L. Family: Anacardiaceae Origin: Brazil
  2. 2. Introduction  Name cashew is derived from Portuguese name  Anacardium – shape of the fruit, inverted heart (Ana : upwards & Cardium : heart)  The word cashew is derived from Portuguese word “Caju” who introduced it into India during 16th Century.  Important export oriented crop  Grown mainly for its nuts / kernels  Introduced to India during 16th century by Portugese for the purpose of afforestation, soil conservation and waste land development  It gained commercial importance and emerged as major foreign exchange earner after tea and coffee
  3. 3. IMPORTANCE OF CASHEW  It is export oriented crop.  3rd important agriculture commodity in exported from India.  Kernel do not have cholesterol.  Kernel used for all culinary purposes widely used cookies and bakery products.  Kernel fried with salts and sugar.  Apple is used juice, jam and alcoholic beverages and bio- ethanol production.  Fallen and dried leaves materiel used for preparation of compost and vermicompost.  Cashew nut shell is used for Cashew nut shell liquid extraction(CNSL).
  4. 4. Uses  In Brazil, the apple is used to manufacture jams and soft and alcoholic drinks.  Shell oil is used in the manufacture of brake linings. shell oil is used in the manufacture of numerous materials that have to be resistant to heat , friction, acids and caustic products, for example clutch plates, special isolators etc.  The cashew kernel is a rich source of fat and is a good source of calcium, phosphorous, and iron.  It has a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular, the essential fatty acid in oleic acid.  Furthermore, the fruit has medicinal properties, it is used for curing scurvy and diarrhoea as it is effective in medicinal properties.
  5. 5.  The cashew apple is highly perishable but very healthy. It can be eaten fresh or made into juice, Syrup, wine, preserved fruits , pickles and glazed fruit are also made from the cashew apple.  The indigenous people in cashew producing regions use different parts of the plant such as leaves, bark, gum, wood ,juice, and roots for the preparation of local medicines or insect-repellent mixtures.  The bark is rich in tannins is used in leather tanning.  Cashew nut kernel uses: Edible oil, roasted and eaten as nuts
  6. 6. Cashew Nut Shell Liquid Cashew Butter
  7. 7. COMPOSITION Nutritional 22 % Protein 47% Fat 22% Carbohydrate 0.45% Phosphorus 0.55% Calcium 0.50% Iron Cashew apple is rich in vitamin C Cashew is often referred as” Wonder Nut”. Its nutritional composition compares well with almond, hazel nut and walnut.
  8. 8. Origin and distrubution  Cashew was originated in Brazil and distributed to Vietnam, Nigeria and Indonesia.  It was introduced to India by the Portuguese in the 16th century at Goa for the purpose of soil conservation.  Commercial cultivation began in the early 1920s  It is hardy, drought resistant and comes up well in poor soil hence cashew is considered as gold mine of waste land.  Cashew is commonly called as” Poor man’s crop but rich man’s food”
  9. 9. Distribution World:  World cashew production: In the world about 32 countries are growing cashews (Between 30 °N to 30°S).  African countries: Angola, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Nigeria, Tanzania, etc  North Central America: El Salvador, Honduras, South America, Brazil  Asia: India, Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand
  10. 10. Source: Food & Agricultural Organization (FAO), 2020
  11. 11. Source: Food & Agricultural Organization (FAO), 2020
  12. 12. Cashew Cultivation in India  India is one of the leading producer and exporter of cashews in the world  Currently, India has approximately 0.97 million hectares under cashew cultivation with productivity of 770 kg/ha.  Maharashtra, Kerala and Karnataka are the primary producers of cashew along the western coast of the country.  In Karnataka Udupi, Dakshina kannada, Bidar, Belagaum, Kolar, Shivamogga and Uttara kannada district are growing.
  13. 13. Source: DCCD -Cochin
  14. 14. Source CEPCI and DGCI&S, Kolkatta
  15. 15. Source: DCCD -Cochin
  16. 16. State leading in area, production and productivity Area Production Productivity Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Maharashtra
  17. 17. EXPORT  India accounts for about 65% of the world's total exports  India exports kernels to more than 60 countries across the world  16,000ton nuts/ha so for demand for processing factories in india.  9.39 l ton nuts are imported during 2014-15.  1.18 l ton of exported with a worth of 5432.82 crores.  1093ton of CNSL with a worth of 55.81crores exported.
  18. 18.  Indian requirement : 15-20 lakh tonnes.  Indian target (2050) : 45 – 50 lakh tones.  Potential yield : 3-4 tonnes/ha. DEMAND
  19. 19. MARKETING  Importing countries of processed cashew nut (90% of total of world's imports) BY USA, UK, Japan and the former USSR countries.  Brazil act as a monopoly in export market in European countries.  India is monopoly in export market in USSR countries.
  20. 20. Compact type Dwarf A. microcarpu m A. orthonianu m A. pumilum Purple Nut size Kernel size CNSL free Coloured apples A. occidentale Variability in nut and apple VARIABILITY OF CASHEW IN INDIA
  21. 21. Research stations  Directorate of Cashew Research, Puttur (Karnataka)  Directorate of Cashew and Cocao Development, Cochin  AICRP centres, Vengurla, Bhuvaneshwar, Madakatara, Chintamani.  HRS Ullal (KRN)  Cashew research station, Bapatla(AP)  Cashew research station, Anakkayam(KRL)  Cashew Export promotion council of india (CEPC), Ernakulam, kerala
  22. 22. BOTANY OF CASHEW NUT  Cashew is an evergreen perennial tree with extensive tap root system  Tree may grow to an height of 15 m  It is a highly cross pollinated crop.  Leaves – Glabrous, leathery, oblong- obovate, rounded at tip, simple, pinnately arranged, veins alternate  Economic life span is about 30-40 years.
  23. 23.  INFLORESCENCE: Terminal panicle, and polygamomonocious (male and hermoprodite flowers in same inflorosence). The proportion of the perfect flowers varies from as low as 0.45-24.9%.
  24. 24. Highlighting the relative positions of the stamen and staminoids of each and of the stigma of the hermaphrodite flower. Cross sectional diagram of cashew male and hermoprodite flower
  25. 25. FRUIT: Fruit is kidney shaped nut whereas apple is false fruit which is swollen pedicel.
  26. 26. Kernal contains, 47% fat 21% protein 22% carbohydrate
  27. 27. Pollination  Peak anthesis is between 9 am to 11 am, stigma is receptive as soon as flowers open and remains receptive for 48 hours from anthesis.  Anther dehiscence takes place 1-5 hours after anthesis.  Pollination takes place through bees, which transfer sticky pollen to stigma. Hand pollination resulted In overall Increase of 20.9% fruit set against 4 to 6 % in natural pollination (Jayalekshmy and John, 2005).
  28. 28. Germplasm  The early attempts for germplasm collection in India were made during 1952-1957 with sanctioning of adhoc schemes in Kerala (Kottarakkara), Karnataka (Ullal) Andhra Pradesh (Bapatla), Assam (Daregaon) and Maharashtra (Vengurla).  A total of 1,490 germplasm accessions have been conserved at National Research Centre on Cashew at Puttur and at different cashew research stations in India.  These are primarily indigenous types' selected from the seedling progenies of the limited initial introductions with few exotic types from Brazil, Nairobi, Lindi, Nacala, Mozambique, Ex Tanganya, Singapore, Australia and Republic of Panama.
  29. 29.  In-situ conservation of cashew germplasm is done only in the Amazon forests of Brazil, the original home of cashew.  Subsequent to the establishment of NRCC at Puttur (Karnataka) in 1986, (now it is upgraded as Directorate of Cashew Research (DCR)) germplasm collection through seeds was discontinued.  In the National Gene Bank of NRCC, Puttur, ex-situ conservation of 392 clonal germplasm collections are maintained.  Similarly, Regional Cashew Gene Bank is established at AICRP on Cashew at Vengurla, Bhubaneswar, Madakathara and Chintamani.  Immediate priority of Indian cashew germplasm programme is to enhance the genetic variability through introduction of exotic types from Central America and Brazil, where diverse types including dwarf ones are existing.
  30. 30. A occidentale A. microsepalum A. brasiliense A. corymlosum A. ciratellefolium A. excelsum A. encardium A. parvifolium A. gigantum A. kuhlanannianum A. humile A. negrense A. mediterraneanum A. rondonianum A. nanum A. tenuifolium A. rhinocarpus A. microcarpum A. spruceanum A. pumilum A. orthonianum Species diversity
  31. 31. Anacardium gigantenum
  32. 32. Anacardium excelum Anacardium nanaum
  33. 33. Anacardium humile
  34. 34. Anacardium spruceanum Anacardium orientale
  35. 35. SOIL  Well drained sandy loam soil and red loamy soil with a depth of 1-1.5m and pH 5.4-7 but more than 8 pH not suitable commercial cultivation.  Drainage of soil must be good, as it cannot withstand waterlogged saline soils.
  36. 36. CLIMATE  Cashew is essentially a tropical crop.  It grows best in warm humid climate.  It Can tolerate wide range of climatic conditions , however major limiting factor is its inability to tolerate frost and extreme cold for a long time.  Its distribution ranges from 270N and 280S latitude. It grows well below 700m MSL.
  37. 37. Best Climatic Factors  Dry spell during flowering and fruit setting ensures better harvest.  There must not be cloudy weather during flowering- as it enhances scortching of flowers due to tea mosquito bug infestation.  Normal temperature (32-380C) during marble stage of fruit development is good as high temperature causes fruit drop.
  38. 38. Temperature  Most favourable temperature range is between 240C-280C.  It does not thrive below 20°C temperature for long period and very high temperature 39 to 42°C during the marble stage of fruit development cause fruit drop.  Heavy rains and cloudy weather adversely affect the yield in cashew. Rainfall  Requires a annual rainfall range of 600mm- 4000mm.  700mm is optimum rainfall. Sunshine  It needs minimum of 6-8 hours of sunshine per day.
  39. 39. Breeding achievement
  40. 40. Yield of nuts/tree Should be > 5 kg at 10th year age & onwards Nut size Should be big (10 g and above) Compact canopy Should be more than 3 laterals for one leader High proportion of flowering to non- flowering laterals More than 60 % laterals should terminate in panicles Early flowering To produce early crop, to escape from pests and there will be abundance of pollinators A short flowering period To reduce harvesting cost. Flowering range is 40-110 days. Genotype with a range < 60 days is preferred High bisexual flowers percentage Only bisexual flowers develop into fruits after pollination and fertilization Number of nuts per panicle Should bear more than 5-10 fruits per panicle Selection of mother trees The important traits taken into consideration while selecting a mother tree for seed nuts are the following.
  41. 41. Hybrids developed in India
  42. 42. Varities released for cultivation in Andra pradesh VARIETY PARENTAGE YIELD (kg/ tree) NUT WT. SHELLING % BPP1 HYD No.1 X T.No 273 17 5 27.5 BPP2 HYD No.1 X T.No 273 19 4 26.0 BPP3 Clonal selection 16 6 28.0 BPP4 Clonal selection 12.5 6 23.0 BPP5 Clonal selection from T.No.1 42 5.2 24.0 BPP6 Bpp8 Clonal selection from T.No. 56. HYB No.1XT.No.273 42 14.5 5.2 8.2 24.0 29.0 Cashew research station, Bapatla
  43. 43. b) Varities released for cultivation in maharashtra  Vengurla 1  It is clonal selection from germplasm(Vengurla)  It yields 23kg/tree  Its shelling percentage 31.0%
  44. 44. Vengurla 2 It is selection from clonal selection from germplasm (west bengal) It yields 24kg/tree its shelling percentage 32.0%
  45. 45. Vengurla-3: Evolved at RFRS, Vengurla, Maharastra.  It is hybrid b/w Ansur-1 X Vetore-56. It has an yield potential of 14.4 kg/tree. its better shelling % 27 and export grade of W 210.
  46. 46. Vengurla-4: It is cross b/w Midnapore Red X Vetore-56. yield potential of 17.2kg/tree. Shelling % is 31% with export kernel grade of W 210. Apple is red colored having mean wt. of 45g.
  47. 47. Vengurla-5:  Hybrid with parentage Ansur Early X Mysore Kotekar 1/61.  Average yield potential is 16.6 kg/tree with export kernel grade of W 400.  Nuts are smaller with kernel wt. of 1.3g and shelling % is 30.
  48. 48. Vengurla-6:  Cross b/w Vetore-56 X Ansur-1. Average yield potential is 13.8kg/tree. Its shelling % of 28. It has export kernel grade of W 210.
  49. 49. Vengurla-7: Hybrid b/w Vengurla-3 X M 10/4 has an yield potential of 18.5kg/tree. Its shelling % 30.5 with export kernel grade of W 180.
  50. 50. Vengurla 8  Hybrid b/w Vengurla-4xM10/4 It yields about 15.70kg /tree Its nut weight 11.50gm Its shelling percentage 28.0% It is profuse flowering, and intensive branching
  51. 51. c) Varities released for cultivation in Tamil nadu Regional reserch station, Viruthachalam VRI 1(1981) It is a clonal selection from germplasm accession maintained at RRS, Viruthachalam. The average annual yield is 7.12kg/tree/year.
  52. 52. It is a selection from Kattupalli village in Chengalpattu district. It yields 1750 kg of nuts/ha, which is 14.2% higher yield than VRI.1. Nuts are big with a high shelling percentage of 28%. It is resistant to TMB and drought. VRI 2 (1985)
  53. 53. It is a seedling progeny (M 26-2) of a high yielding tree (No. 1602) , mean yield of 14.19 kg/ tree/year. The colour of new shoot is light green having dark green mature leaves with prominent venation. The apple is pear shape with a mean wt of 50.8 g. Nuts are large in size with 3.6 cm length and 2.7 cm width. VRI 3 (1991)
  54. 54. VRI (cw)-H1  It is hybrid between M 26/2(VRI-3)x26/1 It yields 13.2kg/tree Higher percentage of bisexual flowers, cluster bearing nature (6-10 fruits/ panicle), bolder nut(7.2 gm), larger kernal(w 210) and easy to peel the testa.
  55. 55. It is a selection from Cuddalore taluk of Tamil Nadu released from RRS, Virudhachalam. The crop yields 3320 kg of nuts /hectare. The nuts are medium in size, each weighing on an average of 6.63 g. The variety is suitable to grow under low rainfall tracts of Tamil Nadu. VRI 4(2000)
  56. 56. D) Varities released for cultivation in karnataka Agricultural Research station, Ullal 1) Ullal 1  It is clonal selection from germplasm type(kerala)  It yields 19kg/tree  Its shelling percentage 31%  It has 2.3% perfect flowers
  57. 57. Ullal 2  Clonal selection from germplasm type (guntur) It yields 18kg /tree Its nut weight is 6gm Its shelling percentage 30%
  58. 58. Ullal 3 •It yields is 14.7 kg/tree •Its nut weight s 7.0gm •Its shelling percentage is 30.7% •Good kernal size, profuse flowering
  59. 59. Ullal 4 • It yields 9.5kg/tree •It nut weight is 7.2gm •Its shelling percentage is 31.0%
  60. 60. Ullal 5 • 2/27 nileshwar •It yields 10.5kg/tree •Its nut weight is 9.0gm •Its shelling percentage 32.8%
  61. 61. Directorate of cashew research puttur, karnataka NRCC 1 • 3/28 simhachalam-Ap •It yields 10kg/tree •Its nut weight is 7.60gm •Its shelling percentage is 28.8%
  62. 62. NRCC 2 • 2/9 dicherla •It yields 9 kg/tree •Its nut weight is 9.20gm •Its shell percentage 28.60%
  63. 63. KERNEL QUALITY  Medium to high shelling percentage – 29%  Kernel weight (3.0-5.0 g)  Kernel grade (W-130 to W-150)  Easy to peel  Protein (26%)  Fat (47%)
  64. 64. Agricultural research station, chintamani, karnataka Chintamani 1 •It yields 7.20kg/tree •Its nut weight is 6.90gm •Its shelling percentage is 31%
  65. 65. •Varities released for cultivation in kerala Cashew research station of Anakkayam. Anakkayam 1 • selection from open pollinated of T.No.139(AP) •It yields 12kg/tree •Its nut weight is 5.95gm •Its shelling percentage 28%
  66. 66. Sulabha • A selection from open pollinated seedlings •It yields 21.90kg/tree •Its nut weight is 9.80gm •Its shelling percentage is 29.40
  67. 67. Cashew research station, Madakkathara Madakathara-1 • A selection from open pollinated seedling •Its nut weight is 6.20gm •It yields 13.80kg/tree •Its shelling percentage is 26.80
  68. 68. Dhana:  Released from CRS,Karala agricultural University,Madakathara,Kerala(1993).  It is Hybrid b/w ALGD-1-1 X K 30-1.  Yield potential is 10.66kg/tree, shelling % is 28 with kernel grade of W 210.
  69. 69. Kanaka: Hybrid b/w BLA-139-1 X H3-1. The average Yield potential is 12.8kg/tree. shelling % is 31. The kernel grade is W 210.
  70. 70. Priyanka: Evolved at CRS,Madakathara,(KAU). Cross b/w BLA-139-1 X K 30-1. The yield potential is 17.9kg/tree. Nut is bold with export grade of W 180. and shelling % is 26.5.
  71. 71. Amruta: Hybrid with parentage of BLA-139-1 X H 3-1, same as Kanaka. Average yield potential is 18.4 kg/tree . Shelling % is 31.6 with kernel grade of W 210.
  72. 72. Dharashree •Hybrid between (T30xBrazil-18) •It yields 15.02kg/tree •Its shelling percentage is 30.50%
  73. 73. Damodar •Hybrid between (BLA 139xH3-13) •It yields 13.65kg/tree •Its nut weight is 8.20gm •Its shelling percentage is 27.27%
  74. 74. Raghava •Hybrid between (ALGD-1-1xK-30-1) •It yields 14.65kg/tree •Its nut weight is 9.20gm •Its shelling percentage is 26.60
  75. 75. Akshaya •Hybrid between (H-4-7xK-30-1) •It yields 11.78kg/tree •Its nut weight is 11gm •Its shelling percentage 28.36%
  76. 76. Anagha •Hybrid between (T 20xK-30-1) •It yields 13.73kg/tree •Its nut weight is 10gm •Its shelling percentage 29%
  77. 77. Performance of six genotypes of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) under terai agro-climatic zone of West Bengal L.S. SINGH, P.S.MEDDA, H. BHATTACHARJEE AND P. SATYA  The Asian Journal of Horticulture, (June, 2010) Vol. 5 No. 1 : 131-133
  78. 78. NEW HYBRID (H-130) ‘Nethra Jumbo-1’ DCR, Puttur
  79. 79. HYBRID (H-130) – PROMISING HYBRID  NRCC Selection-2 x Bedasi  Early flowing and long fruiting season  Sparse canopy type  Bunch bearing with bold nut size  Big apple with yellow colour  Long and strong inflorescence with 8-10 rachis  Highest number of bisexual flowers
  81. 81. GROWTH BEHAVIOUR  Vigorous growing type  Sparse canopy type  Big leaves (above 70 sq.cm)  Highly precocious  Responsive to pruning and suitable to high density
  83. 83. KERNEL QUALITY  Medium to high shelling percentage – 29%  Kernel weight (3.0-5.0 g)  Kernel grade (W-130 to W-150)  Easy to peel  Protein (26%)  Fat (47%)
  84. 84. 90 cashew nuts of this variety made a kg. In other varieties, about 160 nuts are required to make a kg. This brings down the amount of labour required for harvesting the crop by almost a half.
  85. 85. PROPOGATION  Seed propagation is rarely practiced except for rootstock.  Softwood grafting is considered as commercial method of propogation.
  86. 86. PROPOGATION BY SEED DESIRABLE CHARACTER OF MOTHER PALM  An ideal mother plant should be dwarf and have compact canopy.  Higher number of bisexual flowers (>25%)  Cluster bearing habit.  Medium to bold nuts (8-10gm).  High shelling percentage(>28%)  High yield potential.  Tolerant to pests and diseases.
  87. 87. SELECTION OF SEED NUTS Bold sized seed nuts are collected which sink in water collected in march-may and sun dried for 2-3 days. Soaked in water overnight or 10% brine solution. Seed nuts should be freshly sown after harvest as seed nuts gradually lose their viability after 6-8 months.
  88. 88. RAISING OF ROOTSTOCK  Polythene bag punched with holes should be filled with suitable planting media of 3:1:1 FYM, soil and sand.  Seed nuts are sown with stalk end up at 2-2.5cm depth.  After sowing watering is done, germination takes within 15- 20 days after sowing.
  89. 89. SELECTION OF SEEDLINGS  Select the seedlings which are healthy , vigorous and single main stem.  Avoid seedlings having side branches.  Select seedlings which are of 40-60 days old.  Select seedlings which are growing at the centre of polythene bag.
  90. 90. STEPS INVOLVED IN SOFTWOOD GRAFTING RAISING OF ROOTSTOCK  Select good, mature, medium sized nuts, which sink in water as seeds after drying in sun for 2-3 days.  Seed nuts are soaked in water overnight before sowing in order to get good and faster germination.  Sow the seeds in polybags filled with soil sand and FYM.  Seeds will germinate in 15-20 days after sowing, 2 months old seedlings are used for softwood grafting.
  91. 91. PREPERATION OF ROOTSTOCK  Remove the leaves of selected seedlings retaining 1 or 2 pairs of bottom leaves and top the plant at a height of 15cm from ground.  Make a cleft of 5-6cms deep in middle of decapitated stem of the seedlings by giving a longitudinal cut.
  92. 92. SELECTION OF SCION  Select scion of 3-4 months old from high yielding varieties.  Take 10-15cms long scions preferably straight, having prominent terminal bud.  Select only healthy scions free from pests and diseases.  Scions should be collected before terminal bud sprouts.
  93. 93. GRAFTING PROCEDURE  Insert the wedge of the scion to the cleft of the seedling stock.  Pre-cured scions chopped slant cut on both side 5- 6cm and insert into stalk and tied with polythene strip and kept inside the poly house. (Feb-March, Sep-Oct, June-July, Exept winter season)  Maintain humidity to prevent apical bud from drying.  Graft union takes place after 45 days. 80-85% succes and further maintained upto 6 month and transplant to field.
  94. 94. Method of soft wood grafting
  96. 96. AFTERCARE OF THE GRAFTS  Keep the grafted plant in shade and water them regularly; shift the grafts to open space when leaves of the scions turn green.  Remove the polythene strips from grafted joint 2-3 months after grafting to avoid girdling.  They become ready for planting 5-6 months after grafting.
  97. 97. Spacing and pit size Normal density  7.5mx7.5m=180 plants/ha  6mx8m=208 plants/ha  10mx5m=200 plants/ha (depending on soil fertility) High density planting :  4mx4m=625 plants/ha  5mx5m= 400 plants/ha,  6mx4m=416 plants/ha  8mx4m=312 plants/ha Pits size: 0.7-1.0 m
  98. 98. Method of planting  Season /time of planting  June-July or September – October  Fill the pits with top soil to ¾ of the pit capacity and organic manure (10 kg) and 250g SSP or ROP, 10g of Phorate granules.  While planting the graft union should remain 2.5 cm above the ground level.  Remove the polythene tape and staking should be done immediately after planting to protect the graft from wind damage.
  99. 99. PACKAGES FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF HIGH DENSITY ORCHARD  Land preparation  Line terraces  Pit opening (13M)  Pit filling  Planting & mulching  Dense clearing  Staking
  100. 100. REVERSE TERRACE (2 M X 2 M X 0.7 M) Advantages Mean soil moisture content (0-90 cm depth) in March : 129% of Control Runoff : 81% of control Soil Loss : 77.6% of control Cost : Rs 30 per structure
  101. 101. ESTABLISHMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF ULTRA DENSITY ORCHARDS Establishment of Ultra Density Orchard Three year old Ultra Density Orchard Pruning in Ultra Density Orchard Flushing & Flowering in Ultra Density
  103. 103. MANURING  DCR puttur- 500/125/125 gram NPK/tree/year.  Ullal- 500/250/250g NPK/tree/year.  During the first, second and third year of planting 1/3rd, 2/3rd and full dose of fertilizers, respectively should be applied. Fertilizers may be applied 15cm depth, 20-30cm width in the basins of individual trees in circular trenches.  Growing of leguminous cover/ green manure crops are highly beneficial in young plantations.  When organic manures are used, around 25 kg poultry manure, 60 kg FYM or 30 kg vermicompost may be used per adult tree.
  104. 104. MANURES AND FERTILIZERS FOR CASHEW Application in two does:- Pre-monsoon (May-June) and post-monsoon (August- September) seasons
  105. 105. FOLIAR SPRAY OF NUTRIENTS  Foliar spray of Urea + H3PO4 + K2SO4 : increased nut yields by 16.1% while, 0.5% ZnSO4 + 0.1% solubor + 0.5% MgSO4 : 30.5% increase in nut yield over unsprayed plants.  Of major nutrients, the incidence of tea mosquito bug (TMB) was lower in K2SO4 1% sprayed trees with a mean damage score of 0.50.  Of the secondary and micronutrients, the incidence was lower in solubor 0.1% sprayed trees with a mean damage score of 0.72.  While in control (unsprayed) trees, the incidence of TMB was higher which was in the range of 1.28 to 1.33.
  106. 106. Training and Pruning  Training: Up to 2year 70-75cm from ground should not allow any branches for good air circulation and better management.  Allows proper growth of canopy and receipt of adequate sunlight on all branches.  Pruning of cashew plants done during May/June.  Deformed branches are also removed during the first few years.  Since cashew trees tend to spread their canopies and lodge easily, proper staking is also essential
  107. 107. TRAINING PLANTS TO BUSH SHAPE Growth and yield performance of 5 year old shape pruned plants
  109. 109. Intercropping  Pineapple is the most profitable intercrop in cashew plantation in the early stages of growth.  It can be planted between two rows of cashew in trenches opened across the slope.  Paired row of pineapple suckers can be planted in each trench at 60 cm between rows and 40 cm between two suckers within the row.  Ginger, lemongrass and tapioca are also suitable as intercrops and the intercrops are also grown organically.
  110. 110. INTER CROPPING IN CASHEW  In hilly regions – soil erosion, nutrient losses and weed growth.  Intercropping - minimize the losses, conserve soil and moisture and higher net returns.  West coast – Pineapple, Tapioca, Turmeric, Ginger, Elephant Foot Yam, Colocasia, Cucurbits, Chillies, Brinjal. Pineapple Elephant Foot Yam Turmeric
  111. 111. CASHEW BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS  Insurance against total crop failure under aberrant weather conditions or pest epidemics.  Increase in total productivity per unit land area.  Judicious utilization of resources such as land labour and inputs.
  112. 112. Irrigation  Irrigation can be started after the commencement of flowering for better nut set, filling and yield  Newly planted grafts should be irrigated regularly during summer periods.  Drip irrigation of 25-30ltr/plants/day during flowering to fruiting stage is provided.
  113. 113. WATER MANAGEMENT AND FERTIGATION Cashew experiences severe moisture stress from January – March Supplementary irrigation with limited source of water  Wherever limited water sources are available, providing protective irrigation @ 200 1/tree once in fortnight from January to March totaling 1000 l/tree/year is recommended. Drip irrigation  20 L of water per day through drippers during January-March – helps in flowering, fruit set and nut development  Two fold increase in yield due to protective irrigation  Fertigation saved 50% in the fertilizer requirement and doubled the cashew yield 119 Drip irrigation
  114. 114. SOILAND WATER CONVERSATION TECHNIQUES  Cashew - severe moisture stress from January to May - affects flowering and fruit set.  Modified crescent bund (at 2 m radius having a crescent shaped bund of 6 m length, 1 m width and 0.5 m height on the upstream of the plant).  Drying of flowers and fruit drop under drought situations can be checked.  Efficient use of pre- monsoon and post- monsoon showers. Terrace with crescent bund
  116. 116. TOPWORKING/ REJUVINATION  It is a technique evolved to rejuvinate the unproductive and sanile cashew trees by soft wood grafting.  Poor yielding trees of 5-20 years tree can be successfully rejuvinated by top working.
  117. 117. PROCEDURE  DEHEADING THE TREES:  Unproductive trees are to be headed back to a height of 0.75- 1m from the ground level.  Then the stump and cut portion should be swabbed with chloropyriphos 10ml+50gm coc or 10% bordeaux paste.  Stump is covered with paddy straw and any straw material.  Sprouts emerge in 30-45 days after deheading, thin the excessive sprouts and maintain 10-15 shoots on the stumps out of 30-200 shoots.
  118. 118.  GRAFTING : 20-25 days old new shoots should be grafted with scions of high yielding varieties in the month of March-April.  Scion is covered with polythen tube to maintain humidity.  Polythene tube removed after 15-20 days. AFTERCARE : sprouts below the graft joint should be removed.  Grafted shoots are provided with suppourt by tieing shoots to avoid lodging.  On securing 6-7 successful grafts in each stem remaining shoots are progressively declipped off.  Grafted plant start yielding 2nd year after.  Provide nutrition 1.1kg urea, 1.5kg of SSP/ROP, 400g MOPand FYM 10-25kg/yr.  Yield-2nd yr -4kg/tree and stablised 8kg/tree/yr after 4th year.
  119. 119. PRUNING IN CASHEW  Heading back by severe pruning.  Results in improved yield performance.  Flowering in same year or next year.  Monitoring the attack of CSRB. Old senile plantation Severely pruned tree One year after severe pruning
  120. 120. TOP-WORKING FOR REJUVENATION OF SENILE ORCHARDS  Beheading and allowing new shoots to arise (May-June)  Grafting new shoots with scions of improved variety (July-August).  High yield from second year after grafting.  Monitoring the attack of CSRB. Top worked plants Flushing after top working Two years after top working
  122. 122. Harvesting  Economic bearing in cashew starts 3rd year after planting.  Economic bearing upto 25-30 years.  Fruits will be ready for harvest about 2 months after fertilization of flowers (Nov-May).  Ripened fruits will fall down which can be collected manually  The nuts can be extracted from apple, dried in sun for about 2 days and stored temporarily till marketing
  123. 123. YIELD  The nut yield/plant/year varies according to the age of the plant.  Average yield of of 2kg/tree is obtained from the trees of 3 years age.  After 3rd year yield goes on increasing. one can expect >10kg of nuts in 8-10 years  National average yield is less than 2kg/tree.
  124. 124. Cashew processing
  125. 125. CASHEW PROCESSING Processing consists the following steps Moisture conditioning Roasting Shelling Drying Peeling Grading Packing
  126. 126. 1)Moisture conditioning • It involves sprinkling of water on the dried nuts to an optimum moisture level of 15-25%.
  127. 127. 1. Roasting  It is done to make shell brittle and to loosen the kernal from the shell. 3 methods of roasting: a) Drum roasting b) Oil bath roasting c) Steam boiling
  128. 128. a. Drum roasting  Nuts are fed into rotating drum that is heated essentially to such an extent that excluding oil ignites and burns thus charring the shell.  Roasting takes place 3-5 min shell become brittle.  Then best quality kernal will be obtained.
  129. 129. b) Oil bath roasting  In this raw nuts are roasted passed for 1-3 min through a bath of heated CNSL, maintained at a temperature of 190-2000C.  The shell get heated and cell wall gets separated releasing oil into the bath.  In this method we obtain maximum recovery of CNSL.
  130. 130. c) Steam boiling  Raw nuts are steam cooked at high pressure. It is most popular method. Mild roasting is done for 20-25min at 100-120 PSI and allow to cool for 24hr.
  131. 131. Manually and Mechanicaly Place the nuts edge wise and gently crack it with a light wooden mallet,to remove the kernals. While shelling take care not to damage the kernel inside. Kernal recovery is 90%
  132. 132. STAGES OF CASHEWNUT PROCESSING Steam Boiling Cashew Sheller Shelling Process Kernel Drier
  133. 133.  Dry the kernels under sun for 8-10 hours to loosen testa and reduce moister.  Kernals are dried to a moisture content of 4-5%  At present in commercial cashew processing unit kernels are dried artificially in Broma dryer at 800 C for 8-10 hours using hot dry air. • Peel off thin brown testa on the kernel with the help of knives.
  134. 134. American Standards Based on No. of kernels/pound Non spilt Kernels as Wholes. Again separated into 6 grades, 210, 240, 280, 320, 400 and 450 whole nuts/pound. Standard quality is 320. Local market It Should be fully developed, good size, shape, free from insect damage and black spots Divided into 1. Standard 2. Scorched pieces 3. Splits 4. Butts 5. Small pieces 6. deserts 26 grades are available W-210- Biggest grade W-500-Smallest grade
  135. 135. STAGES OF CASHEWNUT PROCESSING Kernel peeling Kernel drying process Kernel Grading Vita Packing
  136. 136. Compact Type Drum Roasting Machine-Developed Concentric Type Rotary Sieve Grader- Performance evaluation Dual Mode Dryer-Design and development Hydraulic Type Cashew Apple Juice Extractor-Developed. POST HARVEST PROCESSING (DEVELOPMENT OF MACHINERIES) 142
  137. 137. Cashew class 1 grades
  138. 138. Cashew 2 grades
  139. 139.  Pack the graded kernels in Tin containers in a an atmosphere of 5% CO2.  Each tin holds 25 pounds of Kernels.
  140. 140. BY PRODUCTS OF CASHEW NUT • Cashew oil is a dark yellow oil for cooking or salad dressing pressed from cashew nuts (typically broken chunks created during processing).  Cashew apples can be used for preparation of juice, candies, pickles, chutnees, jam, jelly.  In Goa an alcoholic beverage called “Feni” is prepared from cashew apple.
  141. 141. Cashew shell oil  Cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) or cashew shell oil is a natural resin found in the honeycomb structure of the cashew nutshell and is a by product of processing cashew nuts.  It is a raw material of multiple uses in developing drugs, antioxidants, fungicides, etc.  It is used in tropical folk medicine and for anti-termite treatment of timber.
  142. 142. PESTS AND DISEASES 1. TEA MOSQUITO BUG (Helopeltis antonii) Symptoms :  Both adults and nymphs suck the sap from the tender shoots, leaves and fruits.  The tissues around the attached portions develop necrotic patches resulting into drying up of the shoots, leading finally to drying.
  143. 143. TEA MOSQUITO BUG (TMB) DAMAGE IN CASHEW Damage on tender shoots Drying of the shoot Adult feeding on apple Drying of the inflorescence Nymph Adult
  144. 144. MANAGEMENT OF TEA MOSQUITO BUG  The cashew variety Bhaskara developed at DCR escapes tea mosquito bug incidence because of its mid-season and repetitive flowering behaviour.  need based sprays of Lambda cyhalothrin (6ml/10L)/ Imidachloprid 17.8 SL (0.6 ml/L)/ Acetamiprid 20 SP (0.5g/L)/ Profenophos 50 EC (1.5 ml/L) during flushing and Carbaryl (2g/L)/ Lambda cyhalothrin(6ml/10L)/ Trizophos 40 EC (1.5ml/L)/ Profenophos 50 EC (1.5 ml/L) during flowering/ fruiting stages are recommended to manage the pest incidence for better income.  Spraying of recommended insecticides will be remunerative, if the trees are giving economical yield (>2.0 kg/tree). Adult of TMB Fruit bunch of variety : Bhaskara Nut damage Shoot damage
  145. 145. STEM BORER (Placaederus ferrugineus)  Beetle and its larvae tunnel into the tree trunk and roots.  Female beetle lay eggs on the crevices of the bark of the collar region of the tree trunk  Food and water translocation is affected and tree gradually dies symptoms Yellowing of leaves , drying of twigs, presence of holes at the base of stem with exuding sap and frass
  147. 147. INCIDENCE OF CSRB IN CASHEW External symptoms of damage Extrusion of frass at tree base Zig zag damage pattern on the branch Chewing by CSRB grub
  148. 148. MANAGEMENT OF CASHEW STEM AND ROOT BORER Phytosanitation  Swab mud slurry or coal tar and kerosene (1:2) for adult trees .  Smearing of lime on the bark crevices. • Dead trees and trees which are beyond recovery should be uprooted and removed from the plantation. • Ilar -cum silar (IIHR) Post–extraction prophylaxis • All the trees in the plantation are to be examined during nut collection period grubs should be mechanically. • This should be followed by treatment with chlorpyriphos 0.2 % Use of Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) • Steinernema sp. and Heterorhabditis sp. Adult of CSRB Grub of CSRB EPN infection in CSRB
  149. 149. Other pest  Leaf and inflorescence webber: makes a gallerry and net inside adults are neemb out flower drying and drop down.  Management: Monochrotophos-1ml/ltr.
  150. 150. Leaf minor  Nursery and plantation , new leaves and new flushes  Management: Monochrotophos-1.5ml/ltr.
  151. 151. Cashew mealy bug incidence
  152. 152. DIE BACK / PINK DISEASE  Caused by Corticium salmonicolor  Affected branches initially show white patches on the bark. Later, the fungus develops a pinkish growth , which represents a spore mass.  In due course of time ,the bark splits and peels off and the affected shoots dry up from the tip.
  153. 153. MANAGEMENT  Prune the affected branches and protect the cut portion by application of bordeaux paste and give prophylactive sprays of Bordeuax mixture (1%) twice in may-june before the onset monsoon.
  154. 154. Minor disease  Anthracnose: 1% BM, 3g of coc  Damping off: coc spray and drench- 3g/ltr.
  155. 155. Anthracnose
  156. 156. Thank you

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • The organic materials available in the plantation can be best used through composting, more efficiently through vermi-composting.