Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×

10. Rubber - Copy.pptx

Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …3

Hier ansehen

1 von 154 Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Ähnlich wie 10. Rubber - Copy.pptx (20)


Aktuellste (20)

10. Rubber - Copy.pptx

  1. 1. Advances in production technology of rubber
  2. 2.  Common name: Rubber, para rubber  Botanical name: Hevea brasilliensis  Family: Euphorbiaceae  Chromosome number: 2n=36  Hevea brasilliensis - The only source of natural rubber (NR)  Natural rubber found in latex of plant  The white or yellow latex occurs in latex vessels in the bark.
  3. 3. Rubber plantation Rubber tree
  4. 4.  Origin : Brazil  Introduced to Tropical Asia in 1876 through Kew Garden in the UK with the seeds brought from Brazil.  It is now distributed in the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and America  Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, China and India  Indonesia - maximum area (35.16 lakh ha)  Thailand - maximum production (20.33 lakh ton)  India: Kerala, Kanyakumari (TN) (98% area), Karnataka, Assam, Goa, MH, Odissa
  5. 5. In 1876 Sir Henry Wickham took a few seeds from Brazil and planted them in Kew garden. Distributed to Ceylon, India, Singapore, Java and Malaysia.
  6. 6. In India, • Area : 5, 23,300 ha • Production : 5, 06,900 tonnes • Productivity : 915 kg / ha • India is the fifth largest rubber growing country in the world. • India is self sufficient with regard to the requirement of natural rubber.
  7. 7. Uses • Preparation of different parts of automobiles. • Preparation of tyres of vehicles (52% of production), cycle tyres and tubes (12% of production). • Tread rubber (5%), footwear (11 %), belts and hoses (6 %), foam (4 %), others (10 %). • > 50,000 different products are prepared from rubber.
  8. 8.  Rubber belongs to Euphorbiaceae, a large family with about 280 genera and 8,000 species  Genus Hevea comprises of 10 species  Crossed inter-specifically by artificial pollination  Pollinaton - honeybees and midges
  9. 9.  Natural rubber is found in the latex of plants over 895 species belonging to 31 genera of 70 families. • Manigot glaziovii : Cera rubber • Ficus elastica : Indian rubber (Malvaceae) • Castiolla elastica : Panama rubber (Apocyanaceae) • Parthenium argenatum :Guayul rubber (Compositae) • Taraxacum koksaghyz or Hevea brassiliensis : Para rubber (Euphorbiaceae)
  10. 10.  Hevea benthamiana  Hevea brasiliensis  Hevea camargoana (Dwarf growth habit)  Hevea camporam  Hevea guianensis  Hevea microphylla  Hevea nitida  Hevea pauciflora  Hevea rigidifolia  Hevea spruceana Ortet selection : It is a method of systematic screening of outstanding individuals from a mature seedling plantation, its vegetative multiplication and subsequent evaluation in comparison to the popular clones.
  11. 11. Hevea brasiliensis  Commercially cultivated one  Supplies more than 99% of the world’s rubber Hevea benthamiana  Tree is medium sized, trunk swollen at the base  Flowers are yellow and seeds are small  Latex is white and good quality rubber can be obtained Hevea camargoana  This is the most recently reported species  The trees are small to medium and the flowers are whitish with rose red colouration at the base with 3-5 anthers  This species has dwarf growth habit
  12. 12. Hevea guianensis  It is tall, attaining a height of 24 - 27m, trunk is cylindrical and grows in well drained soil  It produces cream yellow latex which is of inferior quality Hevea microphylla Trees are slender, reaching a height of 21m with a whip like trunk It has the largest female flowers in the genus Latex is white and watery with very little rubber
  13. 13.  Hevea brasiliensis - quick growing tree  Rarely exceeding 25 m in height in plantations  But wild trees of over 40 m  The trunk of the tree tapers from the base and is conical or cylindrical in shape and shows a periodicity of growth
  14. 14.  The tree has a well-developed tap root 2-5 m long after 3 years, with laterals several meters long.  The lateral roots emerge from the tap-root below the collar. They can reach up to 10 m and can make a dense network of feeder roots and root hairs in the upper soil layers. Root
  15. 15. Leaves  Young leaves are dark red in color, while other leaves are green on top and grayish- green underneath.  Leaves alternate, palmate and each leaf with 3 leaflets.  A fully grown leaf has a diameter of 15-20 cm
  16. 16. Trifoliate glabrous leaves, spirally arranged, reddish when young, green when mature. Bear three extra floral nectaries at the point where they give rise to leaflets. Nectar is secreted only on the new flush at the time of flowering. The leaflets have short petioles and are elliptic or obovate in shape with base acute and apex acuminate, margins entire and pinnate venation.
  17. 17. Inflorescence Inflorescence is many branched, bearing flowers of both sexes. Inflorescence is borne in the axils of basal leaves of new shoots produced after wintering during December. Larger female flowers borne at the end of central and main branches. Smaller and numerous male flowers are seen on the other parts.
  18. 18.  Inflorescence - panicle of separate staminate and pistillate flowers borne in the axils of basal leaves of new shoots that grow out after wintering  Flowers small, greenish-white, dioecious  Female flowers usually larger than the male ones  In the female flower, gynoeicium composed of 3 united carpels forming a 3-lobed, 3- celled ovary with a single ovule in each cell Flowering and pollination
  19. 19. Pistillate flowers are terminal to the central stem and other major branches of the inflorescence Smaller and more numerous staminate flowers make up the rest Both flowers are shortly stalked and scented Neither flower has petals but rather five triangular lobes Staminate flowers have two rings of five stamens each borne on a stalk
  20. 20. Fruits • Only a small proportion of female flowers set fruit and of these 30-50% fall off after a month and more fall off later. • The mature fruit is a large, compressed, 3-lobbed capsule, 3-5 cm in diameter, with 3 oil-containing seeds. • The capsule bursts open at the end of the rainy season.
  21. 21. Seeds • Hevea seed is oval, 1-2 cm long and weights between 3 and 6 g • It has a hard, shiny coat which is brown or grayish-brown in color • Seeds are viable for a short time only and must therefore be planted as soon as possible after harvesting • Viable seeds germinate in 3-25 days • Germination is hypogeal
  22. 22. • Bark - important part of the tree - it contains tissues that produce the latex. • It consists of a pith, wood and a cortex, which is separated from the wood by the cambium (regenerative tissue). • In the cortex, there are 3 separate concentric layers: the outer corky layer (periderm), an underlying parenchyma with a large numbers of stone cells and finally the phloem with the latex vessels (phellem). • The thickness of the bark and the proportion of tissue vary with different clones and with the age of tree. Bark
  23. 23. Fig 1: Cross section of an adult rubber tree showing the composition of the bark and the position of the latex vessels in the soft bark tissue
  24. 24. Fresh latex • Fresh latex consists of a colloidal suspension of rubber particles in an aqueous serum. • The content of rubber hydrocarbon, with formula (C5H8)n, varies from 25 to 40 %, with an average of about 30 %.
  25. 25. Latex consists of four main fractions • Rubber particles (25-40 % of total latex volume), variable in shape, but usually pear- shaped or spherical, and about 6 nm to 5 micron in size. • Lutoids (10-20%), 0.5 nm to 3 micron in size, having an impact on the stability and flow of the latex. • Frey-Wyssling particles (5%) which play probably a role in the coagulation and oxido-reduction processes. • Other elements like proteins, resins, sugars, glycosides, tannins, alkaloids, mineral salts and secondary metabolites. (Delabarre and Serrier, 2000)
  26. 26. RRII - Rubber Research Institute of India (1995) Kottaym, Kerala The Central Experiment Station of the institute at Kottaym. It is a member of IRRDB (International Rubber Research and Development Board, Malaysia). Rubber Board is a statutory body constituted by the Government of India, under the Rubber Act 1947.
  27. 27. IRRI, Indonesia - Indonesian Rubber Research Institute. RRIM, Malaysia - Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia. Malaysian Rubber Board RRISL, Sri Lanka - Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka. RRIV, Vietnam - Rubber Research Institute of Vietnam.
  28. 28. Research stations Research stations under RRII under different agro-climatic situations  Agartala (Tripura)  Guwahati (Assam)  Tura (Meghalaya)  Kolsab (Mizoram) RRII has also set up Regional Research Stations at 1) Dapchari (Maharastra) 2) Kamakhyanagar (Odisha) 3) Nagarakatta (WB) 4) Sukma (Chattisgarh) 5) Parliar (TN) 6) Nettana (Karnataka) 7) Padiyoor (Kerala)
  29. 29. Soil • Deep, fertile, permeable soils for better growth • Lateritic, alluvial, red sandy soil with less ‘K’ availability • pH : 4.5 to 6
  30. 30. Climate • Warm humid climate • 10º C latitude on either side of the equator • Higher production – 6º C • Temp.: 20-30º C • RH : 80 % RF : 2000-2500 mm • Warm and sunny days: > 6 hours • Altitude : 300 m above MSL • > 500 m above MSL – growth rate will be slow
  31. 31. •Primary clone: Mother tree is of unknown parentage, selection of mother tree is based on superior performance in the existing plantation. Eg. Tjir - I, GT I, PB 86, PR 107 and PB 28/59 •Secondary clone: Mother tree is evolved by controlled pollination between 2 primary clones. Eg. RRIM 600 (Tjir I x PB 86) and RRII 105 (Tjir I x GT – I) •Tertiary clone: Mother tree is evolved by controlled pollination in which at least one or both parents are secondary clones. Eg. RRIM 703 (RRIM 600 x RRIM 500) Clones
  32. 32. •The planting materials approved by the Rubber Board are classified into three categories I, II, III. Description of categories: •Category I - It comprises of materials approved for large scale planting. •Category II - It comprises clones, which have shown their merit in performance in India over long or medium term periods. •Category III - In this, planting materials are divided into (a), (b), (c) and (d). Categories of clone
  33. 33. • Category III - In this planting materials are divided into (a), (b), (c) and (d). (a) - Approved for experimental planting (b) - Clones having promising localised performance are included (c) - Moderate clones with moderate clone performance are included (d) - Experimental clones with limited data are included
  34. 34. Clone Parentage Status RRII 105 Tjir 1 x GT 1 Category I RRII 414 RRII 105 x RRIC 100 Category I RRII 430 RRII 105 x RRIC 100 Category I RRII 5 Primary clone Category II RRII 203 PB 86 x Mil 3/2 Category II RRII 417 RRII 105 x RRIC 100 Category II RRII 422 RRII 105 x RRIC 100 Category II RRII 50 Primary clone Category III RRII 51 Primary clone Category III RRII 52 Primary clone Category III RRII 118 Mil 3/2 x Hil 28 Category III RRII 176 Mil 3/2 x PB 5/60 Category III RRII 208 Mil 3/2 x AVROS 255 Category III RRII 300 Tjir 1 x PR 107 Category III RRII 429 RRII 105 x RRIC 100 Category III Clones Released from RRII
  35. 35. RRII 105 Developed by : RRII Parentage Tjir 1 x Gl 1 Vigour : Average Girth increment on tapping : Average Trunk : Tall and straight Branching pattern : Good branching with strong union Canopy : Dense, mostly restricted to the top, dark green glossy leaves Virgin bark thickness : Above average Renewed bark thickness : Above average Number of latex vessel rows : Above average
  36. 36. …RRII 105 Incidence of major diseases and pests Pink disease– severe Powdery mildew - moderate to severe Abnormal leaf fall - mild Shoot rot - moderate to severe Leaf spot disease – severe Reaction to stresses Cold - average tolerance Drought - average tolerance with respect to yield, but growth is affected Wind - average tolerance Occurrence of TPD : High Special features : The highest yielding clone showing stability in yield (Wonder clone).
  37. 37. …RRII 105 Mean Yield of 5 Years Mean Yield of 10 Years Mean Yield of 15 Years Mean Yield of 20Years Small scale evaluation (g/tree/tap) 62.48 75.18 81.16 76.25 Large scale evaluation (g/tree/tap) 56.80 60.96 62.74 On farm evaluation (kg/ha/year) 1536 1710 2210
  38. 38. RRIM 600 Developed by : RRIM Parentage : Tjir 1 x PB 86 Vigour : Low Incidence of major diseases and pests Pink disease - severe Powdery mildew - mild Abnormal leaf fall – severe Reaction to stresses Cold - average tolerance Drought - average tolerance Wind- above average tolerance Occurrence of TPD : Average Special features : Not suited for areas where abnormal leaf fall caused by Phytophthora is prevalent
  39. 39. Mean Yield Particulars 5 Years 10 Years 15 Years 20 Years Large scale evaluation (g/tree/tap) 42.44 51.88 49.77 On farm evaluation (kg/ha/yr) 1186 1710 1379 1349 …RRIM 600
  40. 40. GT-1 • Outstanding clone from Indonesia • Virgin bark thickness (VBT) – average • Renewed bark (RB) – below average • Higher yielder • 1356 kg / ha / year • Tolerant to pink disease, PM and wind damage • Withstand higher intensity of tapping • Suitable for small growers
  41. 41. PR 107 • Primary clone of Indonesia • Sturdy, wind resistant and average vigour • Commercial yield – 1044 kg / ha / year • Withstands higher tapping • Resistant to pink diseases, susceptible to Phytophthora Tjir – 1 • Indonesian primary clone with good vigour • Yellow colour latex • Susceptible to Phytophthora, pink disease and powdery mildew • 978 kg / ha / year
  42. 42. GL – 1 • Primary clone of Malaysia with below average vigour • Perform better in increased water table condition • 1127 kg/ha/year PB- 86 • Primary clone of Malaysia • Suitable for planting in expanded area • Perform good in Kanya kumara • 1129 kg/ha/year PB 5 / 51 • Primary clone of Malaysia • PB 56 × PB 24 • Increases resistance to wind damage • 1514 kg/ha/year
  43. 43. RRIM – 628 • Tjir – 1 × RRIM 527 • Tolerant to abnormal leaf fall and wind damage • 1051 kg/ha/year RRIM – 701 • Fairly increased yielder • Susceptible to pink disease and powdery mildew • 1042 kg/ha/year RRIM – 703 • RRIM – 600 × RRIM 500 • Resistant to powdery mildew • 1725 kg/ha/year
  44. 44. RRII – 118 • Increased vigour • Resistant to diseases • 880 kg/ha/year RRII – 203 • High yielding clone average tolerant to diseases • 3100 kg/ha/year RRII – 208 • High yielding clone average tolerant to diseases • 1685 kg/ha/year • Increased susceptibility to shoot rot • Promising clones – PB 609, PB 217, PB 235, PB 255, PR 261, PB 280, PB 311, RRIM 605, RRIM 623 • RRIM 600 – Good performance in Karnataka
  45. 45. New High Yielding Rubber Variety Released in Brazil • Researchers in Brazil have released variety of rubber that start producing latex in 5 years after planting instead of the normal 7 years. • The new varieties not only reduce the time for the first harvest by 30%, they also go on to yield significantly more latex than currently planted varieties. IAC 500 • Average of 1,731 kg of latex per hectare or which yields 52% more than the average yield in Malaysia.
  46. 46. New high yielding variety of rubber by RRII • The Rubber Board has released two hybrid clones viz., RRII 414 and RRII 430 which were evolved from the cross RRII 105 x RRIC 100. • These varieties are likely to increase the yield by 15% to 40% per hectare. • The new varieties are found to be ready for tapping in six-and- half years.
  47. 47. PB 260 Developed by : Prang Besar estate Parentage : PB 5/51 x PB 49 Vigour : High Girth increment on tapping : Average Trunk : Tall and straight Branching pattern : Light branches balanced, branch union strong Canopy : Dense, pale green leaves Virgin bark thickness : Below average Renewed bark thickness : Below average Number of latex vessel rows : Average
  48. 48. …PB 260 Incidence of major diseases and pests Pink - moderate Powdery mildew - moderate Abnormal leaf fall- moderate Reaction to stresses Wind - Above average tolerance Occurrence of TPD : High Color of latex : White Special features : A high yielding clone having good secondary characters
  49. 49. RRII 414 • Developed by : RRII • Parentage : RRII 105 x RRIC 100 • Vigor : High • Girth increment on tapping : Average • Trunk : Tall, straight and cylindrical with prominent leaf scar, slightly leaning • Branching pattern : Very high heavy branches with strong union • Canopy : Open, broad and heavy • Virgin bark thickness : Above average • Renewed bark thickness : High • Number of latex vessel rows : Above average in both virgin and renewed bark
  50. 50. …RRII 414 Incidence of major diseases and pests Pink - moderate Powdery mildew - high Abnormal leaf fall - moderate Corynespora leaf fall - low Reaction to stresses Wind - average tolerence Occurrence of TPD : Low Color of latex : White Special features : Yield better than RRII 105 in the first year of tapping in the on-farm trial and comparable to that of RRII 105 in the multi location trials Yield : small scale (g/tree/tap) - 74.02
  51. 51. RRII 430 Developed by : RRII Parentage : RRII 105 x RRIC 100 Vigor : Above average Girth increment on tapping : Average Trunk : Tall straight cylindrical stem with smooth bark Branching pattern : Balanced branching with strong branch union. Moderate to heavy branches Canopy : Open broad and heavy with large glossy leaves Virgin bark thickness : High Renewed bark thickness : High Number of latex vessel rows : Above average in both virgin and renewed bark
  52. 52. …RRII 430 Incidence of major diseases and pests Pink disease - low Powdery mildew - very high Abnormal leaf fall - low Corynespora leaf fall – low Reaction to stresses Wind - high tolerance Occurrence of TPD : Low Color of latex : White Special features : Yield better than RRII 105 in the first year of tapping in on - farm trial and in multi location trials Yield small scale (g/tap/tree) : 63.37
  53. 53. GT 1 Country of origin : Indonesia Developed by : Gondang Tapen Estate Parentage : Primary clone Vigour : Average to above average Incidence of major diseases and pests Pink disease : Moderate Powdery mildew : Moderate to severe Abnormal leaf fall : Moderate Reaction to stresses Drought : Average tolerance Wind : Average tolerance Occurrence of TPD : Average Special features : Shows rising yield trend
  54. 54. PB 28/59 Country of origin : Malaysia Developed by : Prang Besar Estate Parentage : Primary clone Vigour : Average Incidence of major diseases and pests Pink : Severe Powdery mildew : Severe Abnormal leaf fall : Severe Reaction to stresses Wind : Below average tolerance Occurrence of TPD : High Special features : Adapted to the agroclimatic conditions of Kanyakumari region Yield :1369 kg/ha/year
  55. 55. PB 217 Country of origin : Malaysia Developed by : Prang Besar Estate Parentage : PB 5/51 x PB 6/9 Vigour : Average Incidence of major diseases and pests Pink disease : Severe Powdery mildew : Severe Abnormal leaf fall : Moderate Reaction to stresses Cold : Average tolerance Drought : Above average tolerance Occurrence of TPD : Low Special features : A hardy clone suitable for small growers. Shows good response to stimulation
  56. 56. Propagation Budding Brown budding Green budding Seeds
  57. 57. Polyclonal seed gardens • To get benefit of mixed clones in a population, polyclonal seed garden are maintained.  Good quality seeds are produced in the PCSG  No. of clones selected should be 3-6 in PCSG  Clones selected should be a high yielder, vigorous, resistant to pest and diseases  Should produce good no. of seeds, flowers simultaneously  Clones suitable for PCSG – RRIM 600, RRIM 605, RRIM 623, GT- 1, PB 5/51, PB 28/59, Tjir-1
  58. 58. Seed • Seeds are collected from approved PCSG during July- September in South India • Viability of the rubber seed is short (8 weeks) - immediately sown after soaking in water for 3-5 days • Raised nursery beds of river sand are prepared • Seeds are sown in a single layer touching one another and pressed firmly with the surface of the seeds are just visible above
  59. 59. Seed propagation Washing of seeds Germinated and ungerminated seeds Picking up of germinated seeds Sprouted seed Planting in nursery beds
  60. 60.  Nursery bed - protected by sun - providing a temporary shade. Nursery bed - moist (but not wet) – sprinkle with water  Seeds germinates within 6-10 days of sowing. Every day germinated seed should be picked and planted in the nursery or in the field.  Mulching with dry leaves or grass is very essential to conserve soil moisture during dry period, to suppress the weed growth and to guard against severe down pour. Mulching promotes better seedlings growth.
  61. 61. • Seedlings are transferred either to secondary nursery (60 x 45 cm) or polybag (30 x 30 cm) with a potting mixture of soil : sand : FYM in 3:1:1. • 10 - 18 months seedlings are used and collected for planting. • Stump planting : Top the seedling at height of 30 – 40 cm and allow more no. of axillary branches. • By this, accumulation of CHO increases in the roots and root become sturdy with easy establishment and tolerant to any climate. Nursery planting
  62. 62. Spacing in nursery (Rubber Board) Seedling stumps 30 x 30 cm Budded stumps Green budded stumps 23 x 23 cm Brown budded stumps 30 x 30 cm Staggered pairs of rows 60 x 23 cm Budwood nursery and stumped budding 60 x 90 cm or 60 x 120 cm
  63. 63. Nursery for seedlings and budded stumps • In India, seed fall is during July - September and hence in this period it is necessary to produce maximum number of seedlings and budable seedlings from a nursery. • Budwood nursery: Buds start sprouting – 3 to 4 weeks after planting the budded stumps or in about 2 weeks after cutting back, if budding are done in situ. • When the budwood nursery plants are 1 year old, about 1 m of usable budwood can be obtained. • The budwood is cut when at least 1 m of brown bark has developed. The immature green portion at the top should be discarded.
  64. 64. Nursery for slumped budding • The methods of establishment and maintenance of nurseries for raising stumped buddings are the same as those of budwood nurseries. • However, for stumped buddings, green budding at 4 to 5 months stage is preferable. • Intense care is given to the plants so that they attain a girth of 10-11 cm at the collar within a period of 18 months after cut back.
  65. 65. BUDDING Brown budding - Brown colored buds taken from bud wood of about 1 years growth onto stock plants of 10 months or more growth with 7.5 cm thickness at the base. Vigorously growing healthy stalks are best Buds found in axils of fallen leaves are used In S-India : Best season : April – May, Budding from 1 m budwood of 1 year growth with 20 buds (1.5 to 2 months). Maintained upto 6-8 months
  66. 66. Green budding – Both stock and bud wood for green budding are young.2-8 months old seedling with 2.5 cm girth are taken. Buds from budwood in axil of scale leaf is alone used. Too dry or too wet condition are not preferred. Young budding - Kind of green budding carried on very young plants less than two months old.
  67. 67. Other types of Budding are Crown budding - An undesirable crown can be replaced by desirable one by using green buds Over budding - Budded at a higher levels for converting an existing bud wood nursery of a clone to another clone without replanting High budding - Type of crown budding where seedlings are budded at level of about 90 cm from the ground
  68. 68. Tissue culture • RRII conducted experiment on Tissue culture • Epicotyl seedlings, Embryo, anther, shoot tip and integument are used as explants • Nitsch’s media enriched with cytokinin, NAA
  69. 69. Planting • Found in sloppy and undulated hill lands. • Remove green shrubs, clear the land and open pits of 1 m3 with 12 kg FYM, top soil, 125 g rock phosphate. • June- July is the best season. • Square or triangular system of planting. • Pits 1m3 are dug out and filled with soil and compost.
  70. 70. Seed at stake planting: In situ planting, 3 – 4 seeds are sown in pit and allowed for germination. Vigorous growing 2 – 3 seedlings are budded with high yielding clone. One successful budded plant is allowed and others are used for gap filling.
  71. 71. • Stump planting: Seedlings raised in nursery are transplanted by restricting the growth at 45 to 60 cm from collar (18 month old). • Basket planting: Conical bamboo baskets was taken. 30 x 60 cm polyethylene with 200-300 gauge - budded with brown or green bud. • 6-8 month old budded plants can be utilized for planting in field.
  72. 72. Spacing Area Spacing No. of plants / ha Budded plants Hills 6.7 x 3.4 m 445 plants / ha Flat areas 4.9 x 4.9 m 420 plants / ha Triangular method 4.9 x 4.9 m 470 plants / ha Seedling plants Hills 6.1 x 3 m 539 plants / ha Flat areas 4.6 x 4.6 m 479 plants / ha
  73. 73. MANURING / FERTILISER APPLICATION  General fertilizer recommendation for rubber is derived based on the results of the fertilizer experiments conducted by the Rubber Research Institute of India on rubber of different age groups Seedling Nursery Incorporation of 25 kg of compost and 4 kg of rock phosphate per 100 m2 of the nursery bed.  Apply 25 kg of 10-10-4-1.5 NPKMg per 100 m2 of the nursery bed 6 to 8 weeks after planting. Again apply 5.5 kg per 100 m2, 6 to 8 weeks after the first top dressing. After fertilizer application the plant bases can be mulched with suitable mulch material.
  74. 74. Budwood Nursery Incorporate 1.65 kg of powdered rock phosphate per 100 m2 of the nursery bed as a basal dressing at the time of preparing the nursery bed. For the first crop of bud-wood apply 250 g of 10-10-4-1.5 NPKMg mixture per plant in two equal split doses. Apply the first split of 125 g / plant 2 to 3 months after planting the budded stump or cutting back if budding is carried out in situ. The second dose of 125 g / plant should be applied 8 to 9 months after planting. For the second and subsequent crops of bud-wood from the nursery, apply 125 g of 10-10-4-1.5 NPKMg mixture per plant in one single dose 2 to 3 months after cutting back.
  75. 75. Quantity and the schedule of fertilizer application during the first four years Year of planting Month after planting Time of application Dose of mixture per plant (g) Quantity of mixture per ha with 440-450 plant points (kg) 10-10-4-1.5 (NPKMg) 12-12-6 (NPK) 10-10-4-1.5 (NPKMg) 12-12-6 (NPK) 1st year 3 Sep - Oct 225 190 100 85 2nd year 9 Apr - May 450 380 200 170 2nd year 15 Sept - Oct 450 380 200 170 3rdyear 21 Apr - May 550 480 250 215 3rdyear 27 Sept - Oct 550 480 250 215 4thyear 33 Apr - May 450 380 200 170 4thyear 39 Sep - Oct 450 380 200 170
  76. 76. Mature rubber under tapping The general recommendation 30:30:30 NPK kg / ha • Method of application • Circular band of about 30 cm around the base of the young plant, leaving about seven cm from the base. • The plant bases should then be immediately mulched. • The second round of fertilizer application, when the plants are 9 months old
  77. 77. • During the initial years area is not fully occupied and inter spaces are available in the plantation which receive plenty of sunlight. • These interspaces can be utilized for growing intercrops. • Pineapple, ginger, banana, turmeric, medicinal crops. • Shade tolerant perennial crops viz., coffee, vanilla on Glyricidea standards, Garcinea and cocoa can be cultivated along with rubber. INTERCROPPING
  78. 78. Cover crops • To prevent soil erosion, to lower the soil temperature. • Ideal cover crop should be perennial, easy to establish. • Good coverage of soil able to withstand slashing, drought, pest and disease, unpalatable to cattle. • High nitrogen fixation.
  79. 79. • Puerearia phaseoloides, Calapogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium, Mimosa invisa var inermis, Centrosema pubescence, Clotolaria sp., Leucania glauca, Mucuna bractiata are sown at 3 – 5 kg / ha. • Mixture of these cover crops Calapogonium mucunoides, Puerearia phaseoloides and Mimosa invisa var inermis 5:4:1 is advantageous. • Cover crops are having seed coat dormancy hence hot water treatments or acid scarification are best.
  80. 80. Mulching • In beginning and also for matured plantation during Nov-Dec onwards when dry spell starts • Grasses, dried leaves, slashes has to be covered at ban around 1m diameter at 1cm thickness • Conservation of moisture, weed growth decreases, extraction of bact popu, protecting soil from heating, conserve soil, it adds organic matter to soil
  81. 81. Irrigation • Grown mainly as rainfed crop • Polyembryonic seedlings are found better for drought condition • In 1st two years of planting irrigation is provided at 10-15 days interval in summer and during tapping period • For adult : 40-50 litres/ plant
  82. 82. Protection of young rubber plants from strong sun Young rubber plants in the field and nurseries are highly susceptible to scorching resulting from exposure to strong sun. The incidence is more on southern and southwestern aspects. Mulching and shading help prevent sun scorch in nurseries. In the field too, mulching and provision of bamboo or plaited coconut leaf tree guards afford same protection in this regard.
  83. 83. From the second year onwards, young plants in the field may be protected by whitewashing brown portions of the main stem. This is done by the beginning of the dry weather, that is during November – December. For white washing, fresh lime is superior even though china clay can also be used
  84. 84. • Tapping is a process of controlled wounding during which thin shavings of bark are removed. • Latex is obtained from the bark of the rubber tree by tapping. • The aim of tapping is to cut open the latex vessels in the case of trees tapped for the first time or to remove the coagulum which blocks the cut ends of the latex vessels in the case of trees under regular tapping. • Budded plants : Tappable when they attain a girth of 50 cm at a height of 125 cm from the bud union with 30º slope. • In seedlings: The first opening for tapping is recommended at a height of 50 cm when the girth is 55 cm with 25º slope. Harvesting / Tapping
  85. 85. • Tapping season: new tapping – March-April • Tapping should be done early in the morning as late tapping may cause decrease in flow of latex. In early morning, turgor pressure is very high and rapid flow of latex occurs. • Budded bark is more soften and thin compared to seedling. • Latex vessels in the bark run at 3 - 5º to he right and therefore a cut from high left to low right will open greater number of latex vessels. • Tapping depth : 1 mm close to cambium, since most latex vessels are concentrated near cambium. • Bark consumption- it depends on skill of tapper. To get optimum yield it is preferable to consume 20-23 cm of bark annually under S2d2 system without any break. • Tapping task: (number of trees tapped on a day by a tapper) in India is about 300 trees compared to 400-500 trees in other countries. • Shallow tapping decreases the yield.
  86. 86. Collection of latex • The latex that flows from the rubber trees on tapping is channeled in to a container, generally coconut shell cups attached to them. • Latex transferred to clean buckets – 2 to 3 hours after tapping Latex coagulum rubber / Field coagulum includes; Normally 15 to 25 per cent of total crop constitutes tree lace ,shell scrap and earth scrap which together is called as field coagulum rubber. 1) Tree lace: The latex which gets dried up on the tapping panel. 2) Shell scrap: The latex which dried up in the collection cups. 3) Earth scrap: The latex that is split and/ or overflowed on the ground (earth scrap) which gets dried up. It is also collected once in a month or so.
  87. 87. Tapping of panel and collection of latex
  88. 88. TYPES OF TAPPING KNIVES Michie Golledge: Popular in India and used for upward tapping Tapping with Michie- Golledge
  89. 89. TYPES OF TAPPING KNIVES Jebong knife - Commonly used in Malaysia More suitable for speedy and easier tapping but with a slightly higher bark consumption Tapping with Jebong knife
  90. 90. Rubber Needle Tapping is special tool for slitting rubber tree to get the latex, what make from alloy steel blade and wooden handle which is sharp and durable. Suitable for South - East Asian countries Rubber Needle Tapping is manufacturer with imported materials, advanced processing technology, anti- rush, un-chipping, un-pasting and high output. Rubber Needle Tapping
  91. 91. Modern rubber tapping instrument
  92. 92. RAIN GUARDING • Any suitable device fixed above the tapping panel to keep the panel, tapping cut and collection cup dry during rainy season is termed rain guards. Three types of rain guard • Polythene skirt • Tapping shade • Guardian rain guard
  93. 93. Skirting
  94. 94. YIELD South India:  Annual yield – Seedling : 375 kg / ha  Budded plantations : 900-1000 kg/ ha
  95. 95. TAPPING SYSTEMS Tapping system Method Intensity S2d2 Half spiral , tapping alternate days for 6 months and rest for 3 months. For budded plants 100 % S2d3 Half spiral, tapping at every 3 day for 6 months and rest for 3 months. Used for clonal seedling 67 % S2d1 Half spiral, daily tapping. Used by small growers. Favours brown blast incidence 200 %
  96. 96. 1. Mini and reduced spiral tapping cuts 2. Intensive tapping 3. High level tapping/ Ladder tapping 4. Controlled upward tapping 5. Puncture tapping/micro tapping 6. Slaughter tapping Types of tapping in Rubber 1. Mini and reduced spiral tapping cuts: Short tapping cuts(mini cuts of 5 cm or reduced spirral cuts of 10 cm) are less injurious of even semiskilled workers can be employed for tapping. Size of tapping task is 500 trees/day.
  97. 97. 2. INTENSIVE TAPPING Intensive tapping - old rubber trees for a few years prior to their removal The methods employed are Increased tapping frequency Extension of tapping cut Opening of double cuts Use of yield stimulants
  98. 98. Intensive tapping Intensive tapping in Malaysia
  99. 99. 3. HIGH LEVEL TAPPING/Ladder tapping When tapping of renewed bark on basal panels becomes uneconomic, new cuts are opened at higher levels, 180 cm from bud union or even higher The tapper uses a small ladder to reach the cut
  100. 100. 4. CONTROLLED UPWARD TAPPING  Controlled upward tapping (CUT) is practiced for longer exploitation of the virgin bark above basal panel  In CUT, instead of using ladder, a long handled modified gouge knife is used for upward tapping from ground  The tapping cut can be 1/4 spiral and its angle 45°. Length of handle used for tapping is 120 cm for tapping up to 40 cm height of high panel and 180 cm for tapping beyond that height Intensive tapping with stimulation
  101. 101. 5. Puncture tapped tree This is an incision method , making punctures with a small needle on a vertical band of a stimulated bark (60 x 1.5 cm) below tapping height.
  102. 102. The term slaughter tapping is used to indicate all out bleeding of rubber tree to obtain maximum yield without regard to health or longevity of trees. It is done one or two years before replanting or replacing crop. In old trees tapping is done by giving two or more half spiral cuts simultaneously i.e., 1. one at the base level and other at 2. at least 120 –180 cm higher level on the opposite side. Slaughter tapping is sometimes practiced even on branches with the help of ladders. Here length, height and frequency of tapping are all increased 6. Slaughter tapping in rubber
  103. 103. • Latex can be processed into products like : 1.Sheet rubber ADS (air dried sheets) - RSS (ribbed smoked sheets) 2. Crepe rubber 3. Preserved field latex and latex concentrate 4. Block rubber 5.Technically specified natural rubber (TSR) - Standard rubber 6. Rubber powder Processing of rubber
  104. 104. 1.Dry ribbed sheet rubber: Anti-coagulants (solutions of ammonia, formalin or sodium sulphite) are added to the cups to prevent the coagulation of latex before it reaches the factory. The latex so collected is bulked and then strained to remove the impurities. It is then diluted to a standard consistency of 12-15 % rubber. Special hydrometers like metrolac, latex meter are employed to measure the percentage of rubber. After dilution, the latex is strained through a 60 mesh screen for the second time. Then it is poured in to the special coagulating tanks or aluminium pans which is divided in to many compartments by thin aluminium sheets and acetic acid or formic acid is used for coagulation.
  105. 105. After coagulation , rubber sheets are repeatedly washed several times with changes of water and passed through hand or power operated rollers. In the roller excess water and dissolved impurities are pressed and squeezed out The surface of the rollers may be either smooth or grooved or zigzag or straight or diamond pattern, its impression is normally left on the surface of the sheets when they come out of the press These sheets are hung in shade for two to three hours for dripping in a dust free place. They are then taken to smoke houses for thorough drying smoking of rubber sheets is done to dry the sheets properly and to avoid formation of blisters. In the smoke house, the sheets are smoked at a low temperature of 48-50oC with fairly high humidity during the first day subsequently during 2nd to 4th day the temperature being 68oC with low relative humidity. They are taken out, graded and packed. Such products are known as smoked sheets or dry ribbed sheet rubber.
  106. 106. 2.CREPE RUBBER • Pale crepe rubber is among the highest quality crepes • Achieved with (NaHSO3) • The clean coagulum is washed and milled • This produces sheets between 1.2 and 1.5 mm thick and 24 cm wide • The sheets are dried in drying rooms for 2.5 to 4 days at 37°C or air-dried for 5 to 10 days on drying floors • Excessive temperatures lead to discoloured patches • The sheets are packed as bales and marketed as "thin pale crepe".
  107. 107. Dry crepe rubber : When coagulum from latex or any form of field coagulum after necessary preliminary treatments is passed through a set of creping machine to get crinkly, lace like rubber called crepe rubber after drying. Various grades of crepe rubbers are EPC Super1X, EPC1X, EPC2X and EPC3X
  108. 108. RSS - Ribbed smoked sheets
  109. 109. 3. Preserved latex concentrates The latex is collected in the storage tank, from there it is brought to a centrifuge machine, rotating at 440rpm. Due to centrifugal action, liquid portion comes out. The upper layer, the concentrated latex is collected and brought to bulking tank and mixed with chemical and packed in drums. 60 % rubber present in it. Skim latex is taken to another tank and sulphuric acid is added and coagulated and milled to get skim crepe. It is of poor quality while the concentrated latex fetches very higher price.
  110. 110. 5. Technically specified natural rubber (TSR) - Standard rubber Different methods involved (Hevea crumb or Dynat processes) In the Hevea crumb process,  Rubber coagulum is passed through creping rolls  Set at friction speed and the shear forces involved tear the coagulum into small pieces.  This process is described as crumbling.
  111. 111. Dynat process • Latex coagulated naturally in the collecting cups (cup lumps), rubber sheets or latex coagulated by adding acid. • Then the rubber is granulated by means of a rotary knife cutter. • The crumb is washed and dried at elevated temperature up to 140ºC. • Compressed into blocks of about 33 1/3 kg. • Wrapped in synthetic plastic sheeting (high-quality polyethylene bags) • Packaged in wooden orsteeschests
  112. 112. 6. RUBBER POWDER • Reduce transportation costs, the latex can be converted to a fine rubber powder instead of transporting it in the form of latex concentrates. • This is done by atomizing the latex and drying it with hot air. • This form of rubber can be kept for long periods and is particularly resilient.
  113. 113. Rubber powder
  114. 114. GRADING OF RUBBER PRODUCTS CREPE RUBBER: • Estate brown crepe • Thin brown crepe (remills) • Thick blanket crepe (ambers) • Flat bark crepe • Smoked blanket crepe
  115. 115. Technically Specified Natural rubber (tsr) - Standard rubber • Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR) • Standard Indonesian Rubber (SIR) • Standard Sri Lanka Rubber (SSR) • Standard Vietnam Rubber (SVR) • Indian Standard Natural Rubber (ISNR) • Standard Thai Rubber (STR)
  116. 116. PACKAGING OF RUBBER PRODUCTS • Pale crepe rubber is either packed in a double-layered bag (plastic sheeting inside, paper outside) or the bales are wrapped in plastic sheeting and packed in wooden cart.
  117. 117. SHEET RUBBER • Rubber sheets are folded to form bales (e.g. 60 cm x 60 cm and 100 - 113 kg per bale) compressed and wrapped in protective sheets • A protective coating and talcum are applied to the surface to protect against oxidation • To prevent the sheets from sticking to each other
  118. 118. MARKETING • Rubber Board to promote and facilitate production, processing and marketing of natural rubber. • The Board undertakes stringent measures to ensure that the products marketed under the brand conform to the specified quality standards.
  119. 119. STORAGE • Recommended storage duration for natural rubber 5-7 years • Recommended storage temperature for natural rubber 15 - 30 °C • Storage of latex concentrates : 6 - 12 months Temperature range : 5 - 35°C
  120. 120. Physioligical disorder Tapping Panel Dryness • Generally high yielding clones of natural rubber are susceptible to the physiological disorder commonly termed Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) earlier referred to as Brown Blast. • It occurs when the harvesting of latex from the trees exceeds the physiological capacity of its regeneration. It is estimated that TPD leads to approximately 15-20% decrease in yield.
  121. 121. Symptoms • Excessive late dripping of latex simultaneous with a drop in the dry rubber content of the latex in the initial phase and high DRC in the later stage. • Total inhibition of rubber biosynthesis occurs and no latex is produced towards the final phase.
  122. 122.  Partial or total drying of tapping panel which gives the name to the disorder.  Besides cessation of latex flow, terminal symptoms like bulging, necrosis and cracking of the bark have been observed.  Some clone specific TPD symptoms characterised by sloughing in PB 28/59 and scaling observed in clone RRIM 605 are also noticed.  The symptoms are observed also on the root stock and root.  In most of the partially affected trees, dry portion is confined only to the roots below the dry portion in the scion.
  123. 123. Management practice to TPD • Giving tapping rest and changing the tapping panel. • Tapping rest does result in some improvement in the TPD situation at least for a while and a small proportion of the TPD trees may make full recovery particularly when the trees are reopened on a new panel.
  124. 124. • It is advantageous to follow 1/2 S d/3 tapping system to reduce the intensity of exploitation stress thereby reducing the TPD incidence in the population. • Tapping can be resumed changing the tapping panel and following a low intensity tapping system.
  125. 125. YIELD STIMULATION • Certain chemicals induce ethylene formation in the plant tissue while others generate ethylene directly by decomposition. eg., Ethephon • Under low frequency tapping systems, trees are stimulated from first year of tapping using ethephon (2.5%) by panel application • Ethephon is also recommended for trees tapped under d/2 frequency (Panel C) and trees tapped in Panel D for short-term increase in production
  126. 126. Concentration : Market available ethephon usually contain 10% active ingredient It is diluted with palm oil, petroleum jelly, coconut oil or even with water to 5% Different methods of application are : Bark application Panel application Groove application Ethephon is applied with a brush below the tapping cut to a width of 5 cm after scraping of the outer bark
  127. 127. TLC/LTC- timber latex clones/Latex timber clones in rubber Several fast growing rubber clones producing more timber biomass besides yielding appreciable amount of latex are called as clones/Latex timber clones
  128. 128. Abnormal leaf fall (Phytopthora meadii)
  129. 129. Bark rot (Phytophthora spp.)
  130. 130. Pink disease (Corticium salmonicolor)
  131. 131. Ashy coating noticed on tender leaves Management : Dusting 3-6 rounds at 0-15 days interval using 11-14kg of 325 mesh fine sulphur dust per round per hectare Powdery mildew (Oidium heveae)
  132. 132. Mealy bug
  133. 133.  Severly affected portion dry up and die. Management : Spray malathion at 0.2% concentration. Scale insect (Saissetia nigra)

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Tread – truck radial as well as bias tyres