After Independence, the main aim of the
government was to create a welfare state
and fulfill the basic needs of the people.
Planning Commission was set up in 1950 to
prioritize areas of development and optimize
utilization of resources.
1st FYP came into effect from 1951.
National Extension System came into being in
It is the systematic, planned and
nation wide extension effort.
It was based on the experiences of the
early extension efforts (pre
In the last seven decades, the National
Extension System has passed through
several phases depending upon the
developmental challenges and
Launched in 1954.
To strengthen and consolidate the gains made under
CDP and NES.
People participation was appreciated.
Aim: to facilitate their further development by giving
additional monetary and human resources.
Unique feature: Creation of Block Administrative
team (BAT) (Basic unit of development).
BAT comprised of block development officers,
extension officers, village level workers.
Heads of BAT- BDO.
The job of BDO- to coordinate the implementation of
development activities in the block and educating the
village leaders and staff members.
Govt personnel in India have not only
assumed major responsibility for determining
what the needs of villagers were.
Village leaders had difficulty in mobilizing
their people to undertake projects.
Absence of understanding the basic purpose
of generating local group dynamic.
Social Education Organizers: No clear cut
concept of their roles.
Little or no people participation.
Lack of democratic leadership.
Balvantray Mehta Committee 1957.
Panchayati raj emerged as a system for
Rajasthan was first state to adopt the three
tier structure of Panchayati raj.
The world “democracy” is derived from the
greet roots – ‘Kratos‘ meaning ‘Authority’ and
‘demos’ meaning ‘the people.
It is governance of the people, by the people,
for the people.
Decentralization’ means distribution of functions
and power from a central authority to regional
and local authority.
DD means : Govt which has derived its authority
from the people, redistributes it to some extent
to the people, for decision and action at the
local level. This is known as Panchayati raj.
Political will of the Govt in sharing authority
and responsibility with the Panchayats.
Enactment of laws relating to PRIs.
Holding Panchayat elections at regular
Involvement of the people at the grassroot
level through the Panchayat in planning and
Holding regular training programme.
Provision of adequate funds and facilities.
Act was applicable in all states and Union
Panchayat shall be constituted in every state
at the village, intermediate and state level.
Panchayats at the intermediate level may not
be constituted in a state having a population
not exceeding 20lakh.
All the seats in a Panchayats shall be filled
by direct election.
Phase of ascendency (1959-64)
Phase of stagnation (1965-69).
Phase of decline (1969-77)
Last two phases mainly due to:
Reducing the allocation of fund.
Lack of adjustment of the bureaucratic
administration with PRIs.
Lack of political will.
Lack of conceptual clarity.
Postponement of elections and supersession.
The study team recommended a basic pattern of
democratic decentralization with the
Gram panchayat (Village Council) at the village
the Panchayat Samiti at the block level and
the Zilla Parishad (district council) at the district
The Gram panchayat is at the bottom of the
Panchayat Raj System and the Zilla Parishad is at the
The Panchayat Samiti constitutes the middle tier of
this three-tier new set up of rural administration.
It is basic, first formal democratic institution at the village level.
The chairperson of this unit is called as Sarpanch.
It is primary unit of local self-government.
Gram panchayat is a cabinet of the village elders, directly
elected by the adult citizens of the village. There are 8 to 10
ward punches, two or three coopted members, who constitute
the body of Gram Panchayat; they are consists of 8 to 10
The members of the Gram Panchayats have tenure of five years
and are directly elected from wards while the Sarpanch is
elected by the members.
There is provision for reservation of seats for women and for
scheduled casts and scheduled tribes.
There is Gram Sabha for each panchayat and the Sarpanch is
required to conduct Gram Sabha meetings at least once in six
To convene and preside over the meetings of the
To conduct and regulate and be responsible for the
proper maintenance of the records of the
proceedings of the meetings.
To be responsible for the proper working of the Gram
panchayat as required by or under the Act.
To have authority to enter into correspondence on
behalf of Gram panchayat.
To order preparation of all statements and reports.
To bring to the notice of the Sarpanch the
irregularities if any, noticed during such inspection.
Functions of Gram Panchayat:
There are number of functions perform by
Gram Panchayats. These functions are
divided into two categories, namely, the
obligatory functions and the options
Construction, repairs, maintenance, alteration and extension of
village roads, provisions of lights on the roads and other places of
public resort and removal of encroachments and obstructions on
the roads and other public places.
Supply of drinking water to the villages.
Adoption of preventive measures against epidemics and other
dangerous diseases, prevention of obnoxious and dangerous
trade, registration of births and deaths and the preparation of
the necessary records for the purpose.
Preparation of census records of men and animals, maintenance
of relevant records and submission of periodic records and
Spread of primary education and its management.
Control of Markets, ferries, fairs, Ghats and other public places.
Adoption and encouragement of improved methods of
Development and maintenance of village forests.
Development of the livestock.
Construction, management and control of slaughter houses.
Reclamation of cultivable wastes and follows land.
Organization and management of multi-purpose co-operative societies.
Famine relief measures.
Establishment and maintenance of village libraries.
Marketing of agricultural produce
Organization of the Fire services and protection of life and property in
case of fire.
Maternity and child welfare and establishment of centers of the purpose.
Organization, management and promotion of cottage industries.
Organization and maintenance of industrial and agricultural exhibitions.
Construction and maintenance of Dharmasalas and Rest houses.
Provision of adult education, establishment of primary schools with the
prior approval of the panchayat samiti.
Prevention of gambling and implementation of prohibition.
To keep the records about the unemployed persons.
This is the next tier of administration at the Block level.
Local M.L.A. and M.L.C.
One person nominated by District Collector.
2. One from scheduled castes.
3. One form scheduled tribes.
The president and vice-president of the samiti are elected
form among the village panchayat presidents.
Block Development Officer appointed by the Government
is the chief executive of the samiti and function as the
leader of the team of block level officials.
The President and members of the Panchayat Samiti have
to endeavour to instill among the people within their
jurisdiction a spirit of self-help and initiative and harness
their enthusiasm for raising the standard of living.
They have to enlist the whole-hearted support of the
people for the implementation of the Development
Programmes, not only of those which relate to the
community for which Government assistance is
forthcoming but much more so of those which relate to
individuals and which as mainly based on self-help.
In particular all the activities of Community Development
Programme are taken over by Panchayat Samiti. The
activities concerning the rural welfare and development in
the field of agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Health and
Sanitation, Elementary Education, cottage industries,
social welfare etc. which were being carried on by the
normal Development Departments are now entrusted to
the Panchayat Samiti.
7. The powers of the various authorities to
accord administrative and financial sanction
in respect of the works and schemes of
Panchayat Samiti are embodied in the rules
issued by Government.
9. The loan funds available with some of
normal development departments such as
Agriculture, Animal Husbandary, and
Industries etc. are also made over to
Panchayat Samiti to be similarly spent and
This is the third tier of Panchayat Raj operating at the district
level. It consists of:
M.L.A.s of the District
M.P.s of the District
Two women representatives.
One representative of Scheduled Casts.
One representative of scheduled Tribes.
Two persons interested in rural development.
The members of the Parishad elect a chairman and a vice-
The District heads of development departments take part in the
proceedings of the parishad and its standing committees.
There will be a secretary appointed by the Government, who
attends all meetings of the Parishad and its standing
Zilla Parishad should function as advisory body over the
Panchayat Samiti with powers to a) approve their budgets b) co-
ordinate their plans and c) distribute funds given by the
Government among the blocks.
It has to prepare plans for all items of developmental activities in
the district including Municipal areas.
It has to secure execution of plans etc. which are common to two
or more blocks.
Secondary education is the responsibility of Zilla Parishad.
The parishad should perform such of the powers and functions of
the District Board as are transferred to it by the Government.
It should advise the Government in all matters relating to rural
development in the district.
It should discuss and review at it’s ordinary meetings the progress
made or the results achieved under-various items. Similarly the
District Officer of every Development Department furnishes to
the Parishad a brief note on the achievements in the schemes of
his department. Such notes will be periodically reviewed by the