2. George Herbert Mead, a sociologist
from the late 1800s, is well known
for his theory of the social self,
which includes the concepts of
'self,' 'me,' and 'I.'
Mead's work focuses on
the way in which the self
3. Mead's theory of the social self is based on the
perspective that the self emerges from social
interactions, such as:
• observing and interacting with others
• responding to others' opinions about oneself
• and internalizing external opinions and internal
feelings about oneself
The social aspect of self is an important distinction
because other sociologists and psychologists felt
that the self was based on biological factors and
According to Mead, the self is not there from birth,
but it is developed over time from social
experiences and activities.
4. According to Mead, three activities develop the self:
language, play, and games.
Language develops self by allowing individuals to
respond to each other through symbols, gestures,
words, and sounds.
Play develops self by allowing individuals to take on
different roles, pretend, and express expectation of
others. Play develops one's self-consciousness through
Games develop self by allowing individuals to understand and
adhere to the rules of the activity. Self is developed by
understanding that there are rules in which one must abide by
in order to win the game or be successful at an activity.
5. According to Mead's theory, the self has two sides
or phases: 'me' and 'I.'
The 'me' is considered the socialized aspect of the
individual. The 'me' represents learned behaviors,
attitudes, and expectations of others and of society.
The 'I', therefore, can be considered the present and
future phase of the self. The 'I' represents the individual's
identity based on response to the 'me.'
The 'me' and the 'I' have a didactic
6. Humans learn the expectations of
society through socialization.
Socialization is different based on
race, gender and class.
9. The average young person (age 8–19) spends 6 3/4
hours per day immersed in media in various forms,
often using multiple media forms simultaneously.
Television is the dominant medium,
although half of all youth use a computer
10. For children, peer culture is an important source of
Through interaction with peers, children
learn concepts of self, gain social skills, and
form values and attitudes.
11. Children tend to develop the same religious beliefs
as their parents.
Very often those who disavow religion return to
their original faith at some point in their life,
especially if they have strong ties to their family of
origin and after they form families of their own.
12. Through sports, men and women learn concepts of
Men learn that being competitive in sports is
considered a part of “manhood.”
13. In school, teachers and other students are the
source of expectations that encourage children to
think and behave in particular ways.
Research finds that teachers respond differently to
boys than to girls, with boys receiving more of their
Hinweis der Redaktion
Structural Model (id, ego, superego)
According to Freud, we are born with our Id. The id is an important part of our personality because as newborns, it allows us to get our basic needs met. Freud believed that the id is based on our pleasure principle. In other words, the id wants whatever feels good at the time, with no consideration for the reality of the situation. When a child is hungry, the id wants food, and therefore the child cries. When the child needs to be changed, the id cries. When the child is uncomfortable, in pain, too hot, too cold, or just wants attention, the id speaks up until his or her needs are met.
equilibrium-equal balance between any powers, influences, etc.; equality of effect.
mental or emotional balance;