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The Circulatory SystemThe Circulatory System
(complete Info. Ppt)(complete Info. Ppt)
By- Dr. Armaan singhBy- Dr. Armaan s...
Interesting Facts
 The heart beat is strong enough to squirt blood 30 feet
 The longer a boy’s ring finger is, the less ...
Interesting Facts
The blue whale has the largest heart – it
weighs ~ one ton
The hummingbird has a heart that beats
1000...
Cardiovascular System
 Heart, vessels, blood
 Function: transport gases,
nutrients, wastes, hormones
The Heart
 Size of a fist; less than a pound
 In thorax; flanked by lungs; rests on
diaphram
 Top: base
 Bottom: apex
Pericardium
 Double-layered sac covering
the heart
 Outer layer anchors heart in
chest
 Inner layer (epicardium)
attach...
Pericarditis
Decrease in fluid
causes layers to
cling & rub against
each other resulting
in pain & decreased
efficiency of...
Pericardial Tamponade
 Bleeding into pericardial space
after chest trauma
 Excess blood restricts
expansion of heart dur...
Heart Wall
3 layers:
 Epicardium: outer wall joined with pericardium
 Myocardium: the actual cardiac muscle that contrac...
Heart Chambers
Four chambers:
 2 atria: top of heart –
receive blood from veins
 2 ventricles: bottom of
heart – pump bl...
Heart Chambers
 Septum: divides left from
right heart
 Valves: keep blood flowing
in one direction
 Four valves:
 2 AV...
Atrioventricular
Valves
AV valves: between atria
and ventricles
Bicuspid (mitral) valve:
on the left
Tricuspid valve: on...
Semilunar Valves
 Located in arteries leaving
ventricles
 Pulmonic valve: at base of
pulmonary artery
 Aortic valve: at...
Blood Vessels
 Arteries: carry blood
away from the heart
 Veins: carry blood to
the heart
 Capillaries: connect
arterie...
Arteries
 Carry blood at high pressure
 Very thick, stretchy walls that expand
in size
 Most carry oxygenated blood (re...
Arteries
 Aorta: largest vessel
(diameter of a garden hose) –
receives blood from left
ventricle
 Arteriole: smaller ves...
Veins
 Carry blood at low pressure
 Have valves to prevent backflow
of blood against gravity
 Most carry de-oxygenated ...
Veins
 Vena Cava: dump all blood from the
body into the right atria
 superior vena cava: receives blood
from upper body
...
Capillaries
Connect arteries and veins
Walls are one cell thick
Allow exchange of gases through thin walls
Drop off ox...
How Blood Travels thru Vessels
heart artery arteriole capillary venule vein
heart
Atherosclerosis
Narrowing of
vessel lumen
due to
plaque/fat
formation on
inside of walls
Causes: diet
high in fat,
chole...
Coronary
Artery Disease
 When Atherosclerosis affects the arteries that supply the heart muscle
 Symptoms: short of brea...
How is CAD
treated?
 Medication
 Angioplasty (balloon surgery)
– balloon is inserted and
inflated in blocked vessel to
c...
How is CAD Treated?
Stent – wire mesh inserted into the artery to
expand its lumen
Coronary Artery Bypass – arteries are...
Vessel Disorders
Varicose Veins:
twisted, dilated veins
resulting from pooling of
blood due to long periods
of standing, o...
Vessel Disorders
Thrombophlebitis:
inflammation of a vessel due
to clot formation & poor
circulation. Clot can become
an e...
Aneurysm
 Weaking in the wall of a vessel, causing it to balloon outwards.
 Rupture of the site causes
 Stroke (if in t...
Cardiac
Circulation
 Coronary arteries exit the aorta & supply oxygen/blood to heart muscle
(myocardium)
 Coronary veins...
Defects in
Coronary
Circulation
Angina Pectoris: impaired circulation to
myocardium causes oxygen deprivation & pain
Myo...
Pulmonary Circulation
 Right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood through pulmonary
artery to the lungs
 The blood picks u...
Systemic
CirculationOxygenated
blood is pumped
from left
ventricle thru
aorta to the
body
Blood dumps
oxygen into
tissue...
The Circulation
Play the Game
Number the parts 1 – 17 (just write the correct order on a piece of
paper). Pass your paper to a classmate w...
Congestive Heart Failure
 Heart is ‘worn out’ from hypertension, multiple MI, atherosclerosis, or
age
 Heart pumps too w...
Congestive Heart Failure
 Left ventricle is failing:
 Pulmonary congestion
 Pulmonary edema (blood in lungs)
causes suf...
Pulmonary
Edema
Pulmonary
edema (A);
normal lung
(B)
Peripheral Edema
Swelling of feet and ankles due to CHF
Conduction System of the Heart
Heart is under two types of control:
 Autonomic Nervous system
 Sympathetic: speeds up co...
Intrinsic Conduction
System
 Nodes are heart tissue that
stimulate heart muscle to
depolarize (contract)
 Depolarization...
Nodes (you need to know
these)
SA node fires, atria
contract (depolarize)
Impulse travels to AV
node, then travels
thru bundle of His,
bundle branches,...
Parts of the
Conduction
System
SA node:
 “The Heart’s Pacemaker”
 In atria
 Normally sets the pace of 60 – 70
 SA can ...
AV Node:
 Between atria &
ventricles
 Special tissues transmit signal from SA to AV node
 Intrinsic rate: 40 - 60
Parts of the
Conduction
System
Bundle of His:
 Transmits impulse to
ventricles
 Rate: 30 – 40 beats/min
Bundle Branches:...
What if Damage Occurs?
 If SA node is damaged or its signal is blocked, the AV
node takes over setting the pace (40-60/mi...
What is a Pacemaker?
If heart is unable to generate
impulse, or pace is too slow,
mechanical pacemaker is
surgically impla...
Electrocardiogra
m (ECG/EKG)
 Electrical impulses in heart
are measured with ECG
 Electrical activity is
translated into...
Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)
 P Wave: atria depolarize
 QRS complex: ventricles
depolarize
 T wave: repolarization
Abnormalities in
ECG
 Heart Monitor hooked up with pads on chest
 Abnormalities in ECG used to diagnose heart damage
 D...
Irregular Heart Rhythms
 Tachycardia: heart is beating too fast
 Bradycardia: heart is beating too slow
 Heart Block: n...
Comparing Rates
 Normal Sinus Rhythm
 Sinus Bradycardia
 Sinus Tachycardia
 Elevated ST segment (sign of a MI)
 Ventricular Tachycardia
 Heart Block
 PVC (premature ventricular fibrillation)
 Ventricular Fibrillation
 Asystole
Cardiac Cycle
Cardiac Cycle: The events
within one heartbeat. Three
main stages:
Mid-to-late diastole: SL
valves are clos...
Heart Sounds
 Cardiac cycle heard with a stethoscope
 Two sounds: “lub dup” (pause) “lub dup” (pause) …..
 Lub = closin...
Valve Disorders
 Leaky Valves: caused by
incompetent or deformed
valves that force the heart to
re-pump blood because of
...
Stenosis
Valves are stiff and do not open completely. Heart has to pump harderMurmur: stenosis
Mitral Valve Prolapse
 The most common
valve disorder
(5-10% of people)
 Mitral valve opens
(prolapses) into atrium
when...
Cardiac Output
 Cardiac Output: the amount of blood pumped by each
side of the heart per minute
 Cardiac output = heart ...
What is the cardiac output if….
HR = 75 bpm; SV = 70 ml/beat?
This is the normal cardiac output for a resting adult.
How i...
What affects Stroke Volume?
(you don’t have to write this down)
Increase in Stroke volume:
 Increased venous blood return...
What affects Heart Rate?
(you don’t have to write this either)
Increase:
 Decline in SV (heart
compensates by hr)
 Babie...
Taken to assess overall health status
 Arterial pulse
 Blood Pressure
 Respiratory Rate
 Temperature
Arterial Pulse
 Alternating expansion and recoil
of arteries with each heart beat
 Measured in beats per minute
 Normal...
Pulse Points
Can also be used as
pressure points to stop
bleeding
Blood Pressure
Pressure of the blood against artery walls
Measured as systolic/diastolic (ex. 120/80)
Systolic: pressur...
What Determines
the BP?
 Cardiac Output (blood pumped per min)
 Peripheral Resistance
 friction inside vessel that hamp...
What affects BP
Increases BP:
 Atherosclerosis
 Thick blood
 Drugs/nicotine
 Obesity
Decreases BP:
 Shock/blood loss
...
Problems with BP
 Hypotension (low BP):
 Systolic < 90mm/Hg
 Cause: MI; warning sign of shock; athletes
 Hypertension ...
The circulatory system complete Info ppt
The circulatory system complete Info ppt
The circulatory system complete Info ppt
The circulatory system complete Info ppt
The circulatory system complete Info ppt
The circulatory system complete Info ppt
The circulatory system complete Info ppt
The circulatory system complete Info ppt
The circulatory system complete Info ppt
The circulatory system complete Info ppt
The circulatory system complete Info ppt
The circulatory system complete Info ppt
The circulatory system complete Info ppt
The circulatory system complete Info ppt
The circulatory system complete Info ppt
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The Circulatory System

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The circulatory system complete Info ppt

  1. 1. The Circulatory SystemThe Circulatory System (complete Info. Ppt)(complete Info. Ppt) By- Dr. Armaan singhBy- Dr. Armaan singh
  2. 2. Interesting Facts  The heart beat is strong enough to squirt blood 30 feet  The longer a boy’s ring finger is, the less likely they are to have a heart attack (according to one study)  The human heart beats ~35 million times per year  The heart pumps ~1,000,000 barrels of blood in a lifetime  Most heart attacks occur between 8-9 a.m.
  3. 3. Interesting Facts The blue whale has the largest heart – it weighs ~ one ton The hummingbird has a heart that beats 1000 times per minute Your entire volume of blood goes through your entire body once every minute Humans have ~60,000 miles of blood vessels in their bodies (more than twice the circumference of the earth!) Your heart beats 100,000 times and pumps ~2000 gallons of blood every day Pig and baboon hearts have been transplanted into humans
  4. 4. Cardiovascular System  Heart, vessels, blood  Function: transport gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones
  5. 5. The Heart  Size of a fist; less than a pound  In thorax; flanked by lungs; rests on diaphram  Top: base  Bottom: apex
  6. 6. Pericardium  Double-layered sac covering the heart  Outer layer anchors heart in chest  Inner layer (epicardium) attached to heart wall  Lubricating fluid in pericardial space (between layers) reduces friction
  7. 7. Pericarditis Decrease in fluid causes layers to cling & rub against each other resulting in pain & decreased efficiency of heart
  8. 8. Pericardial Tamponade  Bleeding into pericardial space after chest trauma  Excess blood restricts expansion of heart during pumping  Causes shock or death if not corrected
  9. 9. Heart Wall 3 layers:  Epicardium: outer wall joined with pericardium  Myocardium: the actual cardiac muscle that contracts  Endocardium: lines heart chambers & vessels
  10. 10. Heart Chambers Four chambers:  2 atria: top of heart – receive blood from veins  2 ventricles: bottom of heart – pump blood through arteries
  11. 11. Heart Chambers  Septum: divides left from right heart  Valves: keep blood flowing in one direction  Four valves:  2 AV valves,  2 semilunar valves Heart sounds (Lupp- dupp) from valves closing
  12. 12. Atrioventricular Valves AV valves: between atria and ventricles Bicuspid (mitral) valve: on the left Tricuspid valve: on the right When valves are open blood drains from atria into ventricle When ventricle contract, valve flaps are forced shut, blocking blood from reentering
  13. 13. Semilunar Valves  Located in arteries leaving ventricles  Pulmonic valve: at base of pulmonary artery  Aortic valve: at base of aorta  When ventricles contract, valves are forced open & let blood flow  When ventricle relaxes, backflow of blood fills flaps of valve & forces them to shut
  14. 14. Blood Vessels  Arteries: carry blood away from the heart  Veins: carry blood to the heart  Capillaries: connect arteries to veins & exchange gases with tissues
  15. 15. Arteries  Carry blood at high pressure  Very thick, stretchy walls that expand in size  Most carry oxygenated blood (red)  Damaged arteries spurt in time to heart beat
  16. 16. Arteries  Aorta: largest vessel (diameter of a garden hose) – receives blood from left ventricle  Arteriole: smaller vessels connecting arteries to capillaries
  17. 17. Veins  Carry blood at low pressure  Have valves to prevent backflow of blood against gravity  Most carry de-oxygenated blood (purple)  Damaged veins ooze blood
  18. 18. Veins  Vena Cava: dump all blood from the body into the right atria  superior vena cava: receives blood from upper body  inferior vena cava: receives blood from lower body  Venules: smaller vessels connecting veins to capillaries
  19. 19. Capillaries Connect arteries and veins Walls are one cell thick Allow exchange of gases through thin walls Drop off oxygen delivered from heart by arteries
  20. 20. How Blood Travels thru Vessels heart artery arteriole capillary venule vein heart
  21. 21. Atherosclerosis Narrowing of vessel lumen due to plaque/fat formation on inside of walls Causes: diet high in fat, cholesterol, salt; inactive lifestyle; smoking Risks: high BP, enlarged heart, embolus blocking
  22. 22. Coronary Artery Disease  When Atherosclerosis affects the arteries that supply the heart muscle  Symptoms: short of breath after simple exertion, angina (chest pain)  Risk: MI, cardiac arrest, death
  23. 23. How is CAD treated?  Medication  Angioplasty (balloon surgery) – balloon is inserted and inflated in blocked vessel to compress fatty mass against the artery wall
  24. 24. How is CAD Treated? Stent – wire mesh inserted into the artery to expand its lumen Coronary Artery Bypass – arteries are removed from leg and grafted into the heart to restore circulation
  25. 25. Vessel Disorders Varicose Veins: twisted, dilated veins resulting from pooling of blood due to long periods of standing, obesity, or inactivity
  26. 26. Vessel Disorders Thrombophlebitis: inflammation of a vessel due to clot formation & poor circulation. Clot can become an embolus if freed.
  27. 27. Aneurysm  Weaking in the wall of a vessel, causing it to balloon outwards.  Rupture of the site causes  Stroke (if in the brain)  Death (in a large artery – aorta).
  28. 28. Cardiac Circulation  Coronary arteries exit the aorta & supply oxygen/blood to heart muscle (myocardium)  Coronary veins pick up & return deoxygenated blood from myocardium
  29. 29. Defects in Coronary Circulation Angina Pectoris: impaired circulation to myocardium causes oxygen deprivation & pain Myocardial infarction: “heart attack” – blockage of circulation to section of myocardium causes the muscle to infarct (die)
  30. 30. Pulmonary Circulation  Right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood through pulmonary artery to the lungs  The blood picks up O2 from the lungs and dumps CO2 into the lungs  Oxygenated blood is returned to the left atrium thru the pulmonary vein
  31. 31. Systemic CirculationOxygenated blood is pumped from left ventricle thru aorta to the body Blood dumps oxygen into tissues and picks up CO2 Deoxygenated blood travels from body to vena cava to
  32. 32. The Circulation
  33. 33. Play the Game Number the parts 1 – 17 (just write the correct order on a piece of paper). Pass your paper to a classmate when you finish. We will grade them as a class.
  34. 34. Congestive Heart Failure  Heart is ‘worn out’ from hypertension, multiple MI, atherosclerosis, or age  Heart pumps too weakly to meet tissue needs  If one side is weaker than the other, blood will back up in system
  35. 35. Congestive Heart Failure  Left ventricle is failing:  Pulmonary congestion  Pulmonary edema (blood in lungs) causes suffocation  Right ventricle is failing:  Peripheral congestion  Edema in distal body parts (ankles, feet)
  36. 36. Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema (A); normal lung (B)
  37. 37. Peripheral Edema Swelling of feet and ankles due to CHF
  38. 38. Conduction System of the Heart Heart is under two types of control:  Autonomic Nervous system  Sympathetic: speeds up contractions  Parasympathetic: the “brakes” that slows down contractions  Intrinsic Conduction System  Also called “nodal system”  Heart determines its own rate of contractions
  39. 39. Intrinsic Conduction System  Nodes are heart tissue that stimulate heart muscle to depolarize (contract)  Depolarization moves from base to apex  Different areas of the heart have different nodes, each with a different rate  Node rate gets slower as it moves downwards  Faster nodes will override slower nodes
  40. 40. Nodes (you need to know these)
  41. 41. SA node fires, atria contract (depolarize) Impulse travels to AV node, then travels thru bundle of His, bundle branches, & Purkinje fibers – ventricles contract (depolarize) Contraction of ventricles has ‘wringing’ action, pushing blood upward and out through large arteries
  42. 42. Parts of the Conduction System SA node:  “The Heart’s Pacemaker”  In atria  Normally sets the pace of 60 – 70  SA can increase rate when stimulated by drugs, fever, or sympathetic NS (exercise, stress, emotion)
  43. 43. AV Node:  Between atria & ventricles  Special tissues transmit signal from SA to AV node  Intrinsic rate: 40 - 60
  44. 44. Parts of the Conduction System Bundle of His:  Transmits impulse to ventricles  Rate: 30 – 40 beats/min Bundle Branches:  Within ventricular muscles  Rate: 20 – 30 beats/min Purkinje fibers:  Terminal end of branches
  45. 45. What if Damage Occurs?  If SA node is damaged or its signal is blocked, the AV node takes over setting the pace (40-60/min)  If AV node is next damaged, the bundles set the rate (20 – 40/min)
  46. 46. What is a Pacemaker? If heart is unable to generate impulse, or pace is too slow, mechanical pacemaker is surgically implanted to provide artificial impulses
  47. 47. Electrocardiogra m (ECG/EKG)  Electrical impulses in heart are measured with ECG  Electrical activity is translated into waves
  48. 48. Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)  P Wave: atria depolarize  QRS complex: ventricles depolarize  T wave: repolarization
  49. 49. Abnormalities in ECG  Heart Monitor hooked up with pads on chest  Abnormalities in ECG used to diagnose heart damage  Diagnostic signs: changes in shape of wave, distance between waves, lack of waves…
  50. 50. Irregular Heart Rhythms  Tachycardia: heart is beating too fast  Bradycardia: heart is beating too slow  Heart Block: no connection between atria & ventricles – ventricles beat at their own rate  Ventricular Fibrillation: heart is ‘shivering’ – no contractions or pulse (cardiac arrest)  Asystole: dead heart – no electrical activity
  51. 51. Comparing Rates  Normal Sinus Rhythm  Sinus Bradycardia  Sinus Tachycardia
  52. 52.  Elevated ST segment (sign of a MI)  Ventricular Tachycardia  Heart Block
  53. 53.  PVC (premature ventricular fibrillation)  Ventricular Fibrillation  Asystole
  54. 54. Cardiac Cycle Cardiac Cycle: The events within one heartbeat. Three main stages: Mid-to-late diastole: SL valves are closed, AV open; atria contract; blood is forced into ventricles Ventricular systole: ventricular pressure forces AV closed; SL forced open; blood rushes out of ventricles; atria relax & refill Early diastole: SL shut; AV
  55. 55. Heart Sounds  Cardiac cycle heard with a stethoscope  Two sounds: “lub dup” (pause) “lub dup” (pause) …..  Lub = closing of AV valves (ventricular systole)  Dup = Closing of semilunar valves (between ventricular systole & diastole)  Murmurs: abnormal heart sounds that usually indicate valve problems
  56. 56. Valve Disorders  Leaky Valves: caused by incompetent or deformed valves that force the heart to re-pump blood because of backflow
  57. 57. Stenosis Valves are stiff and do not open completely. Heart has to pump harderMurmur: stenosis
  58. 58. Mitral Valve Prolapse  The most common valve disorder (5-10% of people)  Mitral valve opens (prolapses) into atrium when shutting & allows blood backflow
  59. 59. Cardiac Output  Cardiac Output: the amount of blood pumped by each side of the heart per minute  Cardiac output = heart rate X stroke volume  Stroke volume = the amount of blood pumped with each contraction
  60. 60. What is the cardiac output if…. HR = 75 bpm; SV = 70 ml/beat? This is the normal cardiac output for a resting adult. How is the output affected with exercise? Do you think it increases or decreases?
  61. 61. What affects Stroke Volume? (you don’t have to write this down) Increase in Stroke volume:  Increased venous blood return  exercise (muscles force blood into heart)  Slow hr (more time to fill ventricles) Decrease in stroke volume  Decreased venous return  Hemorrhage (less blood volume)  Tachycardia (not enough time to fill)
  62. 62. What affects Heart Rate? (you don’t have to write this either) Increase:  Decline in SV (heart compensates by hr)  Babies and kids  Females  During exercise  Sympathetic NS Decrease:  Parasympathetic NS  Getting older  Males  Being fit (heart is more efficient)  Cold temperatures
  63. 63. Taken to assess overall health status  Arterial pulse  Blood Pressure  Respiratory Rate  Temperature
  64. 64. Arterial Pulse  Alternating expansion and recoil of arteries with each heart beat  Measured in beats per minute  Normal resting pulse: 60 – 100 bpm  Taken at pulse points: place where pulse is easily palpated (felt)
  65. 65. Pulse Points Can also be used as pressure points to stop bleeding
  66. 66. Blood Pressure Pressure of the blood against artery walls Measured as systolic/diastolic (ex. 120/80) Systolic: pressure at peak of contraction Diastolic: pressure during ventricular relaxation Can be taken by: Auscultation (listening for pulse) Palpation (feeling for pulse) Normal: 100 + age / 60-90
  67. 67. What Determines the BP?  Cardiac Output (blood pumped per min)  Peripheral Resistance  friction inside vessel that hampers flow of blood  Usually results from narrowing of arteries
  68. 68. What affects BP Increases BP:  Atherosclerosis  Thick blood  Drugs/nicotine  Obesity Decreases BP:  Shock/blood loss  MI  Drugs  Physical fitness
  69. 69. Problems with BP  Hypotension (low BP):  Systolic < 90mm/Hg  Cause: MI; warning sign of shock; athletes  Hypertension (high BP)  Systolic >140; Diastolic >90  Heart is forced to work hard for extended time  Vessels damaged due to higher pressure  Causes: obesity, diet, exercise, smoking, genes  Risks: heart attack, stroke
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The Circulatory System

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