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Expository Teaching

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Expository Teaching

  1. 1. Expository Teaching EG ARCHIDE
  2. 2. • Expository teaching strategy is basically direct instruction. • A teacher is in the front of the room lecturing and students are taking notes. • Students are being told (expository learning), what they need to know. • However, expository instruction goes beyond just presenting students with the facts. It involves presenting clear and concise information in a purposeful way that allows students to easily make connections from one concept to the next.
  3. 3. • This is why expository instruction is one of the most common instructional strategies. Most educators believe students learn new concepts and ideas better if all of the information they need to know is laid out before them. • The structure of an expository lesson helps students to stay focused on the topic at hand. Often times, when students are discovering information on their own, they can get distracted and confused by unnecessary information and have difficulty determining what’s important.
  4. 4. • Examples are provided to give contextual elaboration and to help students see the subject matter from many different perspectives. • Expository teaching is a teaching strategy where the teacher presents students with the subject matter rules and provides examples that illustrate the rules. • Examples include pictorial relationships, application of the rules, context through historical information, and prerequisite information.
  5. 5. • The usual verbal instruction of the lecture hall exemplifies expository teaching. • It is sometimes called deductive teaching because the teacher often begins with a definition of concepts or principles, illustrates them, and unfold their implications. • In expository teaching teacher gives both the principles and the problem solutions. • In contrast to his role in discovery learning, the teacher presents the student with the entire content of what is to be learned in final form; the student is not required to make any independent discoveries.
  6. 6. Two ways in delivering instruction: Direct Delivery of Instruction Telling/traditional/Didactic Mode where Knowledge is Directly Transmitted by a Teacher/Textbook or Both. Indirect Delivery of Instruction Showing and Provides Students with Access to Information and Experiences with Active Engagement and Learning.
  7. 7. Direct Teaching  Systematic teaching/active teaching.  Teacher-centered.  Skill-building instructional method with the teacher as the major information provider.  Teacher passes out: facts, rules/action sequences to students in a direct way.  Teacher-student interaction involving questions and answers.  Review and practice.  Correction of student errors.
  8. 8. Direct Teaching  Direct teaching works best for teaching skills  example - Reading - Writing - Mathematics - Grammar - Computer Literacy - Factual Parts of Science and History.
  9. 9. Exposition Teaching is a component of Direct Teaching.
  10. 10. • Exposition Teaching: - An authority—teacher, textbook, film/microcomputer—presents information without overt interaction between the authority and the students. • Lecturing is an Example of Exposition Teaching
  11. 11. •Textbook Lecture: - Teacher Follows the Structure of the Textbook. - Delivers the Content While Students Listen and Take Notes. - Does Not Require Extensive Planning. - Teachers Do Not Need to have Mastery of the Content. - Results in Rigid Course. - Course Could be Boring.
  12. 12. Exposition w/ Interaction Teaching has two phases: 1. Information is disseminated by the teacher or through students’ study of written material. 2. Teacher checks for comprehension by asking questions to assess student understanding of the information presented. • Teacher must be knowledgeable and effective questioner.
  13. 13. Teacher presents information by: - telling or explaining and follows up with a question-and- answer sessions during the lecture. Lecture recitation is efficient in terms of: - time. - Flexibility. - Learning. - Engaging students.
  14. 14. Purpose of questions in lecture recitation: - provide feedback on understanding. - Add variety to the lecture. - Maintain students’ attention. Textbook recitation: - students are assigned content to read and study in their textbook. - Teachers then question using higher level questions to determine if they understood the material. - It does not foster true understanding and the application of the assigned content. - Answers to questions—higher level are more effective— then provide feedback for students on how well they learned the content. - Students can also learn from the replies of fellow students.
  15. 15. Expository Teaching Sequence
  16. 16. Daily Review and Checking the Previous Day’s Work The first ingredient in Direct Instruction, daily review and checking, emphasizes the relationship between lessons so that students remember previous knowledge and see new knowledge as a logical extension of content already mastered. It also provides students with a sense of wholeness and continuity, assuring them that was to follow was not isolated knowledge unrelated to past lessons.
  17. 17. Daily Review and Checking the Previous Day’s Work Daily review and checking at the beginning of a lesson is easy to accomplish: •Have students correct each other’s homework at the beginning of class. •Have students identify especially difficult homework problems in a question-and-answer format. •Sample the understanding of a few students who probably are good indicators of the range of knowledge possessed by the entire class. •Explicit review the task-relevant information that is necessary for the day’s lesson.
  18. 18. Presenting and Structuring The content within the lessons must be partitioned and subdivided to organize it into small bits. The key is to focus on one idea at a time and present it so that learners master one point before the teacher introduces the next point. For effective presentation, the suggestions are: •Stating lesson goal, •Focusing on one thought, •Giving step-by-step directions using small steps, •Organizing material so that one point is mastered before the next point is given, •Having many and varied examples, •Checking for student understanding.
  19. 19. Presenting and Structuring Some ways of structuring content are: •Part-Whole Relationships •Sequential Relationships •Combinatorial Relationships •Comparative Relationships
  20. 20. a. Part-Whole Relationships A part-whole organizational format introduces the topic in its most general form and then divides the topic into easy- to-distinguish subdivisions. This creates subdivisions that are easily digested and presents them in ways that always relate back to the whole.
  21. 21. b. Sequential Relationships You teach the content according to the way in which the facts, rules, or sequences to be learned occur in the real world.
  22. 22. c. Combinatorial Relationships You bring together in a single format various elements or dimensions that influence the use of facts, rules, and sequences.
  23. 23. d. Comparative Relationships You place different pieces of content side by side so that learners can compare and contrast them.
  24. 24. Guided Student Practice  Presentation of stimulus material is followed by eliciting practice in the desired behavior.  The purpose is to help the students become firm and in the new material.  This is effectively done by: •Create as nonevaluative an atmosphere as possible; •Guiding for student understanding and areas of hesitancy •Correcting errors •Providing for a large number of successful repetitions.
  25. 25. Guided Student Practice  Guiding a student practice is made by Prompting. •Verbal prompts (VP) •Gestural prompts (GP) •Physical prompts (PP) Prompting is an important part of eliciting the desired behavior, because it strengthens and builds the learners’ confidence by encouraging them to use some aspects of the answer that have already been given in formulating the correct response.
  26. 26. Guided Student Practice
  27. 27. Feedback and Correctives  You need strategies for handling right and wrong answers.  Based on several studies it is identified that there are four broad categories of student response.  Correct, quick and firm (CQF)  Correct but hesitant (CH)  Incorrect due to carelessness (IC)  Incorrect due to lack of knowledge (ILK)
  28. 28. The most common strategies for incorrect responses are the following: Review key facts or rules needed for a correct solution, Explain the steps used to reach a correct solution, Prompt with clues or hints representing a partially correct answer, Take a different but similar problem, and guide the student to the correct answer. Finally, note that when you use the direct instruction model for teaching facts, rules, and sequences, you should not allow an incorrect answer to go undetected or uncorrected.
  29. 29. Independent Practice Once you have successfully elicited the behavior, provided feedback, and administered correctives, students need the opportunity to practice the behavior independently. Often this is the time when facts and rules come together to form action sequences. Independent practice provides the opportunity in a careful controlled and organized environment to make a meaningful whole out of the bits and pieces. The purpose of providing opportunities for all types of independent practice is to develop automatic responses in student, so they no longer need to recall each individual unit of content but can use all the units simultaneously.
  30. 30. Weekly and Monthly Reviews Periodic review ensures that you have taught all task- relevant information needed for future lessons and that you have identified areas that require the reteaching of key facts, rules and sequences. Without periodic review, you have no way of knowing whether direct instruction has been successful in teaching facts, rules, and sequences. Weekly and monthly reviews also help determine whether the pace is right or whether to adjust it before covering too much content.
  31. 31. Weekly and Monthly Reviews Another obvious advantage of weekly and monthly reviews is that they strengthen correct but hesitant response. A regular weekly review is the key to performing this direct instruction dimension. The weekly review is intended to build momentum. Momentum results from gradually increasing the coverage and depth of the weekly reviews.
  32. 32. Reference • Methods of Science and Mathematics Teaching http://web.boun.edu.tr/topcu/linear/chapter%203/131_2.htm • Expository Teaching – A Direct Instructional Strategy http://www.vkmaheshwari.com/WP/?p=928#:~:text=Expository%20teac hing%20is%20a%20teaching,historical%20information%2C%20and%2 0prerequisite%20information.