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Athens akansha & pounomi

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Athens akansha & pounomi

  1. 1. city planning in Athens By Akansha Mittal and Pounomi Kar
  2. 2. Athens  Capital of Greece. One of the first city-states of the ancient world.  Was a walled city.  Presided over the region of Attica.  Largest navy at port city Pireus.
  3. 3. Athens in the World (5th cent. BC) Image Source: Powell, A and Sheehan, S 2003, Ancient Greece, Facts on File, New York Athens , Spartan and Persian Empire
  4. 4. Exterior Influences in Planning  The Political Scenario Ionic Revolt beginni ng of Greco- Persian Wars Battle Of Marath on Greco- Persian Wars continue, Athens won. Persians made numerous attempts to conquer Athens Battle Of Salamis and Plataea Persia fails to conquer Peloponnes e (destructive to Athens) Formatio n of Delian League against Persians First Pelopon nesian War conflict between Athens and Sparta Peace of Pericles Pelop onnes ian Wars 499-494 BC 490 BC 490-480 BC 480-479 BC 477 BC 459-445 BC 445 BC 431-404 BC
  5. 5. Planning Principles  Greek Mythology and History  Life and Forces of a Structure  Democracy or People Power  Adhering to Terrain “I cannot imagine the Greeks allowing themselves to be town-planned.” -Owens, 1991
  6. 6. Kolonos: Previously occupied by the Temple of Theseus—credited with unification of Attica. Areopagus: Ares was tried here by Gods for murder of Posiedon’s son. Later used as a criminal court. Pnyx: Assembly of ecclesia (the people) after Solon’s and Cleisthene’s policies. Acropolis: Shrine for Athena, patron Goddess of Athens. Agora: Originated as an open space for civic activities. Image Source: Owens, S 1991, The city in the Greek and Roman world, Routledge, London. Important landmarks in Athens Myth and History
  7. 7. Streets Narrow and winding roads, on steeper ground reduced to stairs. Inconstant road width. ‘Athens was a city of contrasts. The fine temples and public buildings of the Classical and Hellenistic periods were fitted into an Urban plan which had developed over several centuries and was continuing to do so.’ (Owens, 1991) Important road: The Panathenaic Way Image Source: Powell, A and Sheehan, S 2003, Ancient Greece, Facts on File, New York South-west Athens
  8. 8. Panathenaic Way -A major road which is going across the city of Athens, diagonally dividing the agora or the market place. Named after the procession which took place during the festival of the Panathenaia. (Athena’s birthday). Linked all the sacred and major public spaces across the city together. WEST CITY GATE (DIPYLON GATE/ SACRED GATE) Continues DIAGONALL Y ACROSS THE AGORA PROPYLAE A Moves further up to the ACROPOLIS The STAUE OF ATHENA Sacrifices made and offerings presented. Image Source: Powell, A and Sheehan, S 2003, Ancient Greece, Facts on File, New York Panathenaic Way
  9. 9. Agora in Archaic Period (500 BC) Functions of an agora: Market-place, a place of assembly, and a seating for ceremonies and assemblies. (Ward- Perkins, JB 1974) To the south was the old bouleuterion (or the Council House) and to the north were three small temples. Image Source: Travlos, J 1980, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, Hacker Art Books. Agora 500 BC bouleuterio n PANATHENAIC WAY
  10. 10. Agora in Classical Period (420 BC) The Temple of Hephaestos was built. It sets into motion a shaft of space. It makes its influence felt as an ordering element. (Bacon, 1976) The Kolonos and the Acropolis connect with each despite the distance because of the architectural rhythm of the colonades. The South Stoa begins to define the enclosure of the Agora. The Ecclesia now needs meeting space. Image Source: Travlos, J 1980, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, Hacker Art Books. Agora 420 BC bouleuterio n Hephaesto s South Stoa Stoa of Zeus PANATHENAIC WAY
  11. 11. Agora in Hellenistic Period (200 BC) Full Maturity of Agora Additions: Metroon replaced old Bouleutrion , Temple of Apollo Patroos, South middle Stoa and Stoa of Attalos (east stoa). The South Stoa was rebuilt at a different angle. Everything developed respecting the shaft of space. Image Source: Travlos, J 1980, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, Hacker Art Books. Agora 200 BC Metroon Hephaesto s South Middle Stoa Stoa of Zeus Apollo Patroos Stoa of Attalos PANATHENAIC WAY
  12. 12. Agora in 2nd cent. AD ‘The clear open quality of the uncluttered space of earlier periods is gone, and in its place confusion has set in.’ (Bacon, 1976) Additions: Temple of Ares, many fountains and statues were added. Clumsy Roman gift of the Odeion of Agrippa. The Odeion overpowers the shaft of space and wobbles the balance of elements. Image Source: Travlos, J 1980, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, Hacker Art Books. Agora 2 AD Metroon Hephaestos South Middle Stoa Stoa of Zeus Apollo Patroo s Stoa of Attalos Templ e of Ares Odeio n PANATHENAIC W AY
  13. 13. Architectural Rhythm Image Source: http://documents-macedon.blogspot.in Acropolis
  14. 14. Acropolis Image Source: www.athenshistory.org Planning of Acropolis
  15. 15. Shift from Acropolis to Agora  Agora took the place which was previously of the Acropolis or of the King.  The artisan and residential colonies began to move westwards and northwards, towards the open country side.  Towards 6th century, public buildings began to take shape along the foot hills of Kolonos.  East of the Panathenaic Way, a large public fountain was built.
  16. 16. Adhering to Terrain Image Source: www.athenshistory.org Acropolis, Agora, Areopagus and Pynx
  17. 17. 17 After the Wars Image Source: http://documents-macedon.blogspot.in Pireus and Athens
  18. 18. Unlike Athens, other cities were being planned after the Wars. Athens being afraid of another Spartan Attack, did not plan and build. Became protective, built walls around the city. Roman Intervention Image Source: Powell, A and Sheehan, S 2003, Ancient Greece, Facts on File, New York Athens
  19. 19. Temple of Olympian Zeus The Temple's foundation was laid by Pisistratus in 515 BC. During the years of Greek Democracy, the work was left unfinished due to Financial and Political issues. After many attempts to complete it, it was finally completed by Hadrian (Roman) in 2nd century AD. Image Source: http://www.talesbeyondbelief.com/greek-gods-mythology/temple-of-zeus.htm Temple of Olympian Zeus (2nd cent. AD)
  20. 20. Bibliography  Edmund N. Bacon, 1976. ‘The Growth of Greek Cities’ in Design of Cities: Revised Edition (Penguin Books). Revised Edition. Penguin Books.  Murray , O and Price, S 1990, The Greek City: From Homer to Alexander, Clarendon Press, Oxford.  Nuttgens, P 1997. ‘Landscape of Gods’ in The Story of Architecture, 2nd edn, Phaidon Press.  Owens, E 1991, The city in the Greek and Roman world, Routledge, London.  Powell, A and Sheehan, S 2003, Ancient Greece, Facts On File, New York.  Rosenau, Helen, 1959. ‘Ancient Tradition’ in The Ideal City. 1st ed. Great Britain: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.  Travlos, J 1980, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, Hacker Art Books.  Ward-Perkins, JB 1974, Cities of ancient Greece and Italy, G. Braziller, New York.

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