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QUTB COMPLEX,NEW DELHI

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QUTB COMPLEX,NEW DELHI

  1. 1. Slave dynasty KHALJI DYNASTY Presented by: Aman gupta B.Arch 4 th sem
  2. 2. • The period between 1206 AD and 1526 AD in Indian History is known as the Delhi Sultanate. • During this period of over three hundred years five dynasties, (32 kings) ruled in Delhi. These were : • The Slave Dynasty(1206 - 1290) • The Khilji Dynasty (1290 - 1320) • The Tughlak Dynasty (1320 - 1414) • The Sayyad Dynasty (1414 - 1450) • The Lodhi Dynasty (1451 - 1526)
  3. 3. Slave Dynasty  Slave dynasty, (1206–90), line of sultans at Delhi, India, that  lasted for nearly a century. Their family name was Mui zzī.ʿ  The Slave dynasty was founded by Qu b al-Dīn Aibakṭ , a favourite  slave of the Muslim general and later sultan Mu ammad of Ghūr. ḥ   Qu b al-Dīn had been among Mu ammad’s most trusted Turkish ṭ ḥ officers and had overseen his master’s Indian conquests.    He was eventually confined to being a purely Indian  sovereign.   He died in 1210 as a result of a polo accident, and the crown  shortly passed to Iltutmish, his son-in-law.
  4. 4. THE SLAVE DYNASTY : 1206 AD o Qutbuddin Aibak (1206-10 AD) o Aram Shah Qutbuddin(1210-1211 AD) o Iltutmish (1211-1236 AD). o Rukhuddin Firoz Shah (1236 AD). o Razziya Sultan (1236-1240 AD) o Muizuddin Bahram ((1240-1242 AD) o (Ghiyasuddin Balban. (1266-1286 AD) o Muizuddin Kaiquabad(1287-1290 AD)
  5. 5. MONUMENTS BUILT UNDER THIS DYNASTY QUTUB MOSQUE,DELHI 1195 CE QUTUB MINAR,DELHI 1200 CE ARHAI-DIN-KA JHOMPRA MOSQUE,AJMER 1205 CE
  6. 6. KHALJI DYNASTY
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION  The Khilji dynasty or Khalji was a Muslim dynasty of Turkic  origin which ruled large parts of South Asia between 1290 and 1320.  It was founded by Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji and became the second dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate of India.  Under Ala-ud-din Khilji, the Khiljis became known for successfully defending against the repeated Mongol invasions of India
  8. 8. Shāyista Khān(Jalal-ud-din) 1290–1296 Ala-ud-din 1296–1316 Shihab-ud-din 1316 Qutb-ud-din 1316–1320
  9. 9. Monument under khilji dynasty  ALLA-UD-DIN KHALJI’S EXTENSION OF QUTB MOSQUE. 1300 CE  ALAI DARWAZA 1305 CE  MADARASSA
  10. 10. QUTB COMPLEX
  11. 11. HISTORY  The Qutb complex was built by Qutb Ud-Din Aibak (1206 - 1211) who established the first Islamic sultanate in the Indian subcontinent in Delhi in 1192.  It is located within the citadel of Qal'a-e-Rai Pithora (Qila Rai Pithora) where Qutb Ud-Din also set up his administrative quarters and residence.  It is also known as Quwwat ul Islam, meaning the 'might of Islam,' the Qutub complex was created with the dismantling and reassembling of the 27 existing Hindu and Jain temples on the site.
  12. 12. QUTUB COMPLEX QUTAB MINAR QUWWAT-UL- ISLAM MASJID SCREEN IRON PILLAR ILTUTMISH TOMB ALAI DARWAZA IMAM ZAMIN’S TOMB ALAUDDINS TOMB & MADRASSA ALAI MINAR 1 ALAUDDIN’S TOMB & MADRASSA ALAI DARWAZA IMAM ZAMINS TOMB
  13. 13. QUTB COMPLEX  Qutub complex consists of a mosque and two minarets enclosed within a series of cloistered precincts.  It was entered via four monumental gates along the north, east and south walls, of which only the southern gate (Alai Darwaza) remains.  The mosque, known as the Qutb or Quwwat ul Islam Mosque, occupies the southwest corner of the complex.
  14. 14.  A tall screen wall with pointed archways runs along the western edge of the precinct, creating a qibla wall for the prayer spaces.  In addition to these elements, the complex also contains several smaller buildings: the Tomb of Iltutmish, Ala al- Din Khalji's madrassa, and the Imam Zamin Mosque.  The Qutb Minar (minaret) stands in the southeastern part of this enclosure. QUTB COMPLEX  The unfinished Alai Minar (minaret) stands in the northeastern part of the complex.
  15. 15. QUTUB MINAR QUTUB MINAR
  16. 16. QUTUB MINAR  Qutb Minar (Also called Qutub or Qutab, is the tallest minar (73 metres) in India originally an ancient Islamic Monument, inscribed with Arabic inscriptions, and is a UNESCO World Heritage site.   Qutb Minar is made of red sandstone and marble.  The stairs of the tower has 379 steps,is 72.5 metres (237.8 ft) high, and has a base diameter of 14.3 metres, which narrows to 2.7 metres at the top.   Construction was started in 1192 by Qutb-ud-din Aibak and was carried on by his successor, Iltutmish.  In 1368, Firoz Shah Tughlak constructed the fifth and the last storey.
  17. 17. Qutub Minar (Architecture) FEATURES:  At the base, the diameter of the minaret is a little over fourteen meters and it tapers towards the top, where it is only slightly under 3 meters wide.  It has a circular stairway made of three- hundred-seventy-nine steps to reach the top for a spectacular view.  The Minar comprises of several superimposed flanged and cylindrical shafts separated by balconies.  All the storeys have a balcony that circles the Minar with stone brackets for support.  The Minar is decorated throughout with floral motifs and arabesque. Also it bears inscriptions that are verses from the Koran and messages from the Sultans. .  The stone brackets are decorated with honeycomb design, more conspicuously in the first storey.
  18. 18. A CLOSE STUDY MATERIALS: The first three stories are made of sandstone and the next two of marble and sandstone. Firoz Shah Tughlaq added marble to the top storey. The Minar is in fact believed to have been built to aid the Muezzin of the mosque for prayer calls.
  19. 19. THE ENTRANCE CARVINGS THE WALL FORM OF 1ST PART
  20. 20. Up close: Qutub Minar.
  21. 21. Projected balconies supported by stone brackets
  22. 22. RESTORATION  On 1st August 1803, the old cupola was thown down due to Earthquake.  After 2 years, repairing of the structure began and completed in1828 by Major Smith. His work on the doorway has been criticized because of being gothic and different from the minar. The materials used are proper. TODAY: Restoration work is carried out during the nights also, when needed. After a series of accidents in the early 1980’s, visitors are no longer allowed to climb the Qutub minar.
  23. 23. QUWWAT-UL-ISLAM MASJID  To mark his victory over Rai Pithora, Qutub-ud-Din Aibak built the Quwwat-ul-Islam Masjid (Might of Islam) in 1192 which was completed in 1198.  It is the earliest extant mosque in India, having a rectangular court.  The court is enclosed by cloisters which were erected with carved columns and other architectural members from the 27 Hindu and Jain temples, which were later demolished.
  24. 24. BRAHMANICAL MOTIFS LIKE THE KALASA AND LOTUS ON PILLARS
  25. 25. THE wALLS AND PILLARS ARE HAvINg INTRINSIC HINDU ARCHITECTURAL MOTIFS.
  26. 26. Pillars of the mosque: “as a whole, a confused and somewhat incongruous improvisation”. (Percy Brown)
  27. 27. ALAI DARWAZA  It has intricate carvings in red sandstone and marble.  It has red stone jali screens.  It is the southern gateway of the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque, and is a gem of Islamic architecture in India.  It was built by Alla-ud-din Khilji in 1311.  It is 17.2m square and pierced by arched openings that echo the contours of the covering dome.  The arch to the north is semicircular while the others are of pointed horse shoe shape.
  28. 28. FACADE OF ALAI DARWAZA The arched entrances and jalis are decorated by fringes of lotus buds.
  29. 29. JALI WORK IN THE WINDOWS
  30. 30. VIEW OF ALAI DARWAZA FROM IMAM ZAMIN’S TOMB
  31. 31. IRON PILLAR  The Iron Pillar dates back to the 4th century BC.  It bears inscriptions that dedicate it as a flagstaff to honor the Hindu god Vishnu and in memory of Gupta king Chandragupta II (375- 413 AD).  The pillar is a symbol of the progress of metallurgy in ancient India.  It is made of 98 percent wrought iron and has survived 1,600 years without rusting.
  32. 32.  The pillar was cast in its present form not forged.  Length 7.2m of which 93 cm is underground.  Its Diameter is 0.41 m.  Garuda idol at top missing.
  33. 33. ILTUTMISH TOMB  It is located in the complex Tomb, northwest to the Iron Pillar.  Iltutmish died in 1236, but had his tomb built a year earlier in 1235.  It is made of red sand stone, situated northwest of the minaret.  It is a landmark in Indo-Islamic architecture.  It is believed to have had a dome which was later damaged.  There are 3 entrances on all 3 sides, but the west, which was for the mihrabs.
  34. 34. ILTUTMISH TOMB  It is a simple square chamber, covered originally by a circular dome that was carried on a form of squinch arch.  Dome was constructed using concentric rings, but Hindu artisans couldn’t make it last long.  Inside is decorated and elaborated with Quranic verses.  Marble is used in mehrab and cenotaph.
  35. 35. INTERIOR OF ILLTUTMUSH’S TOMB
  36. 36. EXTERIOR OF TOMB
  37. 37. ALAI MINAR  Ala-ud-Din wanted to build a second tower of victory twice as high as Qutab Minar but when he died the tower had reached only 24.5 meters and later no one was willing to continue his over ambitious project.  It stands to the north of the Qutab Minar and the mosque  .It was to have ramps instead of stairs.  Windows are at regular quadrant heights, for a gradual ramp to be made.
  38. 38. A GLOOMY VIEW OF QUTUB MINAR FROM ALAI MINAR.
  39. 39. ALAUDDIN’S MADRASSA  It is located in south west of the mosque.  It is built around a quadrangular court entered on the  North through a triple gateway.  Alauddin constructed this madrassa,but few historians say that it was Iltutmush who made it. ALAUDDIN’S TOMB It is on the south side of the court.  It is a square structure with no dome now.  There are only remains of a boldly projecting portico.  It was combined to the madrassa, probably a Saljuqian tradition-being its first appearance in India.
  40. 40. IMAM ZAMIN’S TOMB  This tomb was made in the memory of Mohammad Ali, imam zamin.  Its on the east of alai darwaza.  Its 7.3m square.  It is surmounted by a sandstone dome rising from an octagonal drum, the lodhi style.  It is decorated with double row of kangooras and marble panelling above the chajja.  The tomb has no integral connection with the Qutub group.
  41. 41. SCREEN OF ARCHES  IT IS AN EXPANSIVE SCREEN OF ARCHES WAS ADDED ACROSS THE ENTIRE FRONT OF THE SANCTUARY TO GIVE MOSQUE APPEARANCE.  IT FORMED INTO A GREAT WALL OF MASONRY OVER 15 M IN HT. AT THE CENTRE,ITS WIDTH IS 33 MT.&ITS THICKNESS OF 2.6MT.  IT HAS 5 ARCHED OPENINGS CONSISTING OF LARGER ONE IN THE CENTRE & TWO LESSER ARCHES ON EITHER SIDE.
  42. 42. THE RUINED WALL

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