Photo Voltaic Module or Solar Panel
• A PV module is an assembly of photo-
voltaic cells mounted in a framework for
installation. Photo-voltaic cells
use sunlight as a source of energy and
generate direct current electricity. A
collection of PV modules is called a PV
Panel, and a system of Panels is an
Array. Arrays of a photovoltaic
system supply solar electricity to
A photovoltaic power station, also known as a solar park, solar farm, or solar
power plant is a large-scale photovoltaic system (PV system) designed for the
supply of merchant power into the electricity grid. The solar power source is
via photovoltaic modules that convert light directly into electricity.
Working Principle of Grid Connected PV System
• Whenever the sun shines (and even in overcast weather), the solar cells generate
electricity. The grid connect inverter converts the DC electricity produced by the
solar panels into 240V AC electricity, which can then be used by the
• If a grid connect system is producing more power than the home consumes, the
surplus is fed into the power grid. Some electricity companies meter the electricity
fed into the grid by your system and provide a credit on your bill. How much you are
paid is determined by the feed-in tariff.
• When the solar cells are not producing power, for example at night, power comes
from the mains power grid as usual. The energy retailer charges the usual rate for
the power used.
Some common types of PV
• Grid Direct or Grid tied.
• Grid Interactive or Hybrid
with Energy Storage.
• Off Grid with Energy
Grid Tied Solar System
• A grid-tied system is a basic solar installation that
uses a standard grid-tied inverter and does not
have any battery storage.
• This is perfect for customers who are already on
the grid and want to add solar to their house. These
systems can qualify for state and federal incentives
which help to pay for the system.
• Grid-tied systems are simple to design and are very
cost effective because they have relatively few
components. The main objective of a grid-tied
system is to lower your energy bill and benefit from
Hybrid Solar System
• Hybrid solar systems generate power in the
same way as a common grid-tie solar system
but use special hybrid inverters and batteries
to store energy for later use.
• This ability to store energy enables most
hybrid systems to also operate as a backup
power supply during a blackout, similar to a
• A solar hybrid system stores your excess
solar energy and can also provide back-up
power during a blackout.
Off Grid Solar System
• An off-grid solar system (off-the-grid,
standalone) is the obvious alternative to one
that is grid-tied.
• An off-grid system is not connected to the
electricity grid and therefore requires battery
• In an off-grid system there is no public
electricity grid. Once solar power is used by
the appliances in your property, any excess
power will be sent to your battery bank.
Once the battery is full it will stop receiving
power from the solar system. When your
solar system is not working (nighttime or
cloudy days), your appliances will draw
power from the batteries.
Advantages of Using PV Solar Power Plant
• Operating and maintenance costs for PV panels are
considered to be low, almost negligible, compared to
costs of other renewable energy systems
• Photovoltaic panels, through photoelectric
phenomenon, produce electricity in a direct electricity
• PV panels provide clean – green energy. During
electricity generation with PV panels there is no harmful
greenhouse gas emissions thus solar PV is
• Solar energy can be made available almost anywhere
there is sunlight
Disadvantages of Using PV Solar Power Plant
• For a continuous supply of electric power, especially for
on-grid connections, Photovoltaic panels require not
only Inverters but also storage batteries; thus increasing
the investment cost for PV panels.
• Solar panels efficiency levels are relatively low (between
14%-25%) compared to the efficiency levels of other
renewable energy systems.
• As in all renewable energy sources, solar energy has
intermittency issues; not shining at night but also during
daytime there may be cloudy or rainy weather.
• Solar energy panels require additional equipment
(inverters) to convert direct electricity (DC) to
alternating electricity (AC) in order to be used on the