The Earliest People
the subcontinent as early as Two million years ago
Are called as Hunter-Gatherers They hunted wild animals, caught
and birds gathered fruits, roots,
seeds, leaves, stalks and eggs.
They moved from place to place
Reasons for the Movement of Hunter Gathers
Stayed at one place for a long time.
They would have eaten up all the
available plant and animal resources
Animals move from place to place.
Those who hunter them had to follow
Plants and Trees bear fruit in different seasons.
Movement due to the water requirements.
Water to survive
Hunter Gatherers Made and Used
Tools of stones, wood and bone
-used to cut meat and bone, scrape bark
(from trees) and hides (animal skin)
chop fruit and roots.
Places choose caves and rock shelter as a place to live in.
Many sites were located near sources of water, such as
rivers and lakes.
People find place where good quality stone was easily
Around 12, years ago
Change in the climate of the
Shift to relative warm condition.
Grass Glands Increase in the number of deer,
antelope, goat, sheep and
Those who hunted these animals now followed them.
Learning about their food habits and their breeding
Start thinking about herding and rearing animals.
Fishing also became important.
growing crops like wheat,
Grass Land developed barley and rice in various
regions of the
Cooking hearts in and around the huts.
People used to cook indoors or outdoors.
Stone tools Paleolithic Tools Called Neolithic
Mortars and Pestles Used for grinding.
Clay pots used for decorative purposed and storage.
Began to weave cloth using of various kinds of
Human first learned to grow barley and wheat and to rear
sheep and goats.
Remnants of square or rectangular houses.
Migration is usually classified as either international
migration ( movement from one country to another)
internal migration ( movement within a country).
Push Pull. Obstacle
Push Factors. Pull Factors
Place of Origin. Place of Destination
Push Factors — reasons to move from a particular
location these are negative circumstances.
Pull Factors — reasons to move a particular place
these are positive circumstances.
Migration and Distance — moves to short distance only.
Migration by Stages — proceeds step by step.
Stream and Counter — every migration current
produces a counter- current.
Urban-rural difference in propensity to migrate — the
natives of towns are less migratory than those of the
rural parts of the country.
Technology and migration — an increase in the means
of locomotion and development of manufacture and
commerce leads to an increase of migration.
Factors Associated with the Area of Origin: — In each area
there are several factors which motivate migration outside
Factors Associated with the Area of Destination— These
factors are more important as pull factors while the former
work as push factors. It is not necessary that the pull
factors are always real. Sometimes they are based upon
Intervening Obstacles — these obstacles intervene
Personal Factors — It is the individual’s perception which
determine actual migration.
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