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Life Safety Code: NFPA 101, IFC 2015 & OSHA Subpart E

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An overview from Antea Group on the purpose and application of Life Safety Code, as well as a deep dive into relevant regulations NFPA 101, IFC 2015, and OSHA Subpart E. For more information, visit http://us.anteagroup.com/en-us/services/health-and-safety.

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Life Safety Code: NFPA 101, IFC 2015 & OSHA Subpart E

  1. 1. LIFE SAFETY NFPA 101, IFC 2015 & OSHA Subpart E 02/01/2017
  2. 2. • … to guide the design, construction and features of a structure to protect the occupants from the effects of fire. • While protection from fire is the focus, it also applies to dangers from other emergencies similar to fires. • It’s purpose is to provide safe evacuation from, or shelter within, a building during a fire. Purpose of Life Safety Antea USA, Inc. 1
  3. 3. Application Antea USA, Inc. 2 • The Code applies to New and Existing occupancies. • Requirements for New Construction are more restrictive than Existing, as they are easier to implement at that stage. • There are general requirements that apply to all occupancies, and specific requirements that apply to certain types of occupancies.
  4. 4. • 29 CFR 1910 Subpart E • Basic life safety requirements. • References LSC 2009, or IFC 2009 as allowable methods of compliance • International Fire Code, Chapter 10 • More commonly enforced by AHJ’s around the country than LSC • Most of the requirements are the same, but not as in depth • NFPA 101, the Life Safety Code (LSC) • Most comprehensive guidance on Life Safety • Also the most difficult to understand OSHA, IFC, & NFPA Antea USA, Inc. 3
  5. 5. • Exit Access: The portion of the means of egress that leads to an exit. • Exit: That portion of a means of egress that is separated from all other spaces of the building or structure by construction, location, or equipment as required to provide a protected way of travel to the exit discharge. • Exit Discharge: That portion of the means of egress between the termination of an exit and the public way. • Horizontal Exit: A way of passage from one building to an area of refuge in another building, or the same building around a fire barrier. Definitions Antea USA, Inc. 4
  6. 6. • Chapter 1: Administration • Chapter 2: Referenced Publications • Chapter 3: Definitions • Chapter 4: General • Chapter 5: Performance Based Option • Chapter 6: Classification of Occupancy and Hazard of Contents • Chapter 7: Means of Egress • Chapter 8: Features of Fire Protection • Chapter 9: Building Services and Fire Protection Equipment • Chapter 10: Interior Finish, Contents, and Furnishings • Chapter 11-42: New and Existing Occupancies • Chapter 43: Building Rehabilitation Life Safety Code - Structure Antea USA, Inc. 5
  7. 7. • Chapter 1: Administration • Chapter 2: Referenced Publications • Chapter 3: Definitions • Chapter 4: General • Chapter 5: Performance Based Option • Chapter 6: Classification of Occupancy and Hazard of Contents • Chapter 7: Means of Egress • Chapter 8: Features of Fire Protection • Chapter 9: Building Services and Fire Protection Equipment • Chapter 10: Interior Finish, Contents, and Furnishings • Chapter 11-42: New and Existing Occupancies • Chapter 43: Building Rehabilitation Life Safety Code - Structure Antea USA, Inc. 6
  8. 8. • Chapter 4 provides general rules that need to be followed in all facilities. • These are generalities, that are explored in depth and modified in later chapters. Chapter 4 Antea USA, Inc. 7
  9. 9. • Two means of egress…shall be provided in every building …where size, occupancy, and arrangement would endanger occupants attempting to use a single means of egress … • The two means of egress shall be arranged to minimize the possibility that both might be rendered impassable by the same emergency condition. Chapter 4: Number of Exits Antea USA, Inc. 8
  10. 10. • In every occupied building or structure, means of egress from all parts of the building shall be maintained free and unobstructed. Means of egress shall be accessible to the extent necessary to ensure reasonable safety for occupants having impaired mobility. Chapter 4: Unobstructed Means of Egress Antea USA, Inc. 9
  11. 11. • In every building or structure of such size, arrangement, or occupancy that a fire itself might not provide adequate occupant warning, fire alarm systems shall be provided where necessary to warn occupants of the existence of fire. • Translation: If the building is so big that part of it is on fire and you may not know it, you need a fire alarm. Chapter 4: Fire Alarm Systems Antea USA, Inc. 10
  12. 12. • Every exit shall be clearly visible, or the route to reach every exit shall be conspicuously indicated. Each means of egress, in its entirety, shall be arranged or marked so that the way to a place of safety is indicated in a clear manner. • Translation: Make sure you understand how to escape. Chapter 4: Markings and Visibility Antea USA, Inc. 12
  13. 13. • The AHJ may allow you to deviate from the requirements of the LSC if you can prove the design you want can still provide the same level of protection. • Important for special structures and updating historical buildings Chapter 5: Performance Based Option Antea USA, Inc. 13
  14. 14. • Determine if a space is a business, industrial, mercantile, etc. • The Appendix section for this chapter is very useful, as it gives examples to guide you. • Guidance on hazard classifications, used throughout the code • Low Hazard: Contents of the space do not support combustion. • Medium Hazard: Contents burn with moderate rapidity, considerable smoke output. • High Hazard: Extremely flammable, potential for explosion Chapter 6: Classification of Occupancy and Hazard of Contents Antea USA, Inc. 14
  15. 15. • Provides the required fire separation between two occupancies. • Like occupancies do not require a separation • These range from 0 to 3 hour fire wall separations • Pay attention to remodeled areas where they have cut through walls to provide access • Identify spaces where they may have changed occupancies Separation of Occupancies: Table Antea USA, Inc. 15
  16. 16. • A building or structure in which two or more classes of occupancy exist. • Can be intermingled or separated by fire-resistance rated assemblies. Multiple Occupancy Type Buildings Antea USA, Inc. 16
  17. 17. Assembly • An occupancy used for a gathering of 50 or more persons for deliberation, worship, entertainment, eating, drinking, amusement, awaiting transportation, or similar uses; or used as a special amusement building, regardless of occupant load. • Churches • Restaurants/bars • Theatres • Bus/train stations 17Antea USA, Inc.
  18. 18. • An occupancy in which products are manufactured or in which processing, assembling, mixing, packaging, finishing, decorating or repair operations are conducted. Industrial Antea USA, Inc. 18
  19. 19. • An occupancy used primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, merchandise, products or vehicles. Storage Antea USA, Inc. 19
  20. 20. • An occupancy used for the display and sale of merchandise. Mercantile Antea USA, Inc. 20
  21. 21. • An occupancy used for the transaction of business other than mercantile. Business Antea USA, Inc. 21
  22. 22. • Special Structures and High-Rise Buildings • Educational • One- and Two-Family Dwellings • Lodging or Rooming Houses • Hotels and Dormitories • Apartment Buildings • Residential Board and Care Occupancies Other Occupancies Antea USA, Inc. 22
  23. 23. • Chapter 7 provides in depth details about the construction, installation and design of the means of egress. • Components • Capacity • Number • Arrangement • Travel distances • Discharges • Illumination • Emergency Lighting • Marking • Special Provisions Means of Egress Antea USA, Inc. 23
  24. 24. • Doors are required to swing in the direction of travel when there is an occupant load of 50 or more. There are exceptions to this rule, see • Doors typically need to remain unlocked, and have panic hardware installed. Again, there are exceptions to this rule based upon the occupancy or exceptions found in 7.2 – Door Openings Antea USA, Inc. 24
  25. 25. • Occupant load determines numerous aspects of the means of egress components when assessing a given space, including: • Number of exits • Width of exits • Door swing • Signage requirements • This is calculated by dividing the total area of the space, by the factors in table Occupant Load Antea USA, Inc. 25
  26. 26. Table – Occupant Load Factors • Gross Floor Area: Floor area within the inside perimeter of the outside walls of the space in consideration. • Net Floor Area: Gross floor area less hallways, stairs, closets, thickness of interior walls, columns, or other features. 26Antea USA, Inc.
  27. 27. Calculating Occupant Load • Example: • Manufacturing space of 50,000 sq.ft. • Industrial Use is 100 gross sq.ft/person • 50,000/100= 500 persons 27Antea USA, Inc. Occupancy Square Feet Square Meters Industrial Use General and high hazard industrial 100 9.3 Special-purpose industrial NA NA Mercantile Use Sales area on street floor 30 2.8
  28. 28. • Chapters 11-42 will provide specific requirements for the number of exits • In general: No less than 2 means of egress from an occupied space. • Occupant load between 500-1000: no less than 3 • Occupant load more than 1000: no less than 4 Determining Number of Means of Egress Antea USA, Inc. 28
  29. 29. • Door openings in a means of egress shall not be less than 32 inches. has 9 exceptions to this rule. • Table provides the exit width per person for a occupancy • Example: Manufacturing space calculated earlier as an occupancy load of 500 persons. • 0.2 in/person • 500*0.2=100 inches total width Determining total width of Means of Egress Antea USA, Inc. 29 Area Stairways – Inches per person Level Components – Inches per person Board and Care 0.4 0.2 Health Care, sprinklered 0.3 0.2 Health care, non sprinklered 0.6 0.5 High hazard contents 0.7 0.4 All others 0.3 0.2
  30. 30. Travel Distances • Travel distance to an exit is based upon the occupancy. • Always found in section _.2.6.1 of the occupancy chapters. • Industrial Occupancy, • With sprinkler system: 250 ft • Without sprinkler system: 200 ft • Table 30Antea USA, Inc.
  31. 31. Chapter 8: Features of Fire Protection • Guidance on building construction, and compartmentation of spaces. • This helps prevent the spread of smoke and fire from traveling throughout the building, which can prevent escape. • This is the key reason why fire doors must be self closing 31Antea USA, Inc.
  32. 32. • Guidance on the installation of building equipment, in regards to its impact on Life Safety. • Guidance on the installation of fire alarm and suppression systems, which are a key to notifying occupants of a fire, and providing time to evacuate. • Fire sprinkler systems are typically not designed to extinguish a fire. They are designed to SUPRESS a fire while occupants are evacuating, and the fire department is responding. Chapter 9: Building Services and Fire Protection Equipment Antea USA, Inc. 32
  33. 33. • Materials adhered to the floors, walls and ceilings must comply with this chapter • Caution must be taken with the type of materials used, due to flame spread rates • This is often an issue in educational buildings (elementary schools) where teachers hang artwork on the walls • Carpets are only allowed to extend a few inches up a wall for this reason, unless designed for walls. • Ceilings are required to be non combustible, with allowances for some hanging items. Chapter 10: Interior Finishes Antea USA, Inc. 33
  34. 34. • Is the business the first occupant of the building? • Is the business a tenant in a shared facility? • Has the facility been remodeled? • Is there excessive storage within the facility? What to think about Antea USA, Inc. 35
  35. 35. • NFPA 101: Life Safety Code • International Fire Code, 2015 Ed • OSHA 29 CFR 1910 Subpart E – Means of Egress References & Resources Antea USA, Inc. 36
  36. 36. Nicholas Paoli, CSP, ARM, CFPS Project Manager | USA Antea®Group Office: +1.303.615.311 Mobile: +1.720.252.3652 USA Toll Free 800.477.7411 200 Union Blvd Suite 500 Lakewood, CO 80228 Nicholas.Paoli@anteagroup.com |