3. L A U N D R Y
In any residential establishment, a lot of dirty linen
accumulates in the various units and departments. It
is essential to ensure a continuous supply of
linen, which is well laundered, so that operations can
be carried out smoothly and efficiently. Linen is an
expensive item, so how it will be laundered requires
serious consideration. People involved in handling
linen should have some knowledge of the process.
Moreover, the Housekeeper and Linen keeper should
have a good rapport with the Laundry Manager.
Although it is essential that good quality linen be
purchased, the life of the linen depends on the care
of linen in use and the treatment it gets at the
5. - careful handling of linen articles while laundering.
- correct processing and use of a suitable laundry
- while materials are kept white, excessive bleach
is not used.
- proper counting and records maintained to avoid
shortages of linen.
- speedy operations to meet with operational
- sound policies regarding damages or loss.
A commercial or off-premises laundry refers to
laundering activities performed outside the
establishment i.e. given on a contract basis to
specialists in the field. In a rare circumstance, the
laundry is contracted and on-premises. An on-site or
laundry, however, refers to laundering activities
carried on within the establishment by staff
employed by the hotel.
A good laundry facility ensures the
6. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
OF AN ON-PREMISES LAUNDRY :
• Time taken for laundering is reduced because
transportation is eliminated.
• Linen is readily available especially in the case of
• Control over the wash process and the laundry
agents used making the wear and
tear on linen comparatively much lesser.
• Pilferage is reduced.
• The ‘par’ stock required is reduced.
• Revenue is earned from guest laundry.
7. • Cost of equipment and its maintenance is fairly
• Related expenses like printing of forms, employee
taxes, water taxes, energy costs
and insurance are high.
• More staff who are technically qualified and
adequate space is required.
• Must be justified by an adequate amount of linen.
1. Removal of dirt and stains from the linen
2. Restoring linen articles to their original
appearance as far as possible.
PRINCIPLES OF LAUNDERING :
9. Collection & Transportation :
Collection of linen may be done in the Linen
Room, if the laundry is off-site but is usually in
the laundry itself, if the laundry is on-premises.
During collection, all accessories that cannot be
washed such as metal items; epaulettes, etc.
should be removed at the time of collection.
Certain linen items are collected separately. For
example, kitchen uniforms or dusters are
separately collected, as are butchery aprons and
dusters, because they have a specific type of soil.
Likewise, in a hospital, linen from the surgical ward
would be collected separately. The linen is usually
packaged in canvas bags lined with polyvinyl.
Eyelets on the rim of the bag facilitate passing a
nylon cord through, which can be tightened in
order to shut the opening of the bag. In some
cases elasticized net bags called ‘skips’ are used to
collect linen. Carrying the linen in canvas bags or
skips is one means of transportation.
10. Trolleys are most popular for transportation and
the collapsible wire cart can be used to
transport clean as well as soiled linen. Whatever
the type of trolley, the soiled linen should not
hang over the edge of the trolley, as it looks
If planned at the construction stage, an in-built
chute is used for transporting linen from the
floor pantries. It is preferable to put linen into
canvas bags before dropping it down the chute
so that wear and tear is reduced. However, this
is rarely done, so it must be
ensured that the flooring at the base of the
chute should be easy to clean. The best
collection system will vary from one operation to
another but the increase of soil must be
eliminated in order to prevent incurring
11. On arrival, linen must be dealt with as quickly as
possible. There must be a separate section for
guest laundry that is usually handled by the most
experienced staff. Processing linen for
laundering as quickly as possible is necessary:
- to ensure that linen items are available as and
- to avoid transfer of stains and prevent stains
from becoming permanent.
- so that it does not provide a breeding ground
for bacteria and pests.
- to prevent the formation of mildew on damp
articles particularly bath linen.
- to avoid the possibility of linen getting
misplaced or lost.
12. In hospitals, the infection risk necessitates the
need for using gloves when sorting out linen.
Gloves may also be used when handling hotel linen.
Sorting is carried out according to the type of
fabric and item, color as well as the degree and
type of soil. Sorting is done to separate those
articles that need dry cleaning from those that
will go through the normal wash process. Those
that need mending or stain removal will be
separated so that they can be dealt with
accordingly. Also, different articles take a
different wash process in terms of temperature
of water, type of laundering agent,
length of wash cycle, whether hydro- extraction
should be done and if so, the length of the hydro-
extraction cycle. It takes less effort to pre-sort
linen than to post-sort washed linen which is 50%
heavier in weight due to water retention. Post-
sorting is often essential in healthcare processes.
13. Marking :
Marking may be temporary (guest laundry) or
permanent (monogramming of hotel linen). It is
the temporary marking that is carried out at this
stage. Most good establishments have a marking
machine that attaches a heat sealed tape in an
inconspicuous place. The tag has scope for six
characters and is intended to indicate
the initials of the guest as well as the room
number. It provides a clear identification and
correct billing, and although it does not come off
in the normal wash process, it can be peeled off
if so desired.
Is carried out to conform to the capacity of the
(Overloading) There is no or low centrifugal action
because the linen articles are too tightly packed
in the drum. Resultantly, there is inadequate
friction and the deeply imbedded soil is not
removed so the wash process is ineffective.
14. Certain synthetics develop creases as a result of
overloading that are difficult to get rid of in the
subsequent ironing process. Repeated overloading
can cause the machine to breakdown.
(Under loading)In this case, there is centrifugal
action but inadequate friction because the linen
articles are too far apart
There is a good deal of wastage in terms of
time, labor, laundry agents, water and power.
Many modern machines have sensors that can
gauge not only the load but also the length of
cycle, temperature of water, water level, the
type and amount of laundry
agent and when it will be dispensed in the wash
cycle. This is highly beneficial in the conservation
of water and energy as well as reducing wear and
tear on the linen articles.
15. Is often done manually or with a certain degree
of automation. Where handling is taboo, a fully
automated system exists. Shovel type cranes are
used for lifting and depositing linen, thereby
providing complete automation by eliminating the
handling by operators. Alternatively, weighed
linen in bags is transported along a track and
directed to the opening of the washer extractor
with the help of a nylon cord .
A lock in the lower half of the bag is released,
dropping the soiled linen into the washer
extractor. Machines that tilt, provide ease in
both loading as well as unloading. Machines may
be top loading, front loading or side loading.
This process is designed to perform three basic
1. removal of soil
2. suspension of soil
3. discharge of the soil from the machine to the
16. 1.Length of cycle :
If the cycle is too short, the linen will not be
cleaned. If the cycle is too long, there will
be unnecessary wear and tear and the clothes
may actually become dirtier as a result
of redeposit ion of soil.
2.Temperature of water:
If the temperature of water is too high, it is
likely to damage the linen. If the
temperature is inadequate, the chemicals will
not work effectively.
3.Water level :
Incorrect ‘dip’ levels can alter the
concentration of the laundry agents rendering
ineffective. In case of a gentle action the
water level is usually higher forming a
protective envelope to the delicate linen.
In the wash process, the following factors must be
17. This is also a crucial factor that affects the
quality of wash Deciding which laundry agent
should be used is dependent on the nature of
the fabric being washed. Too little detergent
will result in an incomplete cleaning process.
And too much may remain as
a residue after the rinse cycle is complete. It is
important that the laundry agent is introduced
into the wash cycle at the appropriate time if it
is to have the required action.
4.Type and amount of detergent and when it
will be dispensed in the wash cycle:
This refers to the centrifugal action brought
about by the movement of the drum that causes
friction between the linen articles and is
radically affected by overloading or under
loading as well as the speed of the drum.
Modern machinery often operates on
sensors, which are capable of gauging each of
these requirements for a specific load.
18. Rinsing :
Once the wash cycle is completed, rinsing
becomes essential. Rinsing is carried out at
least twice and the purpose of this stage is to:
1. remove residue of laundry agents, which
might show as patches on the linen after
ironing or irritate the skin.
2. remove suspended dirt, which remains in the
carry over liquor in the load at the
end of the wash.
3. lower the temperature of the wash load by
using a cold water rinse or alternatively
reducing the temperature of water in
A running rinse with an open drain is more
effective but a larger volume of water is
19. Hydro-extraction :
Is the removal of excess moisture through
centrifugal action and is equivalent to
wringing in hand washing .The absorbency of the
fabric affects the length of the cycle (6 to 8
mines.) and the residue of moisture (10% to 30
%) Draining must precede hydro-extraction and
hydro-extraction must precede tumbledrying.
Some articles cannot be hydro-extracted so
there is a pumping action to draw out the water
from the linen load. Too short an extraction
time will increase the drying time and may
hinder the proper operation of finishing
equipment. The most efficient extraction for
cottons takes place at temperatures higher
than 38º C but
lower than 55º C so that they are not too hot to
handle. Polyesters and blends should be
extracted at a temperature below 38º C to
The compact mass of hydro-extracted clothes
is referred to as ‘cheese’.
20. Unloading :
Transferring washed linen from the hydro-
extractor to the Tumble Dryer is a difficult
task because of the added weight of moisture.
Articles may be manually removed and put into
trolleys. Tilting and dumping machines reduce
the physical effort of manual unloading. A
laundry cart can be positioned under the door
and a pushbutton
operated to rotate the cylinder and empty its
contents. Alternatively, the machine can unload
onto a conveyor belt that will transport the
linen to the next set of operations.
Tumble Drying :
This process is capable of rendering the linen
completely dry by blowing hot air ranging
between 40º C to 60º C onto the articles as
they are slowly circulated in the rotating drum.
For articles that are susceptible to damage by
21. there is the option of simply airing by
circulating air at room temperature. To avoid
wrinkles and the
risk of spontaneous combustion, many dryers
have a cool-down cycle at predetermined
intervals. The process of tumble-drying creates
a good deal of wear and tear on the fabric as
particles of lint come off the fabric in the
drying process. The time taken is approx. 30
mines. depending on whether the article is to be
completely or partially dried.
For those articles that require a pressed finish,
ironing and pressing are usual, but there are
also other finishing equipment. Articles like
blankets, towels, candlewick bedspreads,
hosiery, etc. that do not require a pressed
finish are only tumble-dried.
22. Can be done by machine but in most cases is
carried out completely manually or at least the
finishing folds are done manually. The use of a
folding stand helps minimize this otherwise very
labour-intensive operation. Manual folding
makes it possible to achieve the desired fold as
well as ensure quality control. Employees in this
the one ones who ‘reject’ stained linen and are a
good source for ascertaining what types and
quantities of stains commonly occur. This is an
important stage in the processing of laundered
linen as it can be the ‘bottleneck’ in an
otherwise efficient laundry operation. Correct
folding is important to the appearance of the
makes it convenient to store and use.
24. Transfer :
This is essential prior to storage, especially if
the articles are to be stored in closed shelves.
It ensures that any moisture that is likely to
cause mildew will be got rid of.
:Should be properly done in a well–designed
storage space. Linen should be allowed a rest
period to recuperate before it is used again.
The life span of linen is greatly increased if
proper rotation of stock is carried out, thereby
ensuring a ‘rest period’ between uses. As a
general rule, at any given time, approximately
50% of the total linen inventory should be on
the shelves, 25% in use and 25% in processing.
The storage area must be isolated from the
soiled linen and kept clean
The linen is issued to the unit/department for
use. Since transfer of clean linen is usually done
by linen trolleys, it is important to keep the
25. The linen is utilized for the necessary function
intended and the cycle begins all over again.
THE WASHING MACHINE
26. - the essential parts of the washing machine are
shown in the above diagram.
- the machine may be top loading (lesser
capacity), front loading or side loading (for
large loads in industrial laundering).
- the machine rotates for 15 seconds in one
direction, stops and reverses direction for
15 seconds. This prevents the ‘roping’ of linen in
- the speed of rotation of the drum depends on
the diameter and ranges between 40
to 60 r.p.m.
- centrifugal action of the drum causes friction
between the clothes thereby
- the water level is referred to as ‘dip’.
- the temperature of water ranges from 30º C
to 95º C
- machines operate on manual switches, dial
settings, computerized cards or on
27. - modern machinery have sensors that can
gauge the length of cycle, level and
temperature of water, amount of laundry agent
and when it should be added in the
wash cycle as well as
the type of drum action, for a specific wash
- industrial machinery have a control panel
which displays the stage in the wash
progress, the time remaining for the completion
of the cycle, the temperature of
water and the chemical in use.
- machines which carry out washing as well as
hydro-extraction are called washer
28. HYDRO-EXTRACTOR :
THE WASH CYCLE :
Sour & Soft
Modern hydro-extractors work on the
centrifugal action and the procedure is usually
part of the wash cycle. The drum rotates at
high speed (at least ten times the wash speed)
and the clothes are pressed against the sides
of the drum and water passes out
through the perforations and out through the
A complete wash cycle is composed of various
stages and the time taken is approx. 40 to 50
minutes. It has been proven that quick wash
cycles using large volume of water broken down
into the following sequence is most effective.
29. ADDITIONAL STAGES IN THE WASH CYCLE :
There are four factors that are as
basic to laundry operations as they are
to any other good cleaning operation.
These are essential where there is a specific
type of soiled or the articles are heavily soiled.
Carryover Suds (Intermediate Rinse)
30. TUNNEL WASHERS :
These are also called batch washers or
continuous washers and are in effect a series of
inter-connected washers. Each ‘bath’ is in a
different cylinder and the load moves
from one cylinder to the next. Computerized
systems automatically adjust the time,
temperature and chemicals to be used, so that
each batch receives the required
treatment. Machines may be top transfer or
bottom transfer. Tunnel washers have
distinct advantages in that they are timesaving,
thereby reducing staff requirement.
There are also significant energy and water
savings. Tunnel washers can also be
hooked up to an extractor and subsequently with
conveyors to the dryer.
31. Dryers are machines that dry laundry by
tumbling it slowly in a perforated drum exposed
to hot air ranging from 40ºC to 60ºC in low
capacity dryers and going right up to 85ºC in an
industrial dryer. There are programmes for
delicate articles with low or no heat. Dryers
may operate on gas, electricity or steam. For
speedy drying and less wrinkling the volume of
the dryer should be 25% more than the washer-
extractor. Most dryers have a microprocessor
computer control system. Although suitable
drying times are usually recommended for
specific fabrics, some dryers have sensors
onto their microprocessors so that they can
gauge the moisture in the load and cut the
dryer off automatically the moment the laundry
is dry. This is a major preventive factor against
spontaneous combustion, as hot air blowing on
‘bone dry’ fabrics can easily set it on fire.
TUMBLE DRYER :
32. Furthermore, the dryer may have a post-drying
cool down cycle that also reduces the fire
hazard as well as prevents the formation of
wrinkles in no iron fabrics. The process creates
a great deal of wear and tear on the fabric as
particles of lint come off in the drying process.
A lint screen traps the lint particles and must be
cleaned regularly. Lint build-up restricts air-flow
and reduces the rate of moisture removal,
thereby increasing energy consumption and
costs. The length of the cycle is dependent on
the absorbency of the fabric, the residue of
moisture and whether the fabric is to be
completely dried (approximately 40 mines.)
Modern dryers are equipped with high tech
features such as signal lights, self-cleaning
lint screens, reverse cylinder drums as well as
energy-saving devices like extra insulation and
heat re claimers
33. Is used for flatwork i.e. items like
sheets, pillowcases, tablecloths, serviettes, apr
ons, sari, etc. The items are passed through
heated rollers for ironing.
FINISHING EQUIPMENT :
For those articles that require a pressed finish
there are many finishing equipment.
Some of the more frequently used equipment
are listed below.
Flatwork Ironer / Roller
Iron / Calendar :
Is for shaped articles (usually clothing) like
shirts, trousers, etc. They are special presses to
perform specific functions and operation can be
on electricity or steam.
Is a chamber where low-crease garments are
suspended on hangers and steam or hot air is
circulated through the cabinet.
Cabinet Dryer or Drying Room :
34. Clothes are hung on conveyor belts that pass
through a tunnel. Hot air blowing in the
tunnel, renders the articles completely dry by
the time they exit. It is a fully automated
process that also transfers the linen to the next
area of activity.
Puffer or Suzie :
For coats and articles that do not crease
heavily. The articles are put onto a dummy that
is inflated with steam to remove creases and
then with hot air to remove the moisture
created by the steam.
Tunnel Dryer :
LOCATION AND PLANNING OF AN ON-
PREMISES LAUNDRY :
When planning an on-premises laundry it must be
located far from guestrooms so that guests are
not disturbed. It is essential that the laundry be
located near the linen room for convenience and
reducing transportation time.
35. Ideally, the area should have an outside wall
since equipment need to be vented to the
outside. With few exceptions, the laundry is
located in the basement because laundry
equipment is very heavy and the vibrations of
the equipment are better absorbed. Such a
location makes it imperative to have a proper
ventilation system. In circumstances where the
laundry is located at an upper floor, usually as a
result of expansion, the floor may have to be
structurally re-enforced. Wherever the laundry
is located, the walls of the room should be
durable and moisture resistant; ceilings should
be at least ten feet high, must resist moisture
and absorb sound. A cement floor with easily
cleanable floor drains and no spots where water
can pool is vital. The ideal size for a hotel
laundry is difficult to determine.
36. The types and amounts of linen used, the
average number of guests per day, whether the
hotel has one or more restaurants, whether
there is a health club and/or swimming pool, the
types and capacities of laundry
equipment, whether employee uniforms are
laundered at the hotel, whether there are
guest laundry facilities offered, are a few
examples of the variables that must be
considered not only when determining the
required area but also when planning the layout.
Laundry employee schedules must also be taken
into consideration at the planning stage. To run
smoothly, a laundry needs to be well designed
and have the right equipment.
properly installed. Such laundries have an
advantage of low maintenance costs. In an
existing laundry operation, it is necessary to
observe for signs that indicate that the laundry
may need to be redesigned.
37. These may include too many last-minute rush
jobs, piles of unprocessed linen, persistent linen
shortages, excessive overtime among laundry
workers and overcrowding of the laundry
workspace. The basic design factors that need
to be thought out when designing or redesigning
an on-premises laundry include
location, size, equipment layout, utilities and
labor Each lodging operation is unique, therefore
it is impossible to provide specific information
equipment selection. Criteria that are applicable
to the selection of all cleaning equipment must
be considered. Ease of operation is important
and though most machines have microprocessors
that simplify procedures, it should be easy to
train operators particularly where there is a
likelihood of a high staff turnover. The
versatility of equipment is important especially
in a washer extractor.
38. It should be able to dispense a variety of
chemical formulas and have different cycles to
deal with different laundry items and soiling
conditions Regarding durability ,the equipment
must be well-constructed from robust materials
with life-extending features such as heavy duty
motors and a load distribution speed. This is
crucial, since they will be handled by many
operators. It is advisable to select a well
established manufacturer who specializes in
laundry equipment and will provide a warranty,
servicing and spare parts back-up and training in
operation and maintenance. A factor that is
frequently overlooked is how the equipment will
be brought into the building. Machines may work
on gas, electricity or steam and should be
connected to a common master switch that can
be switched off in case of emergencies. In any
case, fire-fighting equipment must be installed
in this area.
40. LAYOUT OF A LAUNDRY :
When planning the layout of a laundry, consider
the work flow and wherever possible ensure that
the plan does not hinder the smooth flow of
operations. To reduce turnaround time between
loads, ease of loading and unloading equipment
must be ensured – area for accumulating and
sorting linen should be located close to the
washer extractor; dryers should be adjacent to
the washer extractor, to save time and
employee effort; hinges of the washer
extractors and the dryers are adjustable and
can be placed on the right or left side of the
door, so the proper choice must be made in
accordance with the laundry layout in order to
avoid employees having to walk around the open
door to get from one machine to the next; the
folding area should be located near the area
where laundered linen is stored.
41. - entrances and exits
- support columns and beams
- space between adjacent machines and
adequate space between the back of the
machine and the wall which is essential to
facilitate servicing and repair.
- power points for electrical supply and the
required voltage. (gas and steam supply in many
other parts of the world)
- water supply lines with adequate pressure (10
gallons per Kg of linen approx.) and preventing
the occurrence of ‘water hammer’
- hot water supply lines must utilize heavy duty
heating equipment which in recent times is
being substituted by the use of solar energy.
- water softening - also the removal of
iron, manganese and sculpture to eliminate
staining and enhance the action of the
When positioning laundry
equipment, the following must be
42. - drain locations and proper drainage system
that will keep up with the rapid discharge rate
of modern equipment. This is best met by a
drain trough and the normal floor drain is also
installed to deal with overflows.
- a separate section to deal with guest
- local code for restrictions/ permit
- energy and water conservation as well as
safety factors also affect decisions regarding
the selection of equipment.
- area must accommodate the total number of
staff working at the busiest times (approx.1
staff for 40Kg of laundry)
- the size of the property and the type of
services offered are major considerations for
43. As technology strives to automate every face
of hotel operations, computerized
laundry systems have been around for quite a
while. The hotel cannot sell a single room or a
cover in the restaurant without the use of
textile products. With the realization of the
potential benefits of cleaning up the laundry
operations, more and
more streamlining processes are being
introduced. Apart from exploring the options of
localized laundry operations that service
multiple properties, outsourcing laundry
services, water reclamation and heat recovery
systems to reduce hotel energy consumption,
some hotels are experimenting with Windows-
based laundry software and ozone washing.
44. LAUNDRY AGENTS :
Water by itself is ineffective as a cleaning
agent, due to a phenomenon known as ‘surface
tension’. It will remove water-soluble dirt, but
has little effect on oils and grease. The
addition of a detergent reduces the surface
tension, allowing the water to penetrate,
wetting the garment thoroughly so that soil is
Suspending Agent :
The role of the suspending agent in cleaning is
to hold the dirt in suspension and prevent it
from red positing onto the surface of the
article. It plays a crucial role in the laundry
agent due to the amount of time that the
clothes rotate in the machine while the dirt is
in suspension. The suspending agent is carboxyl
45. These act along with the suspending agent to
hold dirt in suspension. They assist by holding a
greater amount of dirt in suspension thereby
reducing the likelihood of redeposit ion.
They also have the additional ability to dissolve
lime salts that are responsible for temporary
hardness in water. Sodium polyphosphates act
as sequestering agents.
Sequestering Agent :
Alkalis used in the wash process include
1. Washing Soda
2. Sodium Phosphate
3. Sodium Hydroxide
4. Sodium Met silicate
The role of the alkali in the wash process
OTHER LAUNDERING AGENTS
46. Bleaches :
These are used on white articles only. They
remove coloring matter by their oxidizing or
reducing action. If not in liquid form, they
should be dissolved in hot water in order to
ensure that no powder residue remains in the
washing machine which may affect later loads.
The bleaches commonly used in the laundry
process are sodium perforate and sodium
These are agents used to neutralize the
chlorine bleach and are essential particularly in
the case of polyesters. The use of chlorinated
bleaches has a tendency to leave yellow
This is used only in industrial laundering in the
final rinse, to neutralize any alkaline soap
residues that may be present.
47. It brings the pH of the linen articles to a level
between 5 and 6.5, which is agreeable to the
human skin. and also gets rid of yellow or brown
deposits caused by residue alkali. Acetic acid is
used as the sour.
In cases where there is a high iron content in
the water, Oxalic acid is used which serves a
dual purpose, by also getting rid of the
reddish, iron deposits. If starch is being
used, sour should be added 2 minutes before the
starch to achieve a pH of 5.0 to 5.5. If a sizing
agent is being used, the ideal pH is 7.0 to 8.0 so
sour is generally not used.
LAUNDRY PROCEDURES for
different fabrics :
LAUNDERING OF COTTONS
The process of laundering cotton fabrics is
dependent on the texture of the fabrics,
fastness of color and the finish appropriate to
48. Sorting is a major stage according to
- fine ,delicate cotton (mulmul, muslin)
- white and light fast colors
- dark, fast colors
- non-fast colors
A further classification into coarse articles, bed
linen and personal articles and table
This sorting will be responsible for deciding
- the temperature of water in the main wash
- the need for disinfection/sterilization
- the detergent used
- the speed of rotation of the drum
- the length of the wash cycle
- the use of bleach and optical brighteners
- the need to starch
49. Silk should be washed frequently as perspiration
damages the fabric. Never soak articles as it
weakens the fabric nor should they be subjected
to high heat (wash temperature approx. 30º C).
The detergent should have a good surfactant
and should not depend on mechanical action for
cleaning. No harsh chemicals should be used. The
final rinse of silk articles should be carried out
with a little vinegar in it. (1 stun /10 liters
water) in order to preserve luster. Silk is too
delicate to be hydro-extracted. Silk should
never be sundried as this damages the fabric
and causes yellowing of the fabric. Ironing is on
medium heat as silk scorches easily. The article
must be evenly dampened and water should
never be sprinkled on the fabric as it leaves
LAUNDERING OF SILK :
50. Ensure that the articles are completely dry so
that creases do not reappear on the portion
which is damp. Ironing is carried out on the
reverse in order to preserve luster and air all
silk garments after ironing. Silk is usually dry-
In the laundering of wool, the articles must be
shaken out to remove the dust particles that
are held in the loosely constructed weave.
Hand-knitted garments are very susceptible to
felting and stretching. Mark the outline of the
article prior to washing and arrange it in its
original size and shape after laundering and dry
flat. In the laundering of wool, the following
should be avoided:
- application of friction
- fluctuating and high temperatures
- use of strong laundry agents
LAUNDERING OF WOOL :
51. - wringing tightly and hydro-extraction
- hanging the fabric when wet
- prolonged soaking as it makes the fabric weak
The capacity of the machine, may have to be
disregarded due to the bulkiness of the article
The movement of the drum should be gentle and
a scrubbing brush should never be used . The
wash cycle should be short and water
temperature (not more than 35º C). The rinse
cycle should be thorough and borax is added to
the final rinse water to prevent matting. No
hydro-extraction is permitted but there is
instead a pumping action for the removal of
moisture. Usually ironing is not required, but
wherever necessary, iron when the article is
completely dry, using a low temperature and
ironing on the reverse of the article. It is very
essential to air to fabric after ironing.
52. These are manufactured so that they shed dirt
quickly in the wash. However if they become
heavily soiled, (especially collars and cuffs and
sari borders) they become difficult to clean, so
it is better to wash them after every use.
Soaking the garments before laundering is
beneficial as it loosens the dirt. Care must be
taken when loading the machine as overloading
results in creases which may be difficult to
remove later. The application of friction should
avoid the use of a scrubbing brush and should
be restricted to heavily soiled parts only. The
wash cycle is short and carried out at a low
temperature (30º C) Rinsing should be carried
out in water at room temperature. The hydro-
extraction cycle is also short as synthetic
articles have a low absorbency. Iron on low heat
but quickly as if there is a prolonged contact it
is likely to scorch the fabric.
LAUNDERING OF SYNTHETICS :