1.1 CONSTRUCTION STAKE HOLDERS
The activities take part in the construction industry taken by according to the RIBA plan of work
- RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects), which establish in UK, is basically a guideline for
the consequence of construction industry. It includes 8 stages named as,
Stage 0 - Inception
Stage 1 – Preparation & brief
Stage 2 – Concept design
Stage 3 – Developed design
Stage 4 – Technical design
Stage 5 – Construction stage
Stage 6 – Hand over & closeout
Stage 7 – In use
The client or the employer who initiate to start a project. They start a project with an intention to
invest his money in an effective way so he is started the project in the inception stage from that up
to the practical in use works with different type of people those people called as stake holders of
the construction industry.
According to the Investopedia. (n.d.). A stakeholder is a party that has an interest in a company,
and can either affect or be affected by the business. The primary stakeholders in a typical
corporation are its investors, employees and customers. However, the modern theory of the idea
goes beyond this original notion to include additional stakeholders such as a community,
government or trade association.
Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/stakeholder.asp/
The construction industry also has set of stake holders under that we discuss about some particular
person such as Architect, Engineers, Quantity Surveyors, Surveyors, Contractor, sub-contractors,
facility mangers and fabricators.
3. 1.2 BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING
BIM (Building Information Modelling) is latest technology in the construction industry to prepare
the 2D and 3D model-based process the tool which support to the construction stake holders to do
their task effectively and efficiently they use this tool for plan, design, construct, and manage
buildings and infrastructure.
BIM uses for modelling the functions and behaviours of the building system and components
specially it uses for the whole stages in the construction process.
The BIM providing number of benefits in every stage such as Preconstruction benefits, Design
benefits, Construction and Fabrication benefits, post construction benefits those benefits are
supporting the stake holders who join the construction industry in every stage.
The client is the person who initiate the process and in the very beginning he meets two persons.
According to the advice of these persons if he satisfy he continue with his process in the next step
he meets the suitable designers specially the architects.
4. ARCHITECT AND BIM
2.1 THE ARCHITECT
The architect plays the main role in a project. He is the first person appointed by the client. The
architects function is to interpret the clients brief and translate into a viable building within the
stated constraints. Architect has a responsible for obtaining the necessary approvals for planning,
ensuring compliance with regulations and supervising the materials and workmanship erection of
during the building.
2.2 BIM INVOLVES IN DESIGN
The client discuss with the architect regarding the concept of the building the duty of the
designer to give a visualization for the clients’ concept which call as conceptual design for that the
architect has to prepare number of schematic design in the earlier days they were drawn by manual
but newer days the architect can easily draw the conceptual design using the BIM it gives good
outlook so easily the client can identify whether his expectation has achieved or not and it reduces
the fatigue of the designer otherwise the designer has to spend more time for the outside layout
The second stage is the design development stage when the concept has fixed the architect
will start the schematic design specially without the services the architect will confirm the
structural of the building this drawing also will discuss with the client and finalize one of the
suitable plan. during this time, they consider the environmental conditions and site, locations
Huck.E, Paul . T, Rafael .S & Kathleen .L. (2008). The design development stage depends on
special factors such as buildings’ function, costs, construction methods and
materials environmental impacts, building practices, cultural and aesthetic
conditions so the architect have to do changes according to this in this traditional way the
architect has to prepare drawings and sketches again and again but with the support of the BIM it
is easy to do the changes for some particular factor changes. BIM technology supports architects
throughout the design process. Gain more insight earlier in the process to optimize designs for
5. their clients’ requirements. BIM software helps Architect to deliver projects with improved quality
and efficiency especially.
2.3 BENEFITS OF BIM FOR ARCHITECT
A more fluid design process - Move from conceptual design through
documentation using interoperable tools that maintain model fidelity at each stage.
Integrated visualization and analysis tools - Create immersive visualizations and
virtual reality (VR) experiences directly from your model. Get more insight into your
designs with energy analysis tools.
Extend BIM workflows with computational design - Build geometry, explore
design options, automate processes, and create links between multiple applications.
Multidiscipline collaboration - Work more effectively with the extended project
team using cloud-based collaboration tools that support concurrent BIM authoring,
regardless of location. (pp.151-171). Hoboken, NJ, USA
6. BIM FOR STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS
3.1 STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS
The structural engineer is the one of the key stake holder in the construction industry. Specially
they consider on the structural and civil engineering process which is the large specially the
technical matters depend on these engineers. They concerned with the design and physical integrity
of buildings and other large structures, like tunnels and bridges. Structural engineers have wide
range of responsibilities - not least a duty to ensure the safety and durability of the project on which
they are working. Unlike architects, who must focus on the appearance, shape, size and use of
the building, structural engineers must solve technical problems - and help the architect achieve
his or her vision for the project.
3.2 BIM IN STRUCTURAL DRAWING
The structural engineers also the person who called as the designer according to the RIBA plan of
works during the technical design and design analysis during this stage the technical team specially
the engineers join because it consists with many functional aspects of a building’s performance,
structural integrity, temperature control, ventilation and air flows, light pedestrian
circulation, acoustics, energy distribution and consumption. The BIM support for the
following activities during this stage
Make better structures - BIM (Building Information Modelling) processes
help structural engineers, detailers, and fabricators improve structural design
documentation, minimize errors, and streamline collaboration between teams.
Improves collaboration - Coordinate your models across multiple
disciplines to help ensure a better design.
Enhances structural quality - Integrate structural analysis and design to produce
Connects design to detailing - Streamline your workflows for more efficient
7. Reduces fabrication waste - Plan and coordinate during fabrication to help
improve execution on site.
BIM FOR ELECTRICAL, MECHANICAL AND PLUMPING ENGINEERS
4.1 MEP ENGINEERS
The MEP engineers are the other important engineers who involve in the design stages MEP
Engineers are Designers who are arranging the Mechanical, Electrical and plumbing (MEP)
framework including creating arrangements standard, investigation strategy and assessment
devices for MEP matters including legal branch offices, alongside get ready, audit drawing,
particular and cost gauges for the mechanical, Electrical, and/or Pipes.
MEP Engineer conduct engineering and feasibility and economics studies and prepare reports on
finding develops standard for design and technical specification, investigates new MEP design
concept and technical development of systems which are applicable to engineering problem.
MEP engineer has to review plans and specification according to plan.
MEP Engineer has to manages oversee the work of subordinate staff contact architects or
MEP Engineer has to prepare plans, details, specified and cost estimated of plumbing,
heating, ventilating, air conditioning and general piping system.
MEP Engineer has to provide technical advice to staff designer, supervisor, inspector and
contracting service provider, regarding installation and maintenance of MEP System.
MEP System has to analyse mechanical, Electrical and /or plumbing engineering problems
and formulate solutions.
MEP Engineer has to identify problems in design, plan, manage and deliver multiple
MEP Engineer has to plan, organize review and evaluate the work of consultant, contractor
MEP Engineer has to knowledge of MS office, AutoCAD and Project management
8. MEP Engineer has to prepare and deliver effective oral presentation whenever required.
4.2 BIM BENEFITS FOR MEP ENGINEERS
According to the construction industry definition the 60 percent only depend on the structural
works but the 40 percent depends on the services so the MEP engineer’s involvement also required
before hand over the Tender documents to finalize the documents this activity happen during the
Technical Design stage in the RIBA plan of work.
The BIM support to the MEP engineers to identify the unseen errors detail wise this is impossible
in the traditional system and also, they can change or re design the changes in the plumbing, and
electrical wiring, before building construction ever begins.
The contractor and client do not like to waste the time for the design problem after start the
construction because it something effect on their investment so they have to correct the design
very clear detail wise for that the BIM is the most suitable software for the following correction.
The mechanical drawings normally consist various mechanical components but those
components should cooperate with the other details for example, it is a mechanical
engineer’s job to design the elevator shaft, though the electrical engineer will need to have
a hand in the process as well.
Electrical outlines can detail all of the electrical components of a building. This will allow
contractors to know where everything is going. It will also help all of the electricians to
know what they need to install and where so that there are no issues with maintaining code
It is also critical to have plumbing diagrams as this will need to be signed off with by code
enforcement. It will also ensure that everything is at the level where it needs to be.
9. BIM IN COST ESTIMATING
5.1 THE QUANTITY SURVEYORS
A quantity surveyor (QS) is a professional working with in the construction industry concerned
with construction costs and contracts. Services provided by a quantity surveyor may include Cost
planning and commercial management throughout the entire lifecycle of the project from inception
to post -completion. There are two types of Quantity Surveyors are involving in the construction
Consultant QS - The consultant QS is always in the design & construction
process, from the preliminary feasibility study through to the settlement of the final account
Contractor QS - Quantity surveyors are also employed directly by contractors
& subcontractor. Where they are usually responsible for financial administration of
contracts & other contractual matters.
5.2 BIM AND ESTIMATION
The most important stage is the tendering stage where the Quantity Surveyors favourite stage even
though they involve the all stages. Preparing BOQ is the important task of the Quantity Surveyor
as the consultant QS and contractor QS. The detail plan and if the project is complex difficult to
take quantity for the QS so the BIM give reduce the fatigue and increase the accuracy.
There are many BIM soft wares with different functionalities in the market today. These range
from software for modelling, quantities take-off and costing, project management to cloud-based
BIM. Typically, software for quantities take-off and costing can open 2D drawings or 3D models
created by BIM design or modelling software for viewing and quantity extraction. The generation
of quantities should be according to the standards method of measurements to produce the Bills of
Quantities. These include concrete volume with same or different mix, classification of formwork
in stages, reinforcement bars, interior finishes areas, and can be separated into building works,
architectural works, landscaping works and MEP works.
10. 5.3 BIM BENEFITS FOR QUANTITY SURVEYORS
Provide fast, effective and efficient quantity take-off and cost estimation.
Produce reliable and accurate quantities as well as competitive cost estimates.
Auto computation of calculations reduces human errors.
Generate cost estimation reports categorized according to areas, blocks, concrete grades,
subcontractor and other relevant reports and this increases the speed of deliverables.
Improve visualization of the elements/items for measurement and minimize omissions.
Hand over project to another party more quickly and reduce double handling.
Enhance communication and collaboration amongst team members.
Improve cost database management which reduces loss of information.
11. BIM AND SURVEYORS
6.1 BUILDING SURVEYORS
Building surveyors offer advice on many aspects of design and construction, including
maintenance, repair, refurbishment and restoration of proposed and existing buildings. They offer
quality assessments and report on defects in, or ways of improving, all kinds of buildings. As well
as finding structural faults, building surveyors recommend solutions. They can advise on the
feasibility of a building project, and how much it might cost to carry out, or how suitable a building
could be for a particular purpose.
6.2 BIM FOR SURVEYING
The most people know that other stake holder such as Engineer, Architect and Quantity Surveyors
who uses the Building information modelling (BIM) but the Surveyors also use this to achieve
their task successfully. This model-based approach combines technologies and processes to
support the efficient creation and use of information for building construction and operations. BIM
advanced co-operative platform, it offers many advantages to the project stakeholders associated
with a project. The available BIM tools involve automation and so quantity surveyors will get
advantages from this new process.
A surveyor’s responsibility in a construction industry is spread through the life span of a project
and therefore BIM provides many crucial benefits to him/her. With the help of virtual design and
construction features inside BIM, the surveyor can achieve superior control across the construction
progression. It also helps them optimize their work profile to a great extent.
BIM enhances superior communication and co-operation among different teams in a
It helps the surveyor make the work quicker in lesser cost.
BIM ensures sustainability.
Surveyor, with the help of BIM, can produce accessible synchronous information regarding
12. BIM AND CONTRACTORS
A contractor is anyone who directly employ or engages construction or manages construction.
Contractors include sub-contractors, any person self-employed worker or business organization
that carries out, manages or controls construction work. They must have the skills, knowledge,
experience and, where relevant, the organizational capacity to carry out the work safely and
without risk to wellness also they have an important role in planning, managing and monitoring
their work to ensure any risks are controlled.
Contractors on all projects must:
Make sure the client is aware of the client duties before any work starts
Plan, oversee and delegate all work complete without anyone else's input and their
specialists, considering the dangers to any individual who may be influenced by it
(counting kindred individual from the masses) and the touchstone expected to secure them
Check that all workers they employ or appoint have the skills, knowledge, training and
experience to carry out the work, or are in the process of obtaining them
Make sure that all workers under their control have a suitable, site-specific induction,
unless this has already been provided by the principal contractor
Provide appropriate supervision, information and instructions to workers under their
Ensure they do not start work on site unless reasonable steps have been taken to prevent
Ensure suitable welfare facilities are provided from the start for workers under their
control, and maintain them throughout the work.
13. 7.2 BIM TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTRACTORS
The contractor is the person who make the project in to the practical in use. The contractor main
intention is the profit they go for the accurate Business Estimation of BIM and the contractors try
to develop the BIM technology in worldwide markets to gain brilliant market report, also BIM
encourages them to enhance profitability, proficiency, quality and security on their activities, and
in addition their own particular intensity. Specific advantages of executing BIM, for example,
diminished mistakes and oversights, limiting revamp, and the capacity to present new
administrations are viewed as huge focal points to contractual workers.
Bid Accuracy with Model-Based Estimating: Estimators conventionally spend a ton of
time doing manual takeoffs and quantifications in order to produce a final bid. Using
building information modeling (BIM) technology, Estimators can further add validity to
the numbers and identify any gaps and areas of risk that can be detrimental to winning a
Greater Efficiency in Change-Order Management: In construction, change is constant and
the opportunities for projects to get off track are endless, so project managers must be
constantly vigilant. Relying on the traditional, manual approach to change-order
management doesn’t cut it.
Improved Subcontractor Coordination with Schedule Visualization: A huge advantage
that comes with BIM data integration in a construction project is the ability to visualize the
expected progress and actual progress throughout the entire process. Communicating a
project schedule visually is a useful tool for coordinating with subcontractors on the job
site and even more useful when the schedule data is integrated with the quantities available
In the past, creating transparency and collaboration among all specialty contractors in a project
was seen as a tall order. Today, however, BIM gives general contractors the ability to share model
data with subcontractors. This visual representation of the data helps both contractors and
subcontractors simplify and improve overall efficiency and coordination.
14. BIM FOR FACILITY MANAGER
8.1 FACILITY MANAGERS
A facilities manager is a job role that is responsible for making sure that buildings and their
services meet the needs of the people that work in them. Facilities managers are accountable for
services such as cleaning, security and parking, to make sure the surrounding environment is in a
suitable condition to work. They also manage any building maintenance with things like heating
and air conditioning, to maintain the working environment.
The normal elements of this employment position can shift contingent upon the organization. Be
that as it may, the obligations would regularly incorporate dealing with any repairs, remodels and
office moves to ensure they all run easily and as per design.
Facilities managers are responsible for the general upkeep and maintenance of buildings to ensure
that they meet health and safety standards and also the legal requirements. They need to manage
the cleaning, waste disposal, catering, security and parking of each site, while managing the
budgets and keeping records of all payments.
Facilities managers are also responsible for managing the office systems, which can often include
the IT and office equipment. In some cases, individuals working as facilities managers will work
for an external company, contracted in to manage a number of different organizations. The job title
may also differ. It could be anything from business services manager to support services manager
or contracts manager.
15. 8.2 BIM AND FACILITY MANAGERS
The facility mangers are one of the unknown profession in the construction field which support to
the contractor to make satisfy the client. The facility managers mainly consider about the
Utilization of the space BIM provides significant benefits in the initial stage for entering the facility
information specially the 2D and 3D information. Identified benefits of BIM for facility Managers.
Cost savings at both delivery and operational stages: BIM can help organizations strip
waste from their processes, as they can virtually build the facility as many times as
necessary to create the perfect model. This also provides cost certainty.
Improved efficiency and faster project delivery: As all parties work together
collaboratively, mistakes, discrepancies and duplicate work is avoided
Improved client satisfaction: The client receives a building which matches their
expectations and needs.
Reduced safety risk: BIM allows crowd behavior to be analyzed and fire modelling
capability to be predicted to enable designs to be optimized for public safety.
Greater project predictability and early modification: Projects can be visualized at an early
stage, giving owners and operators a clear idea of design intent and allowing them to
modify the design to achieve the outcomes they want.
A greater role for FM: BIM allows the professional FM to get involved at the design stage
and have a real impact on the building outcome which both improves the outcome and
raises the profile of the FM function, which is the purpose of Government Soft Landings.
16. BIM AND SUB CONTRACTORS
9.1 THE SUB CONTRACTOR
Subcontractors perform work for general contractors, who give them part of an existing contract
to complete. The general contractor has a written agreement with the employer to perform a job.
The general contractor oversees the project and delegates work to the subcontractor.
Subcontractors may also have direct contracts with other subcontractors to perform a portion of
the work under contract.
9.2 BIM FOR SUB-CONTRACTORS
The sub contractor is the person appoint for the special technical works. According to the
traditional system Subcontractor will find the same information is being entered into computer
programs multiple times, each time for a distinct and separate use. Some of this duplicate data
entry occurs within the company and some of it occurs across the project team. Also, they are
limited by the tools and processes specially the long-term value to the project team is limited by
these methods and the output also reduce.
If the subcontractor use BIM, he can have connected the processes of design, engineering,
manufacturing and procurement. And also, he can have connected these processes with the rest of
the team. The improved, and in some cases new processes they employ are recognized as a great
contribution to the efficient execution of the entire construction project.
The sub-contractors who are using the BIM are seeing significant improvements to the overall
efficiency or their organization and the specific productivity of their team members. The
subcontractors have introduced new work processes that allow them to prefabricate coordinated
systems even in the most complex construction environments.
The BIM gives better advantages for the subcontractors to the better implementation of the lean
construction techniques it supports to the sub contractor to coordinate with the general contractor.
Also, it provides the basis for include planning and scheduling of subcontractors and helps to
ensure JIT (just in time)
17. BIM AND FEBRICATORS
10.1 THE FEBRICATORS
Structural steel fabricators provide and erect quality, fabricated steel components and structures.
They offer a cost effective, durable, and stable high-quality steel construction solution. The typical
structural steel fabricator employs admin personnel and salespeople, engineers and project
managers, detailers, shop workers, equipment operators, welders and painters, inspectors, and
delivery drivers. Construction projects range from the fabrication of several tons of structural steel
for to tens of thousands of tons for a high-rise commercial structure.
Structural steel fabricators physically prepare the structural steel components for a construction
project (bridge or building). Upon project award, the fabricator’s steel detailer is responsible for
creating accurately-dimensioned drawings of each structural steel component and connections to
be fabricated. Acceptable load dimensions must comply with the equivalent standard requirement
for that size and shape of structural steel required by code. The structural engineer approves the
drawings and the shop flow and project schedule / material management sequence is prepared, to
(Plasma) cutting to the proper length,
Punching or drilling,
Shop fitting (bolting, welding),
Cleaning and painting or galvanizing when required,
Grouping members in their field-erection order, and
Shipping and delivering to the project site.
18. 10.2 BIM BENEFITS FOR FABRICATORS
The auto desk Revit is the famous tool which used by the fabricators which use create architectural
scale models, and facilitate digital production of custom building components and assemblies
BIM models are increasing being used to facilitate a variety of related building activities, including
digital fabrication of building components. The use of BIM enables digital design-to-fabrication
workflows for many creating many types of building elements, including:
Structural steel framing
Curtain wall elements
Façade and building envelope features (for example, rain screens, shading features, and
Mechanical systems and ductwork
Casework and furniture systems
Digital fabrication can be used during many phases of the project lifecycle, supporting both design
activities (3D printing of scale models of design options) and production tasks (creating actual
building elements). Also, the prefabrication and digital fabrication strategies typically offer many
advantages compared to on-site piece-built approaches such as
Improved Quality and Control
Better Coordination and Clash Detection
19. OWNER AND BIM
11.1 THE OWNER
The owner also mentions as client who is the person for whom the project is carried out. In the
case of notifiable projects, clients must appoint a Principal Designer and a Principal Contractor.
Those clients without construction expertise must rely on the advice of professional experts on
how best to meet their duties, but both the Principal Designer and Principal Contractor will need
the clients support and input to be able to carry out their work effectively. The client remains
responsible for ensuring that client duties are met.
The client is the person
Who ultimately decides what is to be constructed, where, when, and by whom?
Who is at the head of the procurement chain?
Who arranges for the design work?
Who engages the contractor?
Who initiates the work?
The owner who is the person initiate the project and from the conceptual stage up to deflects period
he travels with different type of stake holders Throughout the world, major building projects tend
to be characterized by time delays, materials waste and cost overruns. The cost of this “perfect
storm” of inefficiencies, more often than not, are borne by building owners during the ongoing
operations and maintenance stage of the building lifecycle.
20. 11.2 BIM FOR OWNERS
The owner is the person who invest his money to the project so he always considers about cost
overruns, schedule delays and quality issues when explores how BIM helps owners and operators
gain efficiencies throughout the lifecycle of a building project from design and construction stages
through to occupancy—for improved facility management and O&M.
Huck.E, Paul . T, Rafael .S & Kathleen .L. (2008).The owners always think to manage the cost for
the lifecycle of the project the BIM which support and allow the owners to better respond to market
demands and yield a better return on their capital investments. The owner can get better output if
he gains better knowledge in BIM
Using BIM, owners can:
Improve building quality
Significantly reduce building lifecycle costs
Better understand design projects from beginning to end
Optimize operational efficiencies
Increase occupancy and use rates
There are drivers that are motivating all types of owners to adopt BIM technologies, these drivers
Design assessment early and often
Complexity of facilities
Time to market
Cost reliability and management
Product quality, in terms of leakages, malfunctions, unwarranted maintenance
Asset management (pp.305-325). Hoboken, NJ, USA
The report gives the clear idea about the stake holders who use this BIM technology also this
concept supports them to do their duties in the effective and efficient manner. Even though the
BIM technology gives the number of benefits most of the stake holders still don’t have the idea
about this and also, they like their traditional system.
The stake holders who know about the BIM application also try to away from this application
because of the challenges such as challenging with collaboration team, legal challenge to the
documentation and ownership, changes in practice and use of information.
However, BIM is changing the way construction professionals perform their individual tasks and
more importantly, how they collaborate, share and exchange information. BIM is directly
influencing building designs, functions and the ways in which buildings are built so to become the
professionalism in the current construction industry the application of BIM is the must.
Chuck Eastman, Paul Teicholz, RafaelSacks andKathleen Liston. (15 APR 2008). BIM
Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners, Managers, Designers,
Engineers, and Contractors. Hoboken,NJ, USA: 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Goldman, M. (Jun 21, 2010). Building Information Modeling or BIM is the hottest topic in the
investodia. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/stakeholder.asp/
THE ENGINEERING DESIGN. (2016,july 13). Retrieved from Benefits of BIM for MEP