2. The term “integration” refers to a
process whereby the quality of
relations among autonomous
social units (kinship groups, tribes,
cities, trade unions, trade
associations, political parties)
changes in such a way as to erode
the autonomy of each and make it
part of a larger aggregate.
3. National Integration most simply and
briefly means national unity. National
integration is the awareness of a
common identity amongst the citizens of
a country. It is unity in diversity.
National Integration involves :
1. The sentiments of nationalism the
feeling of oneness.
2. Social, political, economic, linguistic
and cultural unity, common ideas of life
and common code of behaviour.
4. SIGNIFICANCE OF NATIONAL
Nations are built on the strength of
Integration begins at home
Prior to the discussion on national integration,
there is need for the integration in family. Until
there is integration at home, it is not possible to
have integration in the society, the nation, and
Need of National Integration in India
National integration is essential for any nation. In a
heterogeneous country like India, it acts as a
cementing factor. Over the years, Pakistan has been
trying to weaken national integration by creating
Hindu-Muslim differences and inciting anti-India
feeling and insurgency in Kashmir.
5. CHALLENGES TO NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN INDIA
In the ancient times, Indian culture used to easily assimilate other
cultures, but now this trait has diminished to a great extent.
Casteism is a major obstacle in the path of national
integration. Great differences are found in inhabitants
belonging to different religions and castes in India.
Followers of one caste or religion consider themselves
superior to those believing in other religions or castes.
It is a great obstacle in the way of national unity. In our
country, there are followers of various religions:
Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, etc.
Provincialism is also a major obstacle in the path of India’s national unity. On the one
hand, there is an increasing tendencies for creation of new states on the basis of
language, on the other hand, each state wants to have a controlling stake at the Centre.
lt is necessary to have political parties for the creation of public opinion and political
consciousness. That’s why after independence, various parties were created in our
country. Unfortunately, there are many parties which seek votes on the basis of caste,
religion, creed and region ignoring public and national interest.
In a vast country like India, there is need for a national language which is spoken and
understood in all regions. But due to narrow regional considerations, Hindi or any other
language is yet to be embraced as means country.
Great social as well as economic diversity is found in our country. Only a handful of
people in the country are rich while the majority are poor
7. According to the Emotional Integration Committee Report (1962),
the attributes of national emotional integration are as follows
i) A strong feeling of brotherhood and nationhood that sinks and
ignores individuals, parochial linguistic and religious differences
ii) The common mental bond that binds all people irrespective of
their differences towards the aesthetic, spiritual and material
.iii) Creation of a feeling of oneness and mental outlook towards the
welfare of the country above narrow sectarian interests
.iv) A harmonious blending of personal emotion in an individual with
his social obligation resulting in a well balanced personality
.v) A feeling of harmony and the welding of diverse elements of
society into a very compact and homogenous unit
.vi) A firm conviction on the part of each individual that he is an
integral component of the whole social unit for the healthy
development of self and community
Attributes of National Intergation
8. Emotional integration basically
means unity of thoughts and
feelings of all the citizens of a
country. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru has
said “By emotional integration, I
mean the integration of minds and
hearts, the suppression of
feelings of separatism.” Emotional
integration is an essential
condition and basis for national
integration because sense of
oneness is developed among the
9. OBSTACLES TO EMOTIONAL
The greatest menace to the national solidarity of a country is communalism.
Communalism is one factor that poses a great danger to our unity. The formation
of the State of Pakistan in 1947 led to terrible communal riots. A very large
number of people lost their lives and their homes and had to undergo a lot of
suffering to resettle. In India today, there are still many Muslims who do not
accept India as their country
The second danger to national integration is provincialism. It
springs from the same sentiments which work behind
communalism. Regionalism is another obstacle in the way of
Another expression of the disorganizing influences at work in the country is
linguism. With independence came the problem of deciding a national language,
because a national language is essential for maintaining the unity of the nation.
10. Keeping in mind the objective outlined above, the Emotional
Integration Committee gave the following suggestions:
1. Reorganization of Syllabi. In order to reorganize and reshape the
syllabi of colleges and the universities to accord with the needs of
the nations, the Committee made the following suggestions:
(1) At the primary stage, stress should be laid upon nationalistic
stories, poems, songs, etc.
(2) At the secondary stage, in addition to the other subjects being
taught, special attention should be given to the study of national
literature, social studies, moral and religious guidance and extra-
(3) At the university level, the syllabi include the various social
sciences, languages, literatures, cultures and arts. Teachers and
students should be given facilities to travel to various parts of the
2. Encouragement to extra-curricular activities. Besides imparting
formal knowledge to the students the teachers must provide them
with the opportunity to take part in such extra-curricular activities
which are important from the standpoint of emotional integration.
EFFORTS AT INCREASING