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Overview of presentation model

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Overview of presentation model

  1. 1. OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION MODEL Aims Teacher-centered/student- centered Four Major Phases Learning environment
  2. 2. AIMS OF PRESENTATION MODEL Develop habits of listening and thinking Expand conceptual structures Students acquire, assimilate and retain new information
  5. 5. FOUR MAJOR PHASES 1. Clarification of the aims of the lesson 2. Presentation of advance organizer 3. Presentation of new information 4. Checking students’ understanding
  6. 6. Examples and Types of advance organizers 1. Expository - describe the new content. 2. Narrative - presents the new information in the form of a story to students. 3. Skimming - used to look over the new material and gain a basic overview. 4. Graphic organizer - visuals to set up or outline the new information. 5. Concept mapping http://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Advance_organizers
  7. 7. Tightly structured Appropriate facilities Learning is conducive for presenting and listening
  8. 8. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the Presentation Model of Teaching and to describe how to use it effectively in classroom. The purpose
  9. 9. This model has 3 features: 1)The concept of structure of knowledge 2)The psychology of meaningful verbal learning 3)cognitive psychology of learning
  10. 10.  Knowledge of the world has been organized around various subject areas called disciplines.  each discipline has a structure consisting of key concepts  The key concepts will define the displine
  11. 11. Earth soil water rock sand ore fish micr oorg anis m coral Main knowledge disciplines Key concepts
  12. 12.  The structuring of knowledge via disciplines will : 1) organise information about topics 2) dividing information into various categories 3) show the relationship between the category of information
  13. 13.  David Ausubel (1963), an educational psychologist, explained that at any point of time, a learner has an existing “organization… and clarity of knowledge in a particular subject matter field.”
  14. 14.  He called this organization a cognitive structure which can determine a learner’s ability to deal with new information and ideas  In cognitive structure, prior learning is important  Prior learning is the knowledge that students acquired outside from the classroom  Meaning can emerge from new materials only if it is connected to cognitive structures of prior learning.Ideas should be presented in a clear, precise way.
  15. 15. • In order for this process of learning to happen Ausubel said the teacher should create two conditions: 1. Present learning materials in a potentially meaningful form, with major and unifying ideas and principles, consistent with contemporary scholarship, high-lighted rather than merely listing as facts;
  16. 16. 2) Find ways to anchor the new learning materials to the learners’ prior knowledge and ready the students’ minds so that they can receive new information  Advance organizer was the major teaching strategy proposed by Ausubel  Advances organizers provide a device to help learners to preview and link new information to prior knowledge
  17. 17.  It is designed to provide students with a cognitive structure for comprehending material presented through lectures, readings, and other media.
  18. 18.  It explains how information should be presented to students  Important to teachers because it provides ways for thinking about how mind works and how knowledge is acquired,organized,and represented in the memory system.
  19. 19. • Types of knowledge: - Declarative Knowledge is knowledge about something -Procedural Knowledge: knowing how to do something - Conditional knowledge: is knowing when to use or apply particular declarative or procedural knowledge
  20. 20. - Factual knowledge : is knowing about the basic elements of a topic - Conceptual knowledge : is knowing about the interrelationships among the basic elements - metacognitive knowledge ; knowing about knowing
  21. 21. • What is the main aspect that a teacher should focus on before teaching? • PRIOR KNOWLEDGE • The research on the influence of prior knowledge for learning to read, learning to use new information and learning to write has been conducted. • Through the research the importance of prior knowledge for learning new information and new skills has arose
  22. 22.  Teachers should help students to use their prior knowledge  What are the procedures that teacher can used to make their students use their prior knowledge?? -Induction or establishing set > Is a technique used by teacher at the beginning of a presentation to prepare students to learn and to establish a communicative link between the learners and the information about to be presented
  23. 23. >This set helps students to retrieve appropriate information and intellectual skills from long term memory and get it ready for use as new information.(recall) - students activate their prior knowledge by providing cues > cues provide hints about what the students are about to experience or learn - Using advanced organizer > to help make information meaningful to students by relating prior knowledge to the new lesson
  24. 24. - Teacher clarity > teacher`s presentation variable - verbal fluency - amount of information - knowledge structure cues - interest - vagueness - Teacher always having problem with vagueness and lack amount of information
  25. 25.  To overcome it : - make sure the content is thoroughly understood - practice and commit the keys ideas - follow the written notes very carefully
  26. 26.  Ashcroft (2006) defined memory as the mental processes associated with acquiring and retaining information for later retrieval and the mental storage system that enables these procesess  He calls this as information processing model
  27. 27.  Under this model there are three components > sensory memory > short term working memory > long term memory
  28. 28.  Sensory memory – new information enters the brain and memory system from the environment through one of the senses : sight, hearing, touch, smell, feel (not last for a long time)  Short term working memory – is the place in the mind where conscious mental work done(mathematic)  Long term memory – is the place in the mind where information is stored and ready for retrieval when needed.
  29. 29. Stimulus information/ knowledge Short term working memory forgotten Long term memory Sensory memory
  30. 30.  Cognitive Psychologists use the label schema to define the way people organize information about particular subjects and how this organization influences their process of new information and ideas.
  31. 31. Planning and Conducting Presentation Lessons
  32. 32. Planning presentation Choosing objectives and content for the presentation Diagnosing students’ prior knowledge Selecting appropriate and powerful advance organizer Planning for use of time and space
  33. 33. Choosing Objectives and content  Objectives for presentation lessons consists those aimed at the acquisition of declarative knowledge Power and economy • Concepts in selecting content to be included in presentation • Only the important and powerful concepts should be taughtPower • Staying away from verbal clutter and minimize the amount of informationEconomy
  34. 34. Conceptual Mapping • Show the relationship among ideas • Clarify the kinds of ideas to teach • Provide students with a picture for understanding the relationship among ideas • Steps involved in conceptual mapping: - Identify the key ideas associated with a topic - Arrange the ideas in some logical pattern
  35. 35. Diagnosing Students’ prior knowledge  Estimation of teachers on their students' existing cognitive structure and their prior knowledge of a subject Cognitive Structure • Meaningful materials > finding ways to connect it to what students already know • Their existing ideas on the topics
  36. 36. Intellectual Development • Learners go through developmental stages ranging from very simple and concrete structures to complicated structures. • Teacher need to consider students' intellectual development when planning a presentation • Problems that arise in applying the developmental theories : 1. Teachers cannot provide concrete solutions - Development is uneven and does not occur precisely at any given stage 2. Ways of measuring the developmental level of students - Teachers must rely on informal assessments
  37. 37. Selecting appropriate and powerful advance organizers • The ‘’intellectual scaffolding ‘’ for subsequent learning material • Scaffolds for new information • Help students see the ‘’big picture ‘’ of the things to come, in a presentation • Contains familiar materials for students
  38. 38. Example : A science teacher is about to present information about foods the body need to function well. - Stating the objectives for the lesson - Asking students to list the food they ate yesterday - Present the Advance Organizer : ‘’ I want to give you an idea that will help you understand the different kinds of food you eat by saying that they can be classified into five major food groups: fats, vitamins, minerals, protein and carbohydrates.’’
  39. 39. Planning for use of time and space 2 important concerns : - >> Ensuring the allocated time matches the aptitudes and ability of the students ->> Motivating students to remain attentive throughout the lesson Time ->> Equally important for a presentation lesson ->> ‘’Row-and-column formation of desks ‘’ Space  Effective presentations depend on the effective management of time and space
  40. 40. Row-and-column formation of desks Seating for Lectures or Demonstrations
  41. 41. Horseshoe or "u" shape Seating for Group Discussion
  42. 42. Seating for Group Activities http://web.utk.edu/~mccay/apdm/classmgt/classmgt_b.htm
  43. 43. Adapting Presentation For Differing Student Abilities • Illuminate ideas and concepts • The Enhancing Teaching with Technology Make ready use of pictures and illustrations • Help to connect new information to the prior knowledge • Make information meaningful to all students Use Varying Cues and Examples • Explaining ideas in concrete and abstract forms • Meet the needs of students of differing levels of intellectual development Be more or less concrete
  44. 44. Syntax of Presentation Lesson Clarifying the aims Presenting advance organizer Presenting new information Monitoring & checking students
  45. 45. 1. Clarifying the aims To increase students’ participation in lesson: a) Gain attention b) Explaining goals c) Establishing sets
  46. 46. a) Gaining attention  Gain and maintain students’ attention to process and store new information.  Gain attention through:  Surprise  Curiosity  Making sure aims are clear  establishing set.
  47. 47. b) Explaining goals  Students needs reasons for participation  Hence, teacher provide abbreviated versions of LP.  Benefits  encourage students  create awareness on the content of lesson  motivates to exert more effort  draw prior knowledge
  48. 48. c) Establishing set and providing clues Brief review of yesterday’s lesson  Help to start the lesson  Gain concentration of students  Motivators for lesson participation
  49. 49. 2. Presenting advance organizer • Teachers should make sure  advance organizer is set off sufficiently from introductory activities.  Students understand it  precise and clear • Effective to use :  chalkboard, newsprint chart, overhead projector and power point.
  50. 50. 3. Presenting learning material • Simple and clear ( consider power and cost) • In presenting material, should consider: i. Clarity - clear and specific - achieved through planning, organization, lots of practice. ii. Explaining links and examples - links are conjunction and preposition. - helps to see the logics and relationship of presentation. - give examples.
  51. 51. iii. Rule – Example- Rule – Techniques - Step 1 : State rule - Step 2 : Provide example - Step 3 : summarize and restate original rules iv. Signpost and Transitions - used in longer presentation - help to locate important points for learner. - transitional stimuli help to highlight the relationship among ideas and display internal organization of information. v. Enthusiasm - presentation should apply techniques and strategies from performing arts and lead to acquisition of important points.
  52. 52. 4. Monitoring and checking for understanding and extending student thinking. • Checking for understanding  use informal methods :- verbal and non verbal cues  ask students to make direct responses  choral response (answer in unison) • Extending student thinking  ask questions and group discussion - able to integrate new knowledge with prior knowledge. - build complete knowledge structures. - understand complex relationships.
  53. 53. Making presentations interactive A. Use by teachers • Multimedia – integrating more than one media. • Requires to make clear decisions about content, information ,correct use of advance organizers and examples and planning for the visual aspect. B. Use by students • Achieve multiple learning objective. • Highly motivated. • Learn how to use technology. • Improve self-directedness.
  54. 54. MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR PRESENTATION MODEL Teacher structures the learning environment tightly (3 points) Good conditions for presenting and listening (3 points) Students’ motivation to watch and listen
  55. 55. Presentation Model Requires Rules Governing:-
  56. 56. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION WHEN? • After the presentation • Post-instructional task WHY? • Transmission of new information is checked • Make sure the students retain the information HOW? • Test for students’ knowledge acquisition and retention • Paper-and-pencil tests and selected response test items