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Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontic
Under guidance of:
Dr. SUMIT SHARMA
Dr. RISHI MANAN
Dr. NIKHIL PURI
Dr. SAI GANAPATHY
Dr. VINISHA PANDEY
Dr. NEETU BANSAL
B.D.S. Final Year
Contacts and Contours
• Presence of proper contacts & contour is important to maintain stability &
• A thorough knowledge of the contacts & contours of various teeth is
mandatory for understanding:
• Predisposing factors of proximal caries like faulty interrelationships.
• Significance of marginal ridges, embrasuresfor re-establishing the
form and function of restored teeth.
• Periodontal aspect & health of the tooth to be restored.
BENEFITS OF AN IDEAL CONTACT & CONTOUR
1. Conserves the health of peridontium
2. Prevents food impaction
3. Makes area self cleansable
4. Improves longevity of proximal restorations
5. Maintains normal mesiodistal relationship of the teeth in the dental
Food we consume moves in 3 different
1. Occlusal surfaces
2. Contact & Gingival embrasures
3. Facial & Lingual sulcus
• Any decay occurring on the proximal surface is
mainly due to faulty interrelationship between
TIME OF ERUPTION: ONLY
CONTACT POINT ARE PRESENT
• Proximal Contact Point Proximal Contact Area
PROXIMAL CONTACT AREA
• Area of proximal height of contour of the mesial or distal surface of a
tooth that touches the adjacent tooth in the same arch
• According to their general shape:
1. Tapering teeth
2. Square type
3. Ovoid type
Convexities on the facial & Lingual surfaces of tooth that
affords protection & stimulation of the supporting tissues during
Functions of contour:
1. Deflecting food away from gingival margin
2. Maintenance of periodontal tissues
3. Maintain contact with adjacent tooth
HEIGHT OF CONTOUR
• Area of greatest circumference on the facial and lingual surface of the
• Protects the gingival tissue by preventing food impaction.
Cervical 3rd on facial
& lingual surface
Gingival 3rd on facial
Middle 3rd on lingual
TYPES OF CONTOUR
• Deflects food away from gingiva
• Understimulation of supportingtissues
• Plaque accumulation
• Irritation to softtissues
• Stimulation of supportingtissues
• Healthy peridontium
V-shaped spaces between the teeth that
originate at the proximal contact areas
between adjacent teeth.
Curvature formed by two adjacent teeth in an
arch form a spillway space that is called an
Serves 2 purposes:
Provides a passage for food during mastication
Prevents food from being forced into the contact area
• Named for the direction towards which they radicate:
facial, lingual, incisal/occlusal, gingival
• Embrassure is reduced: Additional stress is created in teeth &
• Embrassures is large: Less protection to supporting structures
• Rounded borders of enamel that forms the mesial
& distal margins of occlusal surfaces of molars &
premolars and the mesial and distal margins of
lingual surfaces of incisors and canine.
Helps in prevention of food impaction proximally
Protection of peridontium
Marginal ridges of adjacent posterior teeth should be at the same height to
have a proper contact and embrasure forms.
MARGINAL RIDGES WITH EXAGGERATED OCCLUSAL
EMBRASURES CAUSES DRIFTING OF TOOTH WHICH LEADS
TO WEDGING OF FOOD
ADJACENT MARGINAL RIDGES ARE NOT COMPATIBLE IN
HEIGHT - DRIVES THE DEBRIS INTERPROXIMALLY
MARGINAL RIDGES WITH NO TRIANGULAR FOSSA, THE
VERTICAL FORCES WILL IMPACT FOOD INTERPROXIMALLY
THIN MARGINAL RIDGES WILL BE SUSCEPTIBLE TO
FRACTURE OR DEFORMATION
MARGINAL RIDGES WITH NO OCCLUSAL EMBRASURES, THE 2
ADJACENT MARGINAL RIDGES WILL ACT LIKE A PAIR OF TWEEZERS
GRASPING THE FOOD SUBSTANCE PASSING OVER IT.
PROCEDURES OF PROPER CONTACTS & CONTOURS
• Act of separating the involved teeth from each other, bringing them
closer to each other or changing their spatial position in one or more
Rapid / Immediate Slow / Delayed
RAPID/ IMMEDIATE MOVEMENT
• Mechanical type of separation
• Creates either proximal separation at the point of separator’s introduction
and/or improves closeness of proximal surface of opposite side.
• Separation shouldn’t exceed the thickness of the involved tooth’s
periodontal ligament thickness. ie: 0.2 – 0.5 mm
• By insertion of a pointed wedge shaped device between the teeth
• The more the wedge moves facially or lingualy, greater is the separation.
• Indicated for short duration separation
• Useful in examining proximal surfaces in final polishing of restored
Wood/ Plastic Wedges
• Used in both tooth separation for preparation and restoration
• Triangular shaped wedges (wood/synthetic resin)
• Base of triangle will be in contact with
• Apex must coincide with the gingival start of the
contact area. 29
in the gingival
1. Single wedge technique
• Single wedge is placed
2. Piggyback wedging
• A second wedge is placed on top of the first
wedge to wedge adequately the matrix against
• Indicated for patients whose interproximal
tissue level has receded.
3. Double wedging technique
• Here, 2 wedges, one from the facial embrasure and the other from the
lingual embrasure are used.
• Used when proximal box is wide faciolingually.
4. Wedge wedging technique
• Used in cases when there is a gingival concavity.
• Inorder to wedge a matrix band tightly against such a margin, a second
wedge is inserted between the first wedge and the band.
Error’s with wedge placement
• If wedge is placed more occlusal to the gingival
margin, creates abnormal concavity in the proximal
surface of the restoration.
• If wedge is for apical to gingival margin, band will not
be held tightly against the gingival margin & creates
gingival overhangs in the restorations.
Procedure where a temporary wall is created opposite to the axial
wall surrounding areas of tooth structure that were lostduring
CLASSIFICATION OF MATRICES
1. Based on mode of retention:
i. With retainer (Tofflemire matrix)
ii. Without retainer (Automatrix)
2. Based on type of band
i. Metallic non transparent
ii. Nonmetallic transparent
3. Based on type of cavity for which it is used
i. Class I cavity
a. Double banded Tofflemire (barton’s matrix)
ii. Class II cavity
a. Single banded Tofflemire
b. Ivory matrix No. 1
c. Ivory matrix No. 8
d. Copper band matrix
iii. Class III cavity
a. Mylar strip
iv. Class IV cavity
a. Mylar strip
c. Modified S-shaped
v. Class V
a. Window matrix
b. Cervical matrix
UNIVERSAL MATRIX (TOFFLEMIRE MATRIX)
• Designed by BR. Tofflemire
• Ideally indicated when 3 surface of posterior
tooth are prepared(i.e. mesial, occlusal,
• Commonly used for class II restorations
• 2 types:
1. Uncontoured bands
• Available in 2 thickness : 0.05 mm & 0.038 mm
• Burnishing the thinner band is more difficult and less likely to
2. Precontoured bands
• Needs little or no adjustment
• Difference in cost justified by lesser chair time.
IVORY MATRIX NO.1
proximal surfaces so it is indicated in• Band encircles the posterior
unilateral class II cavities.
• Band is attached to the retainer via a wedge shaped projection.
IVORY MATRIX NO. 8
• Consists of band that encircles the entire crown of the
• Indicated for bilateral class II cavities.
• Circumference of the band can be adjusted by adjusting
the screw present in the retainer.
1. For simple cases recommended for majority of small & medium size
2. Blacks matrix with gingival extension(subgingival cavity)
COPPER BAND MATRIX / SOLDERED BAND
• Indicated for badly broken down teeth such as those receiving pin retained
amalgam restorations & in complex class II restorations with buccal or
• Cylindrical in shape
• Band with appropriate dimensions of crown are taken and the 2 ends are
• Most efficient means of reproducing contacts & contours
• Hand-made and contoured especially for individual teeth.
ROLL IN BAND MATRIX ( AUTOMATRIX)
• Retainerless matrix system with 4 types of bands that are designed to fit all
teeth regardless of circumference and height.
• 3/16” (4.8mm), 0.002” thickness
• 1/4” (6.35mm), 0.002” & 0.0015” thickness
• 5/16” (7.79mm), 0.002” thickness
S-SHAPED MATRIX BAND
• For class III, class II and with facial/lingual extensions of
• Mirror handle is used to produce the S-shape in the strip
• Strip is contoured in its middle part with contouring pliers
to create desired form for the restoration
• Compound material is used to hold the band in position in
the facial and lingual aspect and also in the gingival aspect.
T-shaped brass/ stainless steel matrix• Premade
• Longer arms of the matrix is bent to encompass the
tooth circumferentially and to overlap the short
horizontal arm of ‘T’
• Wedges can be used to stabilize the matrix.
• Class II cavities
• Easy to apply
• Not stable
TRANSPARENT CROWN FORM MATRIX
• Stock plastic crowns
• Can be used for light cured resin material
• For Class III and Class IV
• Large bilateral/unilateral class IV cavity
• Oblique fractures of anterior teeth
• Easy to use
• Good contours can be established
• Time consuming
• For class V cavities
• Formed using either a Tofflemire matrix or copper band.
• A window is cut slightly smaller than the
outline of the cavity.
• Wedges are placed, mesially & distally to
stabilize the band.
RIGID MATERIAL SUPPORTED
An alternative to the universal matrix.
The supporting material can be –light cured, thermoplastic and quick
setting rigid PVS
Gingival wedge is placed to secure the band tightly to prevent any
The matrix should be tight against the facial and lingual margins on
the proximal surface.
Shape of the stainless steel after trimming
The strip is contoured
Burnishing the strip to produce occlusogingival contact and contour
Contoured strip is positioned and wedged
Rigid material supported sectional matrix completed
Matrix application for class I amalgam restoration
The Tofflemire matrix retainer is used to secure a matrix band
to the tooth.
Because this type of matrix band does not adapt to the lingual or
facial groove area of the tooth , an additional step may be
necessary to provide a matrix that is rigid.
A piece of matrix material is cut to fit between the lingual surface
of the tooth and the band already in place.
A wedge is inserted between the Tofflemire and the cut piece of
A quick setting polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) may be used between the
sectional matrix and the Tofflemire matrix band, to prevent lingual
displacement of the sectional matrix during condensation of
Alternatively , green stick compound is used.
The end of wedge is covered with softened compound and
inserted between the Tofflemire band and the cut piece of
1. Operative Dentistry – MA Marzouk
2. Art & science of operative Dentistry – Sturdevants (5th edition)
3. Art & Science of Operative Dentistry – Sturdevants (South Asian Edition)
4. Textbook Of Operative Dentistry – Vimal K Sikri
5. Dental Anatomy, Physiology & Occlusion – Wheeler’s (9th Edition)
• Proper restoration of the anatomical landmarks is important for
enhancing the longevity of restorations as well as to maintain the occlusal
health and harmony.
• Matricing is a vital step during the placement of different restorations.
• Selection of the matrix should be based on its ease of use and efficiency to
provide the optimum contacts and contours..
• The dentist should select the right method according to the needs of