Insect Pests of Mango
Nymphs and adults of Idioscopus species suck
sap from twigs, inflorescences, tender leaves
and fruits. Affected plant tissue turns brown,
may deform and dry up.
Sooty Mould formation on mango
leaves due to Mango Hopper
infestation : - A secondary symptom.
Damage symptoms due to Mango
Control measures for Mango hoppers
1. The pruning of dense orchards in the month of November – December, orchard
sanitation and field sanitation.
2. Keep the nursery area clean, free of weeds and grasses.
3. Removal of weeds and alternate host plants like hibiscus, custard apple, guava etc.
4. Avoid excess use of nitrogenous fertilizers.
5. Smoking of orchards by burning of crop residues/cow dung cake during evening hours.
Application of bio-agents, Metarhizium
anisopliae @ 1x 108 cfu/ml or
Beauveria bassiana @ 108 cfu /ml on
tree trunk once during off season and
twice at 7 days interval during
Control measures for Mango hoppers.
Application of any of the following insecticides gives a good control, but spray should
be done only after insect pest population crosses its ETL. First spray should be given at
the early stage of panicle formation. The second spray at full-length stage of panicles
but before full bloom and the third spray after the fruits set at pea size stage.
• Buprofezin 25% SC @ 1.25ml/ l of water, 5 - 15 l per tree.
• Deltamethrin 2.8% EC @ 0.03 - 0.05% (0.33 to 0.5 ml / lit) As per field requirement.
• Dimethoate 30% EC @ 990 - 1320 ml in 600-800 l of water/acre.
• Imidacloprid 17.8% SL @ 3ml / l of water, 10 l/ tree.
Nymphs and adults suck the plant sap and
reduce the vigour of the plant.
Mealybug attacks every part of the plant. 9
Mango Mealy bug: Nature of infestation
1) The female adult mealy bug crawls down the tree in the month of April-May and enter in
the cracks in the soil for laying eggs.
2) Just after hatching, the minute newly hatched pink to brown coloured nymphs crawl up
3) After climbing up the tree, they start sucking the sap of tender plant parts.
4) Only nymphs and female mealy bugs are harmful as they suck plant sap. Male do not eat
5) They are considered more important because they infest the crop during the flowering
Control measures for Mango mealybug.
1. Flooding of orchard with water in the month of October kill the eggs.
2. Ploughing of orchard in November and raking of soil around tree trunk helps to expose the
eggs to natural enemies and sun.
3. Removal of weeds.
Mealybugs are known to bribe ants with their
sugary secretion (honeydew) and in return
ants help in spreading of mealybugs and
provide protection from predator ladybird
beetle, parasites and other natural enemies.
• The female punctures the outer wall of the mature
fruits with its pointed ovipositor and insert eggs
inside the mesocarp of mature fruits.
Control measures for Mango FruitFly.
1. Prior to harvest (30-40 days ahead) collect and disposed off infested and fallen fruits
to prevent further multiplication and carry-over of population.
2. Ploughing of orchard during November-December to expose pupae to sun’s heat which
3. If infestation is heavy, bait splash on the trunk only, once or twice at weekly interval is
recommended. To prepare bait splash, mix 100 gm of jaggery in one litre of water and
add 1- 2 ml of deltamethrin by using an old broom.
4. Managing fruit flies also reduces Mango anthracnose disease and prevents late fruit
Hot water treatment of fallen mature fruits at 48 ± 1 ºC for 4 - 5 min
1. Male annihilation technique: Set up fly trap using methyl eugenol. Prepare methyl
eugenol 1 ml/l of water + 1 ml of malathion solution.
2. Take 10 ml of this mixture per trap and keep them at 25 different places in one ha
between 6 and 8 am.
Chemical control : The adult fruit flies can also be controlled by bait sprays.
Bait spray can be prepared by combining any one of the insecticides as given
below and protein hydrolysate or molasses or jaggery @ 10 gm per liter of
1. fenthion 10 EC 1ml/l,
2. malathion 50EC 2 ml/l,
3. dimethoate 30 EC 1 ml/l,
4. carbaryl 50 WP 4 g/l.
Spray the mixture at 2 weeks interval before ripening of fruits.
Control measures for Mango Fruit Fly.
Mango Scale Insects
The nymphs and adult scales suck the sap of the leaves and other tender parts and reduce
the vigour of the plants.
Control: Pruning of the heavily infested plant parts and their immediate destruction followed
by two sprays of Monocrotophos (0.04%) or Dimethoate (0.06%) at an interval of 20 days is
very effective in controlling the scale population. 20
Mango seed/stone weevil
Close-up of an egg-laying mark of
mango seed weevil
Grub of mango seed weevil Adult mango seed weevil
Collection and destruction of infested and fallen fruits at weekly interval till fruit harvest.
Chemical control :
Spraying Dimethoate (0.1%) twice at 15 days interval when fruits are of marble size.
Spray main trunk, primary branches and junction of branches prior to flowing (November, December) with
carbaryl (0.2%) or fenthion (0.1%) or chlopyriphos 20 EC @ 2.5 ml/l to control beetles hiding in the bark.
Mango Leaf webber
Symptoms: Initially caterpillars feed on leaf surface gregariously by scrapping. Later they
make web on tender shoots and leaves together and feed within.
Pruning of overcrowded and overlapping branches and mechanical removal of infested webs
by leaf web removing device and burning them.
Ploughing of orchard checks its population by destroying the hybernating pupae.
Two to three sprays commencing from last week of July with carbaryl (0.2%) or quinalphos
The use of same chemical for every spray should be avoided.
Management of Mango Shoot Borer
1. Attacked shoots should be clipped off and destroyed.
2. Spray cabaryl or quinalphos (0.05%) at fortnightly interval from the commencement of new
Mango shoot borer
Nymphs and adults lacerate the tissues and suck the oozing cell sap. Thrips feeds on
leaves, florescence, and young fruits.
If the infestation is severe, can be controlled by either dimethoate (0.1.5%) or
Monocrotophos (0.1%). Spraying of Abamectin, Azadirachtin, Deltamethrin, Lambda-
cyhalothrin or Lufenuron in their recommended dose can control this pest. .
Symptoms: Tiny caterpillars mine under the dorsal epidemics of tender leaves and feed within;
as a result grayish white blisters appear on leaves.
Clipped off destroy the affected shoots.
Spray quinalphos (0.05%) or fenthion (0.1%) from the emergence of new flush.
Mango Leaf miner
POWDERY MILDEW OF MANGO
MANGO POWDERY MILDEW IS CAUSED BY A FUNGUS, NAMED
IT ATTACKS PANICLE, FLOWERS AND LEAVES OF MANGO,
CAUSING A SUPERFICIAL WHITE POWDERY APPEARANCE ON
The disease is spread by wind and can spread very rapidly.
Powdery Mildew symptom on young mango
In severe infection, leaves become twisted,
brown, dry and fall.
POWDERY MILDEW SYMPTOMS ON MANGO
Prune the mango tree branches to keep them short for easy
orchard management, entry of sun light and air flow within the
canopy – These reduces the disease incidence.
Proper spacing of plant should be maintained at the time of orchard
establishment. It should not be less than 6 m X 6 m.
Avoid excess application of nitrogen fertilizer to mango plants as it
welcomes fungal infestation.
Powdery mildew of Mango
FOR EFFECTIVE DISEASE MANAGEMENT, FOUR SPRAYS OF
FUNGICIDES HAVE BEEN RECOMMENDED, BEGINNING FROM
FLOWER BUD INITIATION TILL COMPLETE FRUIT SET AT 7 – 14
DAYS INTERVAL. FUNGICIDE WITH SYSTEMIC NATURE SHOULD BE
ALTERED WITH CONTACT FUNGICIDE.
Chemical control of MANGO POWDERY MILDEW disease
It is a PRE – HARVEST and POST – HARVEST
disease of mango.
is caused by a fungus, named Colletotrichum
It results different symptoms named as Leaf
Spots, Blossom Blight, Wither Tip, Twig Blight
and Fruit Rot symptoms on mango plant.
Favourable conditions for disease development
High humidity, frequent rains and a temperature of 24 - 320 C favours the
development of Mango Anthracnose disease.
In post harvest condition, it turns severe, if ripe mangoes are harvested in rain or
stored as wet condition.
ANTHRACNOSE IN M ANGO :
Small black or dark-
coalesce, and cause
THIS SYMPTOM IS
CONTROL OF MANGO
Sanitation of orchard: prune trees yearly and remove fallen plant-debris from
Plant spacing: wider plant spacing will inhibit severe epidemics.
Intercropping: interpolating mango with other types of trees that are non – host
of Mango Anthracnose pathogen.
Spray Pseudomonus fluorescence on mango plants, starting from October,
with a gap of 21 – 25 days.
Chemical control (before harvest)
When panicle / fruits / twigs are infested, then Spray one of the
Difenoconazole @30 ml/100 litre water
Thiophenate methyl @200 gm/100 litre water
Chlorothalonil + Metalaxyl @250 gm/100 litre water
Fostyl aluminium @500 gm/100 litre of water
Azoxystrobin 23% SC @100 ml /100 l of water, depending on the size of
the tree canopy.
Copper oxy chloride @4 gm / L of water as a preventive measure.
CONTROL OF MANGO ANTHRACNOSE
MALFORMATION . Fusarium mangiferae, a fungi
The disease can cause abnormal flower, leaf and shoot growth.
Mango Malformation disease can affect mango trees of all ages, though
nursery plants are most susceptible.
There are two types of malformation symptoms namely :
1) Vegetative Malformation & 2) Floral Malformation.
CONTROL MEASURES AGAINST MANGO
Use of disease free planting material. Infected rootstock at nursery should be destroyed.
Incidence can be reduced by spraying 100 -200 ppm NAA (Planofix) during October, followed by
the spraying of Carbendazim (0.1%) and Thiophanate Methyl (0.1 %).
Spraying of 1000 ppm Paclobutrazol (10-60 gm/tree), during the first week of October reduced
malformation, increased number of healthy flowers and increased the yield.
Pruning of diseased parts in the month of October, followed by the spraying of Carbendazim
(0.1%) helps to reduce disease infestation. This is followed by the spraying of Captafol (0.2%).
Spraying of trace element solution of zinc, boron, and copper before bloom and after fruit
harvesting provides effective to control or minimise the incidence of malformation
c.o. Lasiodiplodia theobromae / Botryodiplodia
Mango die back is one of the serious fungal diseases of mango. The disease on the tree may
be noticed at any time of the year but it is most conspicuous during October - November.
The term 'Die back' implies death of a plant from top down wards.
Scion wood selected for propagation through grafting should be free from infection.
Pruning of the diseased twigs 2-3 inches below the affected portion and spraying Copper Oxychloride
(0.3%) on infected trees controls the disease. In small plants, the cut ends of the pruned twigs are pasted
with Copper Oxychloride paste (0.3%).
In nursery, any infected portion should immediately be pruned, followed by spraying/ pasting of copper
oxychloride (0.3 %) or pasting with cow dung at the cut ends.
CONTROL OF MANGO DIE
BACTERIAL CANKER OF
MANGO c.o. Xanthomonas campestris pv.
It is a serious disease of Mango in India. The disease causes fruit drop (10-70%), yield loss (10-
85%) and storage rot (5 - 100%).
The disease symptoms first appear as minute water soaked irregular lesions on any part of leaf
/ leaf lamina, which later turns into irregular necrotic cankerous patches.
Cankerous lesions also appear on petioles, twigs and young fruits.
Management of Bacterial Canker disease:
Use of clean planting and grafting material and Use of certified
seedlings is recommended.
Mango stones for raising seedlings (root stock) should always be
taken from healthy fruits.
Two sprays of streptocycline – tetracycline mixture (90: 10) @
200-300 ppm at 20 -25 days interval reduce fruit infection. Dipping
the fruits in 200 ppm solution of plantamyxin is also effective.
Application of Bronopol bactericide @ 1.5 g / L of water / Copper
oxy – chloride @ 5 gm / L of water over the infected plant arrests
the spreading of disease.
Mango verities like Bombay green, fazali, Jehangir and
suvarnarekha are resistant.
BACTERIAL CANKER OF
STEM END ROT OF
c.o. fungal complex consists of
This is a post – harvest disease of Mango.
The fruit while ripening suddenly becomes brown to black typically at stem end as the
disease symptoms appears first on pedicel part of the fruit.
The rotting is so fast that the entire fruit rots within 2-3 days.
The disease is observed on ripe fruits only.
Different symptoms of stem end rot on mango
STEM END ROT OF
Factors favourable for disease development:
1.Relative humidity above 80%, max. & min.
temperature around 310 C & 260 C encourage the
disease development, respectively.
2. Rains favour the disease development.
3. Nutritionally deficient plants are heavily affected.
Fruit should not come in contact with the soil or fallen leaves and twigs during
Fruits should be harvested with 5 - 10 mm stalk.
Pre-harvest sprays of carbendazim or thiophanate methyl (0.1 %) or copper
oxychloride (0.3%), 15 days before harvesting reduces the incidence of stem end
Post-harvest dip of fruit in hot water containing Carbendazim or Thiophanate
methyl (0.05%) for 15 m at 52 ± 1°C controls the disease effectively.
SCAB OF MANGO c.o. Elsinoe mangiferae and Sphaceloma mangiferae, Fungus.
becomecorkyleadingto spoilageof fruitsandreductionof themarketvalue.
Symptoms on leaf Symptoms on Fruits
Gummosis disease of mango is of great economic importance since
the affected trees die within a very short time
c. o. Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a fungi
Initial symptoms of gummosis Heavy gummosis on a branch
Plants growing under water stress conditions show more severe
symptoms compared to regularly watered plants
Pruning of diseased twigs 2 -3 inches below the affected
portion and paste cut portions with copper oxy chloride ( 0.3%) /
The diseased bark portion should be removed, cleaned and
treated with copper based fungicide paste. `