The elements of art like medium and
technique are aspects of form. However these
elements do not exist in a vacuum. They
convey meaning, and express ideas and
feelings. They are firmly rooted in
psychophysical experiences in particular
cultures, their values, their priorities, and their
⮚It is associated with the body’s axis as it
moves toward different directions and adjusts to
a point of reference through various positions
and actions such as walking, running, standing,
sitting, reclining, etc.
⮚In the visual arts, it also refers to the quality of
the line, whether thin, broken, thick, or blended
among others. When several lines come
together, they create texture, which can be
very thin, washed or very thick, rough or fine.
(Waiting Shed) by
The straight, diagonal lines of the modernist waiting shed
connote dynamism and movement, while the vertical and horizontal
lines of the Neoclassic Quezon Hall and Oblation convey balance,
symmetry, formality, grace and serenity, in keeping with the
University as a zone of contemplation and learning.
In contrast, the Church of the Holy Sacrifice is circular and
stays close to the earth, instead of soaring upwards. The altar
is at the center instead of the opposite end of the entrance
and can be approached and seen from different angles and
positions. With its open walls, the church is well lit and
1995 by National Artist Leandro
•are lines repose and serenity.
•Horizontal lines are found in reclining persons,
in landscape, calm bodies of water and in the
distant meeting of the earth and sky which is
• are lines that denote action.
• They suggest poise, balance, force, aspiration,
exaltation, and dynamism.
• Vertical lines also tend to express as well as arouse
emotions of exaltation and inquietude.
• The Gothic Cathedrals express the aforementioned
sentiments that possessed the soul of northern
Europe- Middle Ages.
⮚- It is associated with our experiences of cold and warmth,
and the quality of light in our tropical environment, the cycles
of night and day, of darkness and light.
⮚One of its aspects is hue which has to do with how light
waves of various lengths and rapidity of vibrations bounce off
objects and enter our eyes.
Hue – -A hue is said to be warm when it has longer
wavelength, more distinct, and easily discernible, for example
red, orange and yellow. Cool hues such as blue or violet have
shorter wavelengths, and seem to merge into each other.
Warm colors seem to advance toward us; cool colors appear
When they are mixed, they produce Secondary Colors:
When they are placed opposite
each other in the color wheel,
they are said to be
Red and Green
Yellow and Violet
Orange and Blue
- Hues vary in saturation, intensity, or brilliance—another
aspect of color. When we mix a brilliant blue with a neutral
hue, such as gray, its hue or blueness does not change; it
just becomes less intense or duller.
- Another aspect, value or tone refers to the hue’s
brightness or darkness. When a hue is mixed with black, it
becomes more dim or heavy: when it is mixed with white or
gray, it lightens.
Artists make use of these aspects of color and combine
them into different color schemes. Some artists prefer a
polychromatic scheme meaning it is made up of many
colors, as opposed to others who prefer a monochromatic
scheme, using only one color. Others use no color preferring
black, a color that absorbs all colors or white which all reflect
The School of Design and Art (SDA) building of the La Salle
College of St. Benilde on Vito Cruz Manila built by Architect Lor
Calma is achromatic, with white concrete walls interspersed with
glass. Combined with its unique floor plan and structure, the color
scheme gives the building a futuristic look, reflecting its cutting
edge, industry-driven curricular programs.
�Visual artists use colors in different ways, depending on their
styles and preferences. Some artists use color as a
representational element, intending to depict the world as
accurately as possible. Portraits approximate skin tone and color;
landscape and still depict actual conditions of the environment
through shading, play of light and dark, or chiaroscuro. Examples
are Amorsolo’s portraits.
Most contemporary and Modern artists are more personal and
expressionist in their use of color, taking liberties with color
schemes to convey mood, atmosphere, and symbolic potential,
as opposed to conveying literal meaning. Examples:
River of Life
Galo Ocampo Leeroy New’s Installation
Nestor Vinluan’s Paintings
⮚- It refers to gradiations of tone from light to dark, which
can be an aspect of color, but could also specifically refer
to the play of light on an object or a scene.
⮚In representational paintings, it is shading, blending , and
chiaroscuro, or the play of light and dark that lend the flat
surface an illusion of depth and perspective.
⮚Non-representational use of value is also useful in
black-and-white photography, where images are given
unique character and meaning in artistic photography.
• - It refers to how objects and surfaces feel, and is most associated
with the sense of touch or tactility. Textures are created when
several lines are combined. The combination may be described as
smoothe, translucent,fine, silky, satiny, velvety, sandy, furry,
Barong at Baro’t
- In representational works, textures can be simulated or
imitated. However, textures can also be actual, as can be
found in collage, where actual objects are glued on the
Sawali Panes by Imelda Cajipe-
Endaya with the themes of feminism,
export labor, and anti-imperialism
⮚It refers to forms that are two-dimensional or three-dimensional.
Two-dimensional shapes exist as planes having length and width.
Three-dimensional shapes possess length, width and volume. Shapes
can either be geometric, biomorphic, or free inventions.
T’nalak Pis Syabit
⮚Paintings in the Cubist style have intersecting and overlapping
shapes, some flat and in the case of collage, jutting out the picture
plane. The Stations of the Cross by Vicente Manansala at the
UP Church of the Holy Sacrifice feature transparent planes, a style
associated with the artist. Other painters are expressionist in their
treatment figure. Ang Kiukok’s works are examples of it.
⮚- It involves the relationship between figures and elements. It also
refers to how these elements are organized and composed according
to principles of organization, mong them balance, proportion, rhythm,
unity in variety, dominance and subordination.
⮚Tolentino’s Bonifacio Monument in Caloocan has a circular
composition, fitted for its position at the center of a busy rotunda where
principal streets converge. On the other hand, the Oblation is located
at the end of a long University Avenue, the entrance to the University
of the Philippines Diliman Campus.
⮚Composition in space can also be discerned in dance. The
soaring movements of classical ballet defy gravity, while the
earth-bound staccato and sculptural poses, and flowing, fluid
hand and fee gestures of dances like the pangalay in
Mindanao harmonize with the rhythms of nature..
•from the Latin: “perspicere” means to see
through, deals with the effect of distance
upon the appearance of objects, by means of
which the EYE judges spatial relationships. It is
important in painting because volume is to be
presented on a two dimensional surface
⮚It may occur in two-dimensional design as a rhythm or through
the recurrence of motifs, their alternation or progression unfolding
in a series. Movement is also very much related to line, and the
direction of the eye.
Carlo Franciso’s mural, Filipino
Struggles through History, 1964,
which was once hung at the
Bulwagang Katipunan of the Manila
City Hall shows a sense of forward
movement that captures the fervor
and energy of the Revolution.
⮚In three-dimensional expressions, the sense of movement can be implied--
such as in the creative activities of National Artist Napoleon Abueva’s Nine
⮚Dance creates compositions through movement;
▪Western Dances like Ballet strives towards lightness
▪Traditional Asian dances are continuous contact with the ground, which they
▪Hand gestures suggest unending natural phenomena--the flutter of wings, the
blooming of flowers, the swaying of palm leaves.
▪Some dances like from Sulu are linear and asymmetrical, punctuated by
sculptural or static positions.
⮚Movement in cinema partakes of the movements of the
camera: it pans to survey a scene, scans the height of a
building, and dwells on the contents of the room.. It is tracked
when it follows a figure or an object such as a locomotive.
⮚Another set of movements comes from film editing in which
the shot, the basic unit, is arranged along with other shots
into a meaningful unit. The result is a narrative flow that can
be linear, arranged with flashbacks, back and forth,
fragmented or episodic, slow, fast-paced, monotonous, flat
and so on
-is an element of art that is
three-dimensional and encloses
-is patterned organization of
colors, lines, textures, or
combinations of art elements that
create a pleasing effect. A
visual rhythm will lead the eye
from one area to another in a
rhythmical and orderly manner.
- is the focal point of interest
in a piece created by accenting
or exaggerating a specific area
or art element to create
-is the comparison of two
elements that appear different
(values of light and dark,
hues...). Strong contrasts are
the most dissimilar examples of
an art element (dark
- light, black - white).