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Total Quality Management

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Unit-I  Introduction
Unit-I Introduction
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Total Quality Management

  1. 1. LECTURE # 4: Employee Involvement by M. Salman Jamil
  2. 2.  It directly relates with quality & productivity & its not the replacement of management but its works for improvement for an organization. It helps in achieving goals for an organization at all levels.  For proper understanding of Employee Involvement we have to identify Motivation levels of employees for an organization. Maslow’s hierarchy needs defined motivation levels.  Abraham Maslow developed the first and most popular motivational theories.  He stated that motivation is best explained in terms of hierarchy. 2
  3. 3. 3  Self-Actualization  Esteem  Love  Safety  Physiological
  4. 4.  Human nature is basically good, not evil  Normal human development involves the actualization of this inherent goodness  Psychopathology results from the frustration of a human being’s essential nature  Level 1: This level termed as Survival includes clothing, shelter etc. An organization has to realize the basic needs for its employee.  Level 2: This level termed as Security of work and job security as well. It is one of the important level that if employees considered secured then he fully motivate and work with its full potential. Otherwise, it considered as job threat.  Level 3: This level relates to Social level, we are not living in isolation. We have to coordinate socially & working as team in a place. Within a group it provides the chance to motivate individuals. 4
  5. 5.  Level 4: This level relates to Self Esteem, this level achieved after long time with lots of success. It require advice from senior staff that value for an organization. It gives a personal protocol / status / control & Freedom to perform its job in an organization.  Level 5: This level relates to Self-Actualization, where an individual is performing its job according to their abilities. There is proper policy for an organization for personal to involve in decision making. So, sometime it threatened the management so that the management demotes to lower level. 5
  6. 6.  Two Factor Theory states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction  The theory was based around interviews with 203 American accountants & engineers in Pittsburgh, chosen because of their professions' growing importance in the business world by Herzberg.  The subjects were asked to relate times when they felt exceptionally good or bad about their present job or any previous job, and to provide reasons, and a description of the sequence of events giving rise to that positive or negative feeling. 6
  7. 7.  Satisfaction which is mostly affected by the "motivator factors". Motivation factors help increase the satisfaction but aren't that affective on dissatisfaction.  Dissatisfaction is the results of the "hygiene factors". These factors, if absent or inadequate, cause dissatisfaction, but their presence has little effect on long-term satisfaction. 7
  8. 8.  There is strong discussion between employee wants and management perceptions.  Maslow and Herzberg describe theories in its own perspective such as employee involvement require proper reward & recognitions while managers achieved quality and productivity.  There is need to analyze proper understanding of motivators closely. Some of the motivator factors are mentioned below:  Interesting Work  Appreciation  Involvement  Job Security  Good Pay  Promotion/growth etc. 8
  9. 9.  There are multiple models to describe multiple condition of a workforce. It is considered as success factor for an organization. Some of factors that helps to generate motivated workforce are:  Know Thyself: Managers must understand the motivation, strength & weaknesses of an organization. Mainly it identifies most valuable resource & it help in achieving goals.  Know your employees: It is one of the important point and effective manager have interactive behavior with its staff in perspective to knowledge. In an effective business context manager learns about employee and satisfies him related to goals it would help to utilize strength.  Establish a positive attitudes: It is one of the important factor in both employer and employee to have positive attitude. A positive attitude generate positive actions. It also helps in addressing problems in a positive manner.  Share the goals: The goals needs to determine at all levels evaluating individual and organization needs. It also help in evaluating missions & road map to achieve something in future. 9
  10. 10.  Monitor progress: The organizations has to monitor closely roadmap & discussed with different departments monthly, quarterly or annually. This would help an organization to act upon plan.  Developing interesting work: The interest in work is one of the important aspect for an organization for an employee. For interest factor management should act upon job rotation, job enlargement & job enrichment as well to keep interest factor going on.  Communicate Effectively: It gives the employees with knowledge related to the work. For lapses within the department or an organization it is important for employees to communicate effectively so that message conveyed properly.  Celebrate Success: It is the part of recognition where achievement celebrates, it considered as one of the powerful tool for organization & considered by employees. Although it cost nothing to an organization but have strong impact on employees. 10
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  12. 12.  It is an environment where people have ability, confidence to take ownership to initiate and satisfy the Increasing the spiritual, political, social, or economic strength of individuals and communities.  Requires individuals to be held responsible for accomplishing a whole task. In order to create the empowered, three conditions are necessary:  Everyone must understand the need for change  The system needs to change to the new paradigm  The organization must enable its employees 12
  13. 13.  In the modern system of an organization there is strong role of teams which reflects the effort of employee involvement. However, there are some reservation regarding problem solving of quality & productivity.  Team - a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. They also termed as group of people with common objectives & goals. Each member of teams termed as subordinate.  Each member of team has right to utilize its efforts, skills in its own capacity towards achievement of goals.  Effective teams are goal-centered, independent, open, supportive, and empowered 13
  14. 14.  The participants have its own expertise & everyone capable in its own perspective to solve problems. There is business requirement that single personal couldn’t solve issues completely but the teams.  When there is interaction between the teams are done there is chances of results are greater than individuals.  The team members works rapidly that allow the job in a better way.  There is communication increase through faster communication between the members increase the chance of successful solution. 14
  15. 15.  Quality circles – team of workers and supervisors from the same work center that meet regularly to address problems  Problem solving teams – team whose members gather to solve a specific problem and then disband  Management teams – team members from various functional areas that are all managers  Work teams – teams organized to perform entire job  Project teams – team to develop something new (New Mustang)  Virtual teams – team members communicate by computer 15
  16. 16.  Process improvement Team: It is a team of efficient workflow processes related to primary objective problem-solve in an organization. Means that all procedure are simplified & faster that involves in supply chain, it includes the power of "team think" often makes the difference. It would help to considerable cost savings and provide better efficiency.  Cross-functional Team: It is a group of people with different functional expertise working toward a common goal. It may include people from finance, marketing, operations, and human resources departments. Typically, it includes employees from all levels of an organization. Prepared By: Muhammad Salman Jamil 16
  17. 17.  Natural Work Teams: Its not the voluntary composed of members are work together in a participative environment. There is authority and autonomy of the team for purposes of decision making within the team. The participative approach is based on the belief that employees will be more productive if they have a higher level of responsibility for their work.  Self Directed / Self-managed teams: It performs daily operations in particular process or department. They are authorized to make decisions on a wide range of issues such as safety, quality etc. Their responsibilities also include processes traditionally held by managers, such as goal-setting, allocation of assignments and conflict resolution. 17
  18. 18. Decision making is a critical process towards success of a team, below are some processes involves in decision making. Non-Decision: The team will discuss the subject extensively & not conclude to make Decisions, it’s the wastage of time & bizarre for team management. Unilateral Decisions: It is undertaking such as one side or party, not mutual for the purpose of problem solving. It saves the time for an organization & the leader has all necessary information. The team has to take positive other team would be imperial. Handclasp Decision: It is sort of minor decision, this type of decision can carry a very low group commitment. Handclasp- decisions made by two members. One suggests, the other endorses and carries it through without adequate discussion or group consideration. 18
  19. 19.  Minority Rule Decision: There are some selected people involve in discussion of decision making that rule their decision on majority. This happens in some organization where some individual take responsibility & needs to avoid conflict in an organization.  Majority Rule Decision: There are numerous companies that using this method unanimously. It is considered as the best alternate method / approach. It is mixture of strategy of creativity and compromises. There are commitment needs to implement that compromised during team meeting.  Consensus: It is a creative and dynamic approach between all members of a group. Instead of voting in this method majority approach is considered in a group. Using this approach each member considered to find solutions that supports the majority. 19
  20. 20. 20 • Effective team meetings eventually result into effective decision making for an organization. • There are some processes helps to achieve desired results • Meeting should be regularly scheduled. • Agenda should be developed • Agenda should be listed • Periodically the meeting should be conducted
  21. 21.  Team development is considered as one of important factor towards performance of an individuals. It is required that every individual of team know exactly which goals needs to perform. Bruce Tuckerman found that there are FOUR stages of team’s development.  FORMING  STORMING  NORMING  PERFORMING 21
  22. 22. FORMING STORMING NORMING PERFORMING Teams are generally new teams that are learning how to work together Teams have moved past the early forming stages and are now encountering some disagreements and/or conflict. This is natural, but teams need to find effective ways to handle conflict before they can move on to Norming Stage. Norming teams have successfully moved out of the storming stage and are ready to move to a higher level of communication and problem- solving. Performing teams are at the highest level of performance and can process their SWOT while accomplishing their goals. 22 Adjourning: It’s a reserve stage considered as temporary team. There is need of evaluation & past experiences. Most companies are lacking that when participant change for future team they don’t considered key participant or team’s contribution. It is difficult for an organization to monitor lapses in stages.
  23. 23.  Insufficient training  Incompatible reward & compensation  First-line supervisor resistance  Lack of planning  Lack of Management Support  Access to Information Systems  Lack of Union Support  Project scope too large  Project objectives are not significant  No clear measure of success  No time to do improvement work 23
  24. 24.  Training is an essential tool for an effective team  It includes an experimental approach such as practical knowledge  Trainers characteristics are knowledgeable, enthusiasm etc  Team should feel comfortable after training whatever role provided  Team leader should be receptive to suggestions and changes warranted  Initially, there must be strong awareness regarding training objectives  There must be room of suggestion, feedback needs to accommodate  There is need to analyze the changes in behavior & attitude  In relation to TQM it covers group dynamics, awareness of problem solving & technical aspects 24
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  26. 26.  A formalized mechanism which encourage employees to contribute effective ideas for improving organizational systems.  The aim is to gather, analyze & implement ideas in order to achieve positive impact on business that considered value for the customer.  There are some ground principles on which this effective system is managed:  There is need to have progressive approach in an organization such as suggestion box gives positive impact.  There is to simplify the business processes & remove fear from an organization because it kills employees.  Every individual encourage to participate & it needs to simplify such as paper work, review & procedure.  There is need to respond quickly as timely decision is the requirement otherwise it wont beneficial  There is need for reward the idea so everyone feels its worth and contribution in an organization. 26
  27. 27.  RECOGNITION: Appreciation or acclaim for an achievement, service, or ability. It also considered as motivational factor in an organization publicize & deliver positive contribution.  REWARD: A thing given in recognition of service, effort, or achievement. It sometime considered as tangible items like cash awards or other gifts.  There are numerous tools involve in establishing effective recognition & reward system: 1. It gives continual reminder so that organization regards quality & productivity. 2. It provide visible technique for high achievers for outstanding performance. 3. It provides specific goals to follow also it motivates employees. 4. It boost the morale of the employees by creating healthy environment. 27
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  29. 29.  Employee involvement means allowing employees to participate in work-related decisions and improvement activities that affect them.  This doesn’t mean anarchy, but it means that management shares its responsibilities in decision-making with employees. It increase the chance of competition in an organization, it also increase quality & productivity in an organization due to below defined factors: 1. Increases trust and commitment. 2. Improves employee communications and attitudes. 3. Involved employees are more likely to generate new ideas and achieve a higher quality of work life 4. Reduce the workload of managers 29
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