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Quantum Psychology
  {   Andrew Lang
      COSE 2013-03-13
PROSPERO
   A devil, a born devil, on whose nature
   Nurture can never stick; on whom my pains,
   Humanely taken, all, all lost, quite lost.
   - The Tempest 1610




Nature vs. Nurture
Empiricism: Are we born as “blank slates”
   without built-in knowledge or
   understanding? Does knowledge and
   understanding only come through sensory
   experience?
   Proponents: St. Thomas Aquinas, John Locke,
   Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Joseph Stalin
   Opponents: Plato, St. Augustine, Descartes,
   Ayn Rand, Steven Pinker, Noam Chomsky,
   Elizabeth Spelke, Bruce Hood



Tabula Rasa
If we’re not born a
blank slate, then what
knowledge, skills or
abilities are "native" or
hard-wired into the
brain at birth?
 Language (Pinker, Chomsky)
    Mathematics (Leibnitz)

    Supernatural Belief (Hood)

     “Supersense”
    Aristotelian/Newtonian Mechanics (Spelke)

     “Object Knowledge”




Cognitive Modules
“This weird gravity error reveals some interesting
       things about the minds of young children. The
       first is that they reason in a theory like way. They
       try to apply knowledge they already possess to
       make sense of and predict what might happen
       next. ” - Bruce Hood

     Gravity Error: Video on YouTube




Hardwired for gravity? Naïve Physics
Object Knowledge Cognitive Module
   “Objects do not go in and out of existence like the
    Cheshire Cat in Alice in Wonderland. Their solidity
    dictates that they are not phantoms that can move
    through walls.”
   “Objects are bounded so that they do not break up
    and then come back together again.”
   “Objects move on continuous paths so that they
    cannot teleport from one part of the room to another
    part without being seen crossing in between.”
   “Objects generally only move when something else
    makes them move by force or collision.”



Elizabeth Spelke
“How do we know that these rules are operating in babies?
   For the simple reason that babies look longer when each of
   them is broken in a bit of stage-show magic. By applying
   the principles of conjuring and illusion, scientists have been
   able to show that young infants have knowledge about the
   physical world….”




Bruce Hood – Psychologist, Magician
In quantum mechanics objects do go in and out of existence
  like the Cheshire Cat in Alice in Wonderland. They are
  phantoms and can move through walls.

Quantum Tunneling




 Quantum Mechanics is not Intuitive
In quantum mechanics objects are not bounded, they do break
  up and then come back together again.

Wave particle duality




 Quantum Mechanics is not Intuitive
In quantum mechanics objects do not move on continuous
  paths and they can teleport from one part of the room to
  another part without being seen crossing in between.

Particle in a box – 2nd energy level




 Quantum Mechanics is not Intuitive
Zero Point Energy
In quantum mechanics
  objects move all the time, it
  is impossible to make them
  stand still.




  Quantum Mechanics is not Intuitive
   A system is completely described by a wave function,
      representing the state of the system, which evolves smoothly in
      time, except when a measurement is made, at which point it
      instantaneously collapses to an eigenstate of the observable
      measured.
     The description of nature is essentially probabilistic, with the
      probability of a given outcome of a measurement given by the
      square of the amplitude of the wave function. (The Born rule,
      after Max Born)
     It is not possible to know the value of all the properties of the
      system at the same time; those properties that are not known
      exactly must be described by probabilities. (Heisenberg's
      uncertainty principle)
     Matter exhibits a wave–particle duality. An experiment can show
      the particle-like properties of matter, or the wave-like properties;
      in some experiments both of these complementary viewpoints
      must be invoked to explain the results, according to
      the complementarity principle of Niels Bohr.



Copenhagen Interpretation
“Quantum mechanics is certainly imposing. But an inner voice
   tells me that it is not yet the real thing. The theory says a lot,
   but does not really bring us any closer to the secret of the "old
   one." I, at any rate, am convinced that He does not throw
   dice.” – Einstein
“For those who are not shocked when they first come across
   quantum theory cannot possibly have understood it.” – Bohr
"I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum
   mechanics.“ – Feynman
Quantum teleportation - Quantum entanglement - EPR
   Paradox: “Spooky action at a distance” - Einstein



“Quantum Weirdness”
   Hidden Variables: Hidden variable theories contend
       that quantum mechanics is incomplete and there are
       “hidden variables” needed to fully describe reality.
       Local hidden variable theories were shown to be
       incompatible with quantum mechanics by Bell in 1964.
      Many Worlds: The many-worlds interpretation (Everett
       1957) is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that
       asserts the objective reality of the universal
       wavefunction and denies the actuality of wavefunction
       collapse. Many-worlds implies that all possible
       alternative histories and futures are real, each
       representing an actual "world" (or "universe").



Alternative Interpretations
Quantum Mechanics is not hard to
understand it is just hard to believe.

Part of the appeal of alternatives to
the Copenhagen Interpretation is
that they satisfy our native object
knowledge cognitive module.

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Quantum Psychology

  • 1. Quantum Psychology { Andrew Lang COSE 2013-03-13
  • 2. PROSPERO A devil, a born devil, on whose nature Nurture can never stick; on whom my pains, Humanely taken, all, all lost, quite lost. - The Tempest 1610 Nature vs. Nurture
  • 3. Empiricism: Are we born as “blank slates” without built-in knowledge or understanding? Does knowledge and understanding only come through sensory experience? Proponents: St. Thomas Aquinas, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Joseph Stalin Opponents: Plato, St. Augustine, Descartes, Ayn Rand, Steven Pinker, Noam Chomsky, Elizabeth Spelke, Bruce Hood Tabula Rasa
  • 4. If we’re not born a blank slate, then what knowledge, skills or abilities are "native" or hard-wired into the brain at birth?
  • 5.  Language (Pinker, Chomsky)  Mathematics (Leibnitz)  Supernatural Belief (Hood) “Supersense”  Aristotelian/Newtonian Mechanics (Spelke) “Object Knowledge” Cognitive Modules
  • 6. “This weird gravity error reveals some interesting things about the minds of young children. The first is that they reason in a theory like way. They try to apply knowledge they already possess to make sense of and predict what might happen next. ” - Bruce Hood Gravity Error: Video on YouTube Hardwired for gravity? Naïve Physics
  • 7. Object Knowledge Cognitive Module  “Objects do not go in and out of existence like the Cheshire Cat in Alice in Wonderland. Their solidity dictates that they are not phantoms that can move through walls.”  “Objects are bounded so that they do not break up and then come back together again.”  “Objects move on continuous paths so that they cannot teleport from one part of the room to another part without being seen crossing in between.”  “Objects generally only move when something else makes them move by force or collision.” Elizabeth Spelke
  • 8. “How do we know that these rules are operating in babies? For the simple reason that babies look longer when each of them is broken in a bit of stage-show magic. By applying the principles of conjuring and illusion, scientists have been able to show that young infants have knowledge about the physical world….” Bruce Hood – Psychologist, Magician
  • 9. In quantum mechanics objects do go in and out of existence like the Cheshire Cat in Alice in Wonderland. They are phantoms and can move through walls. Quantum Tunneling Quantum Mechanics is not Intuitive
  • 10. In quantum mechanics objects are not bounded, they do break up and then come back together again. Wave particle duality Quantum Mechanics is not Intuitive
  • 11. In quantum mechanics objects do not move on continuous paths and they can teleport from one part of the room to another part without being seen crossing in between. Particle in a box – 2nd energy level Quantum Mechanics is not Intuitive
  • 12. Zero Point Energy In quantum mechanics objects move all the time, it is impossible to make them stand still. Quantum Mechanics is not Intuitive
  • 13. A system is completely described by a wave function, representing the state of the system, which evolves smoothly in time, except when a measurement is made, at which point it instantaneously collapses to an eigenstate of the observable measured.  The description of nature is essentially probabilistic, with the probability of a given outcome of a measurement given by the square of the amplitude of the wave function. (The Born rule, after Max Born)  It is not possible to know the value of all the properties of the system at the same time; those properties that are not known exactly must be described by probabilities. (Heisenberg's uncertainty principle)  Matter exhibits a wave–particle duality. An experiment can show the particle-like properties of matter, or the wave-like properties; in some experiments both of these complementary viewpoints must be invoked to explain the results, according to the complementarity principle of Niels Bohr. Copenhagen Interpretation
  • 14. “Quantum mechanics is certainly imposing. But an inner voice tells me that it is not yet the real thing. The theory says a lot, but does not really bring us any closer to the secret of the "old one." I, at any rate, am convinced that He does not throw dice.” – Einstein “For those who are not shocked when they first come across quantum theory cannot possibly have understood it.” – Bohr "I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics.“ – Feynman Quantum teleportation - Quantum entanglement - EPR Paradox: “Spooky action at a distance” - Einstein “Quantum Weirdness”
  • 15. Hidden Variables: Hidden variable theories contend that quantum mechanics is incomplete and there are “hidden variables” needed to fully describe reality. Local hidden variable theories were shown to be incompatible with quantum mechanics by Bell in 1964.  Many Worlds: The many-worlds interpretation (Everett 1957) is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that asserts the objective reality of the universal wavefunction and denies the actuality of wavefunction collapse. Many-worlds implies that all possible alternative histories and futures are real, each representing an actual "world" (or "universe"). Alternative Interpretations
  • 16. Quantum Mechanics is not hard to understand it is just hard to believe. Part of the appeal of alternatives to the Copenhagen Interpretation is that they satisfy our native object knowledge cognitive module.