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service centricity in public sector
IVGM21
Andres Kütt
March 26, 2015
Chief Architect, Information System Authority
introduction
structure of today
∙ A set slides you can interrupt with questions at any time
∙ Squeezing a lot of content into 90 minute...
andres kütt
∙ Building software for money since 1993
∙ Been an architect for the past ≈12 years
∙ ≈MSc (UT, Statistika), M...
today
∙ Systems theory: how architecture and functionality fit
∙ Definition of a service
∙ A foray into the abyss of complex...
basics of systems theory
definition of a system
A ”System” is the central concept in the following
∙ We are talking about socio-technical systems
∙...
System boundaries are always arbitrary
7
basics of systems architecture
system architecture
All systems have a design, a way of fitting together
∙ There is no one definition of system architecture...
Not designing something merely relinquishes control over
architecture, it does not make the architecture non-existent
10
system architecture
∙ Form is what is
∙ Function is what that, what is, does
∙ Concept is dependent on the organisational ...
on functionality
function
∙ Form is the domain of (software) engineering, HR and
management in general
∙ Function is what services, includi...
primary value process
Primary value process implies that
∙ there is more than one
∙ there always is
∙ the list is fundamen...
primary value process
Primary value process implies that
∙ there is a customer involved
∙ as value is always subjective an...
primary value process
Primary value process implies that
∙ time is involved
∙ i.e. value is provided over a period of time...
implications of the theory
model of architecture
Function
Form
Concept
Cost
Revenue
?
18
profit in public sector
The difference between revenue and cost has fundamentally
different meanings in public and private...
emergence
Emergence occurs when a system exposes properties, behaviours or
functions other than it was not explicitly desi...
what is a service?
defining a service
What constitutes a service, can be a source of heated, prolonged and
futile discussion
∙ There is no co...
useful definition of a service
A useful definition
∙ must
∙ allow for clear
separation of services
∙ be acceptable for the
...
a foray into the field of complexity
what is complexity?
∙ There is no one definition (notice a pattern?)
∙ Static vs. dynamic complexity
∙ Static is about stru...
importance of complexity
Complexity
# of elements / time
Limit of abilities
26
chaotic behaviour
Complex systems tend to exhibit chaotic behaviour where infinitely
small change in input can cause an infi...
emergence of chaos
28
some aspects of service management
service levels
Service level management is essentially a specific kind of risk
management
∙ We manage a risk that service l...
service levels
One can only control and measure parts of the system one controls
∙ Is your service available if
∙ it canno...
defining service levels
How to determine, if our service is available?
∙ Remember chaotic behaviour of complex systems
∙ S...
license
theme
Get the source of this theme and the demo presentation from
http://github.com/matze/mtheme
The theme itself is licen...
contents
The contents of the slides is lidecensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Intern...
Questions?
36
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Service centricity in public sector

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Lecture notes for a brief speech on how to develop electronic services in public sector. The contents is 2/3 theory and 1/3 practical advice.

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Service centricity in public sector

  1. 1. service centricity in public sector IVGM21 Andres Kütt March 26, 2015 Chief Architect, Information System Authority
  2. 2. introduction
  3. 3. structure of today ∙ A set slides you can interrupt with questions at any time ∙ Squeezing a lot of content into 90 minutes, many leaps of faith required ∙ Respect the time of others I might have information. But I do not have the answers, only more questions. 2
  4. 4. andres kütt ∙ Building software for money since 1993 ∙ Been an architect for the past ≈12 years ∙ ≈MSc (UT, Statistika), MBA (EBS), MSc (MIT) ∙ Currently architect of Estonian information system ∙ Skype, banks, public sector, some consulting and teaching in the past 3
  5. 5. today ∙ Systems theory: how architecture and functionality fit ∙ Definition of a service ∙ A foray into the abyss of complexity ∙ Some aspects of service management 4
  6. 6. basics of systems theory
  7. 7. definition of a system A ”System” is the central concept in the following ∙ We are talking about socio-technical systems ∙ Both technical and non-technical elements ∙ Software is part of the system ∙ A system ∙ Consists of inter-related elements ∙ Has some input and output ∙ Usually is not consciously designed 6
  8. 8. System boundaries are always arbitrary 7
  9. 9. basics of systems architecture
  10. 10. system architecture All systems have a design, a way of fitting together ∙ There is no one definition of system architecture ∙ Most of them deal with technical systems only ∙ Ed Crawley defines the architecture to consist of the following ∙ Function of the system ∙ Form of the system ∙ A set of mental models mapping the former to the latter, the concept 9
  11. 11. Not designing something merely relinquishes control over architecture, it does not make the architecture non-existent 10
  12. 12. system architecture ∙ Form is what is ∙ Function is what that, what is, does ∙ Concept is dependent on the organisational culture involved ∙ The same function can be provided by several kinds of form and vice versa ∙ A piston can be used to transfer force and to be a winner’s trophy ∙ Force can be transferred using a piston or a rectangular rotor ∙ These two are joined in the concept of otto engine 11
  13. 13. on functionality
  14. 14. function ∙ Form is the domain of (software) engineering, HR and management in general ∙ Function is what services, including government services, actually provide to consumers ∙ Concept is a product of how these two manage to cooperate Function is defined via something called primary value process 13
  15. 15. primary value process Primary value process implies that ∙ there is more than one ∙ there always is ∙ the list is fundamentally incomplete: we cannot know all of them ∙ they are somehow prioritised ∙ differentiation and competition happen by changing that ”somehow” ∙ how to prioritise an incomplete list? ∙ exactly one of them is chosen as the main focus ∙ the most difficult part ∙ one person cannot run in two directions simultaneously 14
  16. 16. primary value process Primary value process implies that ∙ there is a customer involved ∙ as value is always subjective and thus dependent on someone to ask ∙ often, but not always, expressed as money ∙ what is the value of having our capital in Tallinn? ∙ perceived, not ”actual” value ∙ the system does something useful, value is created ∙ there is an upper limit to what the consumer is willing to pay ∙ again complex in public setting: the relationship between paying taxes and receiving service is often causally and temporally weak ∙ while intuitively trivial, theoretical backing is sparse 15
  17. 17. primary value process Primary value process implies that ∙ time is involved ∙ i.e. value is provided over a period of time ∙ systems are inherently dynamic ∙ system is able to accept input and produce, after a delay, output ∙ thus depending on other systems as well as being depended upon ∙ public services need to form a coherent system connecting inputs and outputs of different systems ∙ system boundaries need to be defined in time as well as space 16
  18. 18. implications of the theory
  19. 19. model of architecture Function Form Concept Cost Revenue ? 18
  20. 20. profit in public sector The difference between revenue and cost has fundamentally different meanings in public and private sector In private sector: ∙ This is called profit ∙ In most cases defines shareholder value ∙ Is therefore the focus of the organisation ∙ Usually cannot be negative for long periods of time In public sector: ∙ This is called budget surplus ∙ Often obscured by financial complexity ∙ Is generally undesirable: taxes collected in vain! ∙ Can be negative for extended periods of time 19
  21. 21. emergence Emergence occurs when a system exposes properties, behaviours or functions other than it was not explicitly designed to expose ∙ The higher the complexity, the more emergence (generally) ∙ Emergence cannot be predicted ∙ Can be both positive and negative ∙ A wooden box used for percussion (a cajon) ∙ Security and safety are emergent behaviour ∙ All fraud is emergent behaviour ∙ In London, there is a high-rise that incinerates cars by focusing sun rays ∙ Hard to deal with in public sector ∙ Rigid legal structure creates blind corners ∙ Exploring emergent behaviour is at least not encouraged 20
  22. 22. what is a service?
  23. 23. defining a service What constitutes a service, can be a source of heated, prolonged and futile discussion ∙ There is no common scientific definition let alone a useful one ∙ The question is often linked to issues of power, status and financial well-beging ∙ A useful definition has certain properties Between public sector organisations, the definitions must be compatible ∙ Because they interlink heavily ∙ There is central governance pressure 22
  24. 24. useful definition of a service A useful definition ∙ must ∙ allow for clear separation of services ∙ be acceptable for the whole organisation ∙ may ∙ be arbitrary in nature ∙ be partial It must encompass all layers of organisation: ∙ Having a distinct set of technical components ∙ Providing a clean set of functions ∙ Having people responsible for it on business and IT sides ∙ Having a clear strategy and performance indicators 23
  25. 25. a foray into the field of complexity
  26. 26. what is complexity? ∙ There is no one definition (notice a pattern?) ∙ Static vs. dynamic complexity ∙ Static is about structure of a system ∙ Dynamic is about behaviour of a system ∙ Complexity vs. complicatedness ∙ Complexity is about what system is ∙ Complicatedness is about how system looks: the property of a system to appear complex 25
  27. 27. importance of complexity Complexity # of elements / time Limit of abilities 26
  28. 28. chaotic behaviour Complex systems tend to exhibit chaotic behaviour where infinitely small change in input can cause an infinitely large change in output ∙ A parameter change below measuring threshold can completely alter system behavior ∙ Math behind it is very complex as well as complicated ∙ Exponents1 and feedback play an important role How does a time series xn+1 = rxn(1 − xn) behave depending on r? 1That people are bad at estimating anyway 27
  29. 29. emergence of chaos 28
  30. 30. some aspects of service management
  31. 31. service levels Service level management is essentially a specific kind of risk management ∙ We manage a risk that service levels fall below desirable levels ∙ This only makes sense, if this has some real implications (loss of revenue, for example) ∙ The basic risk management tools apply ∙ Fundamental question: how much are we willing to spend to increase service availability by x? ∙ In public sector, risk management is intimately related to all sort of security forces How do we define service availability? 30
  32. 32. service levels One can only control and measure parts of the system one controls ∙ Is your service available if ∙ it cannot be found on Bing? ∙ it is blocked by Chrome and Firefox? ∙ it’s name is not resolved? ∙ The same logic applies to internet providers etc. 31
  33. 33. defining service levels How to determine, if our service is available? ∙ Remember chaotic behaviour of complex systems ∙ Small change of operating parameters can have a large impact ∙ The system can be non-functional if all its elements are ”green” ∙ Monitoring individual machines is mostly non-sensical ∙ Hardware failure rates are well known ∙ It tells you next to nothing of the state of the system Service availability is a data analysis, not monitoring problem 32
  34. 34. license
  35. 35. theme Get the source of this theme and the demo presentation from http://github.com/matze/mtheme The theme itself is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. cba 34
  36. 36. contents The contents of the slides is lidecensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International cbna 35
  37. 37. Questions? 36

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