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EU and Migrant Crisis

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EU and Migrant Crisis

  1. 1. THE EU & THE MIGRANT CRISIS Anastasiia Potsiluiko Samah Filali Alaoui Thanh Ha Nguyen
  2. 2. OUTLINE Background The situation Impacts EU Reactions Suggestions
  3. 3. BACKGROUND
  4. 4. GLOBAL REFUGEE CRISIS - the number of forcibly displaced people worldwide Million refugees Million asylum-seekers Million Syrian refugees in 2014 - the largest refugee group Million Afghan refugees were the largest refugee group for 3 decades
  5. 5. THE REALITY The phrases "European migrant crisis" and "European refugee crisis" became widely used in April 2015, when five boats carrying almost 2,000 migrants to Europe sank in the Mediterranean Sea, with a combined death toll estimated at more than 1,200 people.
  6. 6. MIGRANT & REFUGEES DEFINITIONS An asylum seeker is defined as a person fleeing persecution or conflict, and therefore seeking international protection under the 1951 Refugee Convention on the Status of Refugees A refugee is an asylum seeker whose claim has been approved The UN considers migrants fleeing war or persecution to be refugees, even before they officially receive asylum A mixed-migration phenomenon
  7. 7. COMMON EUROPEAN ASYLUM SYSTEM Asylum seekers apply through Asylum Procedures Asylum applicants receive material reception conditions Applicant’s fingerprints are taken and sent to a Eurodac Interviewed by a caseworker to determine whether he/she may qualify for refugee status or subsidiary protection If asylum is not granted to the applicant at first instance, this refusal may be appealed in court If the court confirm this decision, the applicant may be returned to his/her country of origin or transit If refugee status is granted, people can access to a residence permit Overturning of the negative first instance decision by the court
  8. 8. DUBLIN REGULATIONS Asylum seekers must remain in the first European country they enter and that country is solely responsible for examining migrants' asylum applications Migrants who travel to other EU states face deportation back to the EU country they originally entered Reformation of the Dublin Regulation
  9. 9. THE SITUATION
  10. 10. THE SITUATION How many migrants are going to the EU? Where do they come from? How do they get to the EU? What are their destinations?
  11. 11. HOW MANY MIGRANTS ARE GOING TO EUROPE people have been reaching Europe by sea since the start of 2016 people reached Europe by sea and land in 2015
  12. 12. HOW MANY MIGRANTS ARE GOING TO EUROPE new asylum applications in Germany in 2015 people claimed asylum in 2015 applications in 2015 in Hungary applications in 2015 in Sweden
  13. 13. HOW MANY MIGRANTS ARE GOING TO EUROPE Asylum applications per 100,000 local population in 2015 SWEDEN: more than 1,575 refugees/100,000 residents HUNGARY: 1,508 refugees/100,000 residents GERMANY: 520 refugees/100,000 residents UK: 42 refugees/100,000 residents
  14. 14. WHERE DO THE MIGRANTS COME FROM 56% adult men17% women 27% children
  15. 15. HOW DO THEY GET TO THE EU
  16. 16. WHAT ARE THEIR DESTINATIONS
  17. 17. IMPACTS
  18. 18. ECONOMIC IMPACTS Migrants lead to increases in social sector spending: Host countries must house and educate refugees until they become productive members of the local economy €8,000 per application for first year Refugees increase aggregate demand: New migrants represent potential markets for new services leading to: In real income and GDP for their host countries as native workers and professional migrate to new forms and types of work Europe Economy in 2016 - 2017
  19. 19. ECONOMIC IMPACTS Migrants alter the local labour market: Skilled refugees may compete with local workers for jobs, which may result in a temporary increase in unemployment numbers By the end of 2016 EEA labour force Germany labour force The labour market of host countries may become flexible with migrant workers taking jobs that locals shun Asylum seekers can only enter the labor force if they gain refugees status (from 3 months – a few years)
  20. 20. ECONOMIC IMPACTS The influx from Cuba into the U.S. in the 1960s - Combination of highly skilled & low skilled migrants was a good source for growth Sweden lets in 25 times as many immigrants as the U.S does—and economy is in excellent shape In both optimistic & pessimistic scenarios there is a positive increase in projected income of Germany in the long run
  21. 21. POLITICAL IMPACTS Disintegration of the travel-free Schengen Agreement • Several EU members temporarily re-established border checks in an effort to contain the influx of asylum seekers • The establishment of internal border controls is exactly the opposite of the Schengen Area’s raison d’être. Creating tension between the member states and affecting Trade as it delays the movement of goods
  22. 22. POLITICAL IMPACTS The German power/ EU division: by responding to the refugee crisis independently, Germany has shown the way to purely national responses by others  This can turn into a downward spiral: an integrated EU response is made more difficult as a result of go-it-alone policies  The resulting absence of a convincing EU response will lead Germany and others to further act on their own initiative, thus fuelling souverainiste forces overall  The systematic practice of souverainisme by each member state is not conducive to the emergence of the EU as a single strategic actor
  23. 23. POLITICAL IMPACTS Advantage for the UK exit debate: the migration crisis strengthens the UK's negotiating and increase the risk of positive vote for the Brexit Turkey holding the key power and this could be in its favour: Turkey has the ability to promt further emigration towards the EU, which gives Turkey negotiation power Changes in the European priorities in the Middle East: avoiding large scale of refugee flows; eliminating ISIS; providing the non-jihadi component of the Syrian rebellion with the ability to resist Russian and Iranian operations in support of Assad, while seeking his removal by political means
  24. 24. SOCIAL IMPACTS Reduction in the social welfare budget/ benefits: Asylum seekers only have the ability to earn money by way of social welfare, therefore it could reduce the basic state services to citizens of the host countries Idleness and porverty within a refugee camp may cause an excalation of security and social problems such as crimes, prostitution and alcoholism Different ethnicity, failures in communication and understanding caused by language and culture can form serious barriers with the local population and create conflicts.
  25. 25. EU REACTIONS
  26. 26. SAVING LIVES & SECURING TRIPLED the budget for Frontex to reinforce its joint operations Triton and Poseidon in order to save lives EU ACTION PLAN against migrant smuggling (2015 – 2020) EU NAVAL OPERATION against human smugglers and traffickers - EUNAVFOR Med lives have been rescued in the Central Mediterranean since June 2015 arriving during the month of August 2015, the same as 2014
  27. 27. RELOCATION & ASSISTANCE Made a commitment to relocate 160,000 people from Greece, Italy and the most affected members HOTSPOT APPROACH in Italy and Greece to identify, register and fingerprint migrants & refugees people have been relocated until 13 January 2016 Till the end of 2015, only 1/5 hotspot in Greece (Lesvos) & 2/6 hotspots in Italy (Lampedusa and Trapani) are operational €1.3 million To cover new staff for 2015 €700 million Emergency Funding (2015: €100 million 2016: €600 million)
  28. 28. SUPPORT THIRD COUNTRIES Made a commitment to RESETTLING 22,504 displaced persons till the end of 2017 had been effectively resettled until 13 January 2016 0 100 200 300 400 500 EU Budget Member State Extra support of €500m €442.74m Shortfall €57.26m Funds for Humanitarian Aid 0 100 200 300 400 500 EU Budget Member State Extra support of €500m €434.48m Shortfall €465.52m EU Trust Fund for the Syrian crisis 0 100 200 300 400 500 EU Budget Member State Initial Capital Contribution €1800m €81.27m Shortfall €1718.73m Emergency Trust Fund for Africa
  29. 29. COOPERATING WITH THIRD COUNTRIES Meeting on the Western Balkans Migration Route Providing temporary shelter, food, healthcare, water and sanitation Managing the migration flows together by sharing information about flows and avoiding taking unilateral decisions Strengthening border management by bilateral border- related confidence-building measures
  30. 30. COOPERATING WITH THIRD COUNTRIES EU – Turkey Action Plan Offer temporary protection to Syrian refugees Strengthen cooperation with the EU & implement a series of repressive measures against irregular migration Mobilize funds in the most flexible and rapid way Consider the visa liberalisation dialogue with Turkey
  31. 31. FURTHER REGULATION PROPOSALS Establish a European Border and Coast Guard – reinforcing the mandate of Frontex Legal migration package including revision of Blue Card A long-term, EU-wide system of resettlement and relocation A credible and effective return policy
  32. 32. SUGGESTIONS
  33. 33. SUGGESTIONS Reinforce the resettlement and relocation systems Considering private sponsorship Improve the living conditions at refugee centers in Turkey and Europe Create new system that allows asylum-seekers to register requests from their home countries or states adjoining the EU Open legal channels for economic migrants seeking work in the EU, both high and low qualified employees
  34. 34. THANK YOU

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