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  1. 1. Anatomy Classification of Joints NHF COLLEGE OF NURSING,MYSURU Prepared by: Prof.Ananda.S
  2. 2. Introduction:- • A joint, also called articulation is a point of contact. • Arthrology:-It is the scientific study of joints. • Kinesiology:-It is the study of the motion of the human body. • There are 230 joints in thebody
  3. 3. Definition • A joint is the site at which any two or more bones articulate or come together. Joints allow flexibility and movement of the skeleton and allow attachment between bones.
  4. 4. Joint Functions 1. Hold the skeletal bones together 2. Allow the skeleton some flexibility so movement can occur 3. Make bone growth possible
  5. 5. Classification of Joints • The joints are classified as : • Functionally • Structurally
  6. 6. Functional Classification of Joints • Synarthrosis – immovable joints • Amphiarthrosis – slightly moveable joints • Diarthrosis – freely moveable joints
  7. 7. Synarthrosis • Synarthrosis permit little or no mobility. • Most synarthrosis joints are fibrous joints. • Eg-cranial sutures in adult.
  8. 8. Amphiarthrosis :- • Amphiarthrosis permit slight mobility. • The two bone surfaces at the joint are both covered in hyaline cartilage and joined by strands of fibrocartilage. eg: secondary cartilaginous joints
  9. 9. Diarthrosis • Permit a variety of movements. • Only synovial joints are diarthrosis
  10. 10. Structural classification of joints There are three types of joints. 1.Fibrous or fixed joints or Immovable 2.Cartilaginous or Slightly moveable joints 3.Synovial or Freely moveable joints
  11. 11. 1.Fibrous or fixed joints or Immovable • In this type, the articulating surfaces of bones are connected by fibrous tissue. • There are three types of fibrous joints. A. Sutures or sutural joints B. Syndesmosis C. Gomphosis
  12. 12. Sutures or Sutural joints • Sutures occur only in the skull. • Example is coronal suture between the frontal and parietals. • No movement is possible in such type of joints.
  13. 13. B. Syndesmosis • In this type , the bones are united by a sheet of fibrous tissue. • It may be a ligament or a fibrous membrane. Example is interosseous membrane connects the radius and ulna. • The interosseous membrane between the radius and ulna is flexible and wide enough to permit movement during supination and pronation. • These are slightly movable
  14. 14. Syndesmosis
  15. 15. C. Gomphosis • This is a special type of fibrous joint, between a tooth and its socket. • The fibrous tissue of the periodontal ligament firmly holds the tooth in its socket.
  16. 16. 2.Cartilaginous or Slightly moveable joints • Here bones are united either by hyaline cartilage or by fibrous cartilage. • Depending on this, cartilaginous joints are classified into primary and secondary cartilaginous joints.
  17. 17. Primary cartilaginous joints • It is also known as hyaline cartilaginous joints or Synchondroses. • The bones are united by hyaline. • This type of joint is temporary , as in the development of a long bone. • The bones are united by a plate or a bar of hyaline cartilage. No movement, temporary joints (ossify later), • Example: Between the Epiphysis and the Diaphysis of a growing bone. • Between the First Rib and the Sternum (1st sternocostal joint) (The rest of the sternocostal joints are synovial plane joints.)
  18. 18. Secondary cartilaginous joints • Also known fibrocartilagenous joints or symphyses. • Bones are united with strong fibrous tissue or fibrocartilage. • Examples are symphysis pubis, joints between vertebral bodies ( intervertebral discs).
  19. 19. Secondary cartilaginous joints
  20. 20. 3.Synovial or Freely moveable joints • They are most common and important joints in the body. • They normally provide free movement. • They are called synovial joints because they are lined with a synovial membrane and contain a lubricating fluid called synovial fluid. • Eg- Shoulder, hip, elbow and knee.
  21. 21. Synovial joint
  22. 22. Characteristic features of Synovial joint • Articular surface: These consist of corresponding ends of articulating bones. • Articular cartilage: Articular cartilage covers the articular surface of the articulating bones. It provides a smooth gliding surface and reduces the force of compression during weight bearing
  23. 23. • Synovial membrane: It lines the fibrous capsule from inside. It secrets synovial fluid. • Synovial fluid: It is a clear or pale yellow, viscous alkaline fluid. It maintains the nutrition of articular cartilage. It provides lubrication to the joint cavity
  24. 24. • Joint cavity: The joint cavity is enclosed within a fibrous capsule. • Articular capsule: It consists of a fibrous capsule lined by synovial membrane on the inside. It binds the articulating bones together. • Articular disc: It is made up of fibrocartilage. • Ligaments: True and accessory. They maintain the stability of the joint.
  25. 25. Function of S.F. Is:- 1) Provides nutrients for the structure with in the joint cavity. 2) Contain phagocytes which remove microbes 3) Act as a lubricant 4) Maintain joint stability.
  26. 26. Seven types of synovial joints • There are seven types of synovial joints • Plane Joint • Hinge Joint • Pivot Joint • Condlyoid Joint • Ellipsoid joint • Saddle Joint • Ball-and-Socket Joint
  27. 27. 1.Plane joint • Articular surfaces are more or less flat (plane). • They permit gliding movements (translational) in various directions. e.g. 1. Intercarpal joints 2. Intertarsal joints 3. Joints b/w articular process of vertebrae
  28. 28. 2. Hinge joint – • Articular surfaces are pully shaped. • Movements takes place in one plane only. • It is usually a uniaxial joint. • Only flexion & extention is possible. e.g. 1) Elbow joint 2) Ankle joint 3) Interphalangeal joints
  29. 29. 3.Pivot Joint • The cylindrical surface of one bone rotates within a ring formed of bone and ligament. • Movement is limited to the rotation around a central axis. • e.g. 1. Atlanto-axial joint 2. Radio-ulnar joints
  30. 30. 4.Condlyoid Joint • In this type , one of the articular ends is convex and the other is concave. • It is a biaxial joints where movements can occur in two axes. • Movement –one plane around transverse axis, partly in another plane in rotation around vertical axis e.g.: Wrist joint
  31. 31. 5.ELLIPSOID JOINT • Articular surface –oval convex male surface fit into elliptical concave female cavity • Movement –flexion, extension around transverse axis, abduction and adduction • EXAMPLES:- 1.Wristjoint 2.Metacarpophalangealjoints 3.Atlanto-occipitaljoint
  32. 32. 6. Saddle joint • In this type of joint articular surfaces are reciprocally concavo-convex & movements can occur in all planes. 1. First carpometacarpal joint. 2. sternoclavicular joint 3. Calcaneocuboid joint 4. Joint b/w femur & patella
  33. 33. Ball-and-Socket Joint • Consists of a bone with a ball- shaped head that attaches with the cup-shaped cavity of another bone. • Movements: flexion, extension,adduction, abduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation and circumduction. All occur freely. Eg- 1) shoulder joint 2) hip joint
  34. 34. Joints of Human body • Joints of upper limb • Joints of the lower limb
  35. 35. Joints of upper limb • Acromio-clavicular joint • Sterno-clavicular joint • Shoulder joint • Elbow joint • Radio-ulnar joints • Wrist joint • Intercarpal and Midcarpal joints • Carpo-metacarpal joints • Metacarpo-phalangeal joint
  36. 36. Joints of lower limb
  37. 37. Joints of Skull