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Ch2 Terms ,concepts and their use in sociology

  1. Chapter 2 Terms , concepts and their use in Sociology
  2. Social Control Status Roles
  3. We do not equate sociological knowledge with common sense. Many concepts reflect the concern of the social thinkers to understand and map the social changes. Just there are different kinds of individuals and groups in society so also there different kinds of concepts and terms.
  4. Class Conflict
  5. Solidarity Collective Conscience
  6. Micro interaction **studying human behavior by starting with individual . Macro structures **such as class, caste ,market ,state ,or even community
  7. Social Groups and Society
  8. A social group is a collection of two or more persons who are continuously interacting and share common interests and a sense of loyalty within a given society.
  9. . Quasi Groups *** An aggregate or combination which lacks structure or organization and whose members are unaware or less aware of existence of grouping .
  10. . Quasi Groups ***
  11. Social Category: It refers to a statistical grouping of people or classification of people on the basis of similar characteristics. For example, all men having the same occupation, or all girls having a height of 5 ft. and above.
  12. . Both Aggregates as well as Social Category are quasi-groups which can sometimes become a social group over time. For example, all domestic workers in a locality may over time form a union and become organized and develop a. common identity as a social group.
  13. . Social Group Quasi Group 1. Social group is a collection of continuously interacting persons who share common interest, culture, values and norms within a given society. • Social groups have sense of belongingness. • E.g.: family, peers etc. • Quasi group/aggregates is a group of people who are at the same place at the same time but share no connection with each other and have no structure. • Quasi groups lack sense of belongingness. • E.g.: Passengers standing on railway station
  14. . Social Group Quasi Group 1. Social group is a collection of continuously interacting persons who share common interest, culture, values and norms within a given society. • Social groups have sense of belongingness. • E.g.: family, peers etc. • Quasi group/aggregates is a group of people who are at the same place at the same time but share no connection with each other and have no structure. • Quasi groups lack sense of belongingness. • E.g.: Passengers standing on railway station
  15. . (1)Primary and secondary group (2) In group and society or association (3) Community and society or association (4) Reference group (5) Peer group Types of Social Group
  16. . Primary Group Primary group refers to small group of people connected by intimate and face-to-face association and co-operation. for e.g. family, village and groups. • Secondary group is the group in which there is lack of intimacy, e.g., different political group, economic association etc. Secondary Group
  17. . Primary Group Secondary Group ❖ Small size of group ❖ Physical proximity ❖ Continuity and stability of relationship ❖ General responsibility ❖ Common-aim ❖ Large size ❖ Indirect relationship ❖ Fulfilment of special interest ❖ Limited responsibility ❖ Impersonal relationship
  18. . Difference between In Group and Out Group: In Group Out Group (1) "We feeling" exists. (1) Lack of "We feeling". (2) Face to face relationship. (2) No face to face relationship (3) Feeling of sacrifice and (3) Lack of feeling of sacrifice and cooperation among members. cooperation among members (4) Domestic and perfect (4) Working relationship and relationship. imperfect relationship.
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  20. . Community and Society Society Community It refers to human relationships that are impersonal, superficial and transitory. It refers to human relationships that are highly personal, intimate, enduring. Society has no definite boundary. It is universal and pervasive. It is a group of people living together particular locality. Society is abstract. Community is concrete.
  21. . Community and Society Community Society It is group of people living in a particular locality and having a feeling of oneness. Society network of relationships which cannot be seen or touched. E.g.: Hindu Community, Parsi Community etc. E.g.: Arya Samaj Society, Harijan Society.
  22. . Reference Group
  23. . Peer Group
  24. . Activity **Do your friends or others of your own age group influence you? **Are you concerned about their approval or disapproval about you? **Do they influence the way you dress, behave and even the kind of music you hear ?
  25. . Activity **Do you feel the need to please to be a part of a approved group ? **Is the Peer pressure stopping you from being your real self? **DO you feel the peer pressure ? **Is it always hard to say “no” to friends ? ** Is there such a thing as positive peer pressure ? ** Does peer group influence affect your academic achievement .
  26. Social stratification  Society is divided based on economic, social, religious and other aspects.  Heterogeneity in the society is called as Social Stratification.  The concept of “Social Stratification” is made use of to refer to such classification or degree and placement of people in society.  Stratification assumes three main forms; caste, class and race.
  27. Definition of Social Stratification  Raymond W Murray – “Social stratification is a horizontal division of society into higher and lower social units”.  Ogburn and Nimkoff – “The process by which individuals and groups are ranked in a more or less enduring hierarchy of status known as stratification”.  Ginsberg – “Social Stratification is the division of society into permanent groups or categories linked with each other by the relationship of superiority and subordination”
  28. Types of Social Stratification It can be divided into  Caste System – social  Class system – economic  Race – hereditary
  29. Caste system  In India, a special type of Social Stratification in the form of caste.  The caste is an inseparable aspects of the Indian Society.  It is peculiarly Indian in origin and development.  Origin of the word – the “Caste” origin into Spanish word ‘casta’ which means “breed, race, strain or a complex of hereditary qualities”.
  30. Definition of Caste  C.H. Cooley – “When a class is somewhat strictly hereditary, we may call it a caste”.  Willams – “Caste is a system in which an individual’s rank and its accompanying rights and obligations is ascribed on the basis of birth into a particular group”.  D.N. Mazumdar and T.N. Madan – “Caste is a closed group”.
  31. Origin of Caste system  It is difficult to trace the origin of caste system – it originated in India – various theories to explain the origin of caste system.  Racial theory Political theory Occupation theory Traditional theory Guild theory Religious theory Evolutionary theory
  32. Racial theory (Varna)  According to Mazumdar Caste system originated after the arrival of Aryans in India.  Indo-Aryans used the term ‘Varna’ which means ‘colour’. In order to differentiate the groups of people.  They called it Dasa Varna – Dasa people.  Rigvedic literature stresses very significantly the difference between the Arya and Dasa, not only in their color but also in their speech, religious practices, and physical features.  They divided Brahma, Kshatra and Vaishya – Sudra on the basis of Varna (race).
  33. 1. Occupational theory 2. ο Occupation is the base for the origin of caste system. 3. ο Those who carried out better and respectable profession were considered superior. 4. ο Nesfield views – Functions and Function alone is responsible for the origin of caste structure in India. 5. ο Occupational differentiation and numerous subcaste such as lohar, sonar, chamar, nai, mali etc.,
  34. Traditional Theory ο The caste system is of divine (godly) origin. ο According to this theory castes were created by Brahma in order to make human beings to harmoniously (part of body) perform various social functions necessary for the maintenance of society.
  35. Varna and Jati: Sociological studies of villages in 1950s-70s revealed that caste as it actually functions at local level is different from the Varna scheme. Varna Jati, a broad pan-Indian aggregative are actually existing hierarchies at classification and is uniform throughout level, but varies from region to region. In India there are only four Varnas —a complex division in each area.
  36. There are actually hundreds of castes and sub-castes in contemporary Indian villages. Studies show that the caste system in contemporary India has two main aspects: 1. Ritual aspect: It is based on ideas of purity. It is derived from religious texts. 2. Secular aspect: It takes both the economic and political aspects into account. Therefore, caste position in local hierarchies depends on a number of factors. •Rituals and customs of a caste •Food habits (vegetarian or non-vegetarian. Pork eating or non-pork eating) •Occupation •Land holding. •Political power etc. At local level, very often intermediate and lower level castes try to rise up in the caste hierarchy through the process of Sanskritisation.
  37. •Concept of Sanskritisation was introduced by Mr. M.N. Srinivas. •It refers to the process by which a “low” Hindu caste or tribe tries to achieve upward mobility in the local hierarchy by emulating the customs, rituals, and way of life of the “twice born castes”. For example, giving up liquor, taking up vegetarianism etc.
  38. •Caste is ascribed: •Caste is determined by birth. • A person is bom into the caste of one’s parents. Caste is not a matter of choice. One can not change one’s caste or leave it. •Caste is endogamous, i.e., marriage is restricted to members of the group. •Strict rules about food and food sharing: Caste membership involves rules about food and food sharing, what kind of foods may or may not be eaten is prescribed and whom one may share food with is also prescribed. •Hierarchy of rank and status: All castes are arranged in a hierarchy of rank and status while the hierarchical position of many castes may vary from region to region. •Segmental organization: Caste involves sub-divisions within themselves, that is, caste almost always have sub-castes and sub-castes may have sub-sub castes.7. Traditionally linked to occupation: A person born into a caste could only practice the occupation associated with that caste. So, occupations were hereditary under caste system.
  39. CLASS
  40. Class as a System of Stratification: •Class refers to a group based on sharing of similar economic resources, that is, wealth, income or property. •Members of the same class share: • Similar economic interests so that they may form organizations. For example, Trade Unions are formed by factory workers in an industrial society. • They share similar lifestyles. •They would also share similar life chances as they have similar kinds of access to health, education etc.
  41. Conflict Theory Marx-social classes are defined by what relation they have to means of production. Weber – Used the term life chances, which refers to the awards and advantages afforded by market capacity Structural /Functionalist theory Durkheim -No society is classes less or unstratified Social stratification was universally present in all societies to motivate individuals
  42. Features of class: •As opposed to caste system, class does not have any religious or legal sanction. •It is an open system of stratification. Social mobility is relatively easy. •Membership of class is primarily based on achieved status.
  43. Status And Role
  44. Status: It is refers to the position an individual occupies in a group or in society. Each status has certain defined rights and duties assigned to it. Examples of status—Doctor, mother, teacher etc.
  45. Achieved Status Ascribed Status (i) It is achieved by an individual on merit and effort (i) It is assigned to us on the basis of birth, biological inheritance, parents’ status etc. (ii) It is based on individual’s choice (ii) A person does not choose this status. (iii) It can change qualifications, income etc. (iii) It is difficult to change status (v) It plays an important role in modern societies Eg. Class (iv) It plays an important role in traditional societies.
  46. MULTIPLE STATUS AND STATUS PROGRESSION In a modern complex society such as ours, an individual may occupy multiple statuses during the course of his/her life. This is sociologically termed as status set. For example, you as a school student may be a student to your teacher, a customer to your grocer, a passenger to the bus driver, a brother or sister to your sibling and a patient to the doctor. Individuals also acquires different status at various stages of life. This is called a status sequence for it refers to the status, which is attained in succession or sequence at various stages of life. For example, a son becomes a father, a grandfather, and then great grandfather and so on.
  47. STATUS AND PRESTIGE *Status and prestige are interconnected terms. Every status is accorded certain rights and values. *Values are attached to the social position, rather than to the person who occupies it or to his/her performance or to his/her actions. *The kind of value attached to the status or to the office is called prestige.
  48. Role: Status and role are inter-connected because role is the behavioral aspect of status. It is the expected behaviour associated with a status. For example, the status of a student has certain expected behavior attached to it. However, while a status is occupied, role is played.
  49. Socialization: Role Conflict: Each individual performs a number of roles in society. Role conflict occurs when performance of one role conflicts with that of another. Eg. Modern working woman very often finds that her role as a professional conflicts with that of a mother and wife. Role Stereotyping: It refers to reinforcing of certain roles. For example, the role of breadwinner for the husband and that of homemaker for the wife is often stereotyped in ads and films. Social roles and status are not fixed. People do make efforts to change the role and status (even ascribed status) assigned to them by society. For example, Dalits have been opposing the low status assigned to them on the basis of caste.
  50. Society and Social Control
  51. SOCIAL CONTROL *Social control refers to the various means used by a society to bring its recalcitrant or unruly members back into line. It is the social process, techniques and strategies by which the behaviours of individuals or a group are regulated. *It can be the use of force to regulate the behaviour of the individuals or enforcement of values in the individual to maintain order in society.
  54. Social Control Formal Informal
  55. FORMAL MEANS *When the codified, systematic and other formal mechanism of control is used, it is known as formal social control. *There are agencies and mechanism of formal social control, for example, law and the state. In a modern society formal mechanisms and agencies of social control are emphasized.
  56. The Conflict theorist see social control a mechanism to impose social control of dominant social classes on the rest of the society Law would be seen as the formal writ of the powerful and theory interests in society The use of force to regulate the behaviour of the individual and groups Enforcing of values and patterns for maintain order in society
  57. **Social control refers to the social process, techniques and strategies which the behaviours of Individual or group are regulated . **It refers to use of both force to regulate the behaviour of the Individual and groups to maintain social cohension
  58. INFORMAL MEANS OF SOCIAL CONTROL It is personal, unofficial and uncodified. They include smiles ,making faces , body language ,frowns ,criticism ridicule laughter etc.
  59. INFORMAL MEANS OF SOCIAL CONTROL However ,in some cases informal methods of social control may not be adequate thus family ,religion Kingship take the reigns of control