Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.

Bioavailability Studies

34.724 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

Bioavailability Studies

Veröffentlicht in: Bildung
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, eBooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Antworten 
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier

Bioavailability Studies

  1. 1. BIOAVAILABILITY -: Presented By :- Amruta S. Sambarekar 1st Year M.Pharm Dept. of Pharmaceutics M M C P, BELGAUM 1
  2. 2. CONTENTS Concept of Bioavailability Objectives of Bioavailability Studies Considerations in Bioavailability Studies 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONBioavailability is defined as a measure, of the rate and amount of drug, which reaches the systemic circulation unchanged following the administration of a dosage form. 3
  4. 4. Cont….In other words, it is the fraction of administered dose that actually reaches the systemic circulation in contrast to that stated on the label. Bioavailability is usually determined by comparing the rate and extent of absorption of drug from the formulation under evaluation, to the data of a reference standard. 4
  5. 5. Cont….If the reference standard is an IV dose, it is referred as Absolute Bioavailability. If the reference standard is any other dosage form than IV it is referred as Relative Bioavailability.Reference standard can be IM injection, oral solution or a fine suspension.Bioavailability usually ranges from 0 to 1. 5
  6. 6. Cont….An absolute bioavailability of 1 (or 100% ) indicates complete absorption.Relative bioavailability of 1 (or 100%) implies that bioavailability of drug from both the dosage form is the same but does not indicate the completeness of absorption. 6
  7. 7. Bioavailability of drug from dosage form depends upon following, - Properties of the drug - Important physiological factors - Characteristics of the dosage form 7
  8. 8. Bioavailability StudiesTwo types are there, The first type involves an assessment of the bioavailability of a new drug formulation.The second type study involves a comparison of a test formulation with that of a reference standard dosage form that is proved to have a therapeutic safety and efficacy. 8
  9. 9. ObjectivesPrimary stage of development for suitable dosage form for a new drug entity.Determination of influence of excipients, patient related factors and possible interaction with other drugs on the efficiency of absorption. 9
  10. 10. Cont….For a approved drugs to develop a new dosage form or to improve an existing dosage form.To find out the influence of physicochemical properties of drug and dosage form on biological performance of the drug. 10
  11. 11. Cont….Useful in determining the safety and efficacy of the drug product. 11
  12. 12. Considerations in Bioavailability Studies Selection Of Subjects Study Design Washout Period Single Vs Multiple- Dose Study Design 12
  13. 13.  Study Conditions Pharmacological Effects of Metabolite Assay Method 13
  14. 14. Selection Of SubjectsA number of factors such as health, age, weight, enzyme status and number are concern.It is better to have the subjects of similar kinetics to avoid major variations.Health : Subjects should be of great health that is ascertained by various biochemical and medical examination. 14
  15. 15. Age : Elderly and children have differentkinetics to adults. Subjects between 18 – 35years are preferred.Number :Number of participants should be keptminimum required for carrying out areliable, well designed study. 15
  16. 16. Weight :The apparent volume of distribution is usually proportional to weight in subjects of normal weight and height.However, in overweight and underweight Vd may be different. Hence, to better match the subject , normal weights are preferred. Usually 140-200lb 16
  17. 17. Enzyme Status : Enzyme activity can be altered by altered kinetics of the drug in case of smokers or subjects taking other drugs leading to drug-drug interaction. 17
  18. 18. Study DesignUsually, a complete cross over study design is used. With this design each subject receives all products with a washout period between each dose administration.This is a Latin square crossover design where each subject receives each drug product only once . Here each subject act as his own control and subject to subject variation is reduced. 18
  19. 19. Washout Period : The time interval between two treatments is called “washout period”.It is required for the elimination of the administered dose of a drug so as to avoid a carryover effect 19
  20. 20. Cont….Usually, a period of 10 half-lives should be allowed between two treatments ensuring elimination of 99.9% of the administered dose.The number of washout period depends upon the type of crossover study design used and number of formulations to be evaluated. 20
  21. 21. Cont…. In case of Digitoxin, Half –life : 6 to 9 days Study design :Latin square crossover design for four formulations.Duration : 1 year 21
  22. 22. Single Vs. Multiple- Dose Study Design Single- Dose Studies Recommended ForDosage forms that are to be evaluated only for bioequivalence purpose.Dosage forms meant for a single dose administration for a therapeutic benefit such as analgesic for relief of headache. 22
  23. 23. Multiple Dose Studies Recommended ForDosage forms designed to achieve special release profiles. e.g. time-release products, enteric-coated preparations.Drugs undergoing first pass metabolism.Special dosage regimens such as Loading dose. 23
  24. 24. Study conditionsSubject should be maintained on a uniform diet and none of them should have taken any drug at least one week prior to the study.Before the commencement of study it is necessary to define the study condition such as fasting period before the administration, time period after drug product administration, during which fasting is continued. 24
  25. 25. Cont….In general studies are carried out on subjects fasted overnight. 25
  26. 26. Pharmacological Effects of MetabolitesBioavailability measurement is based on the unchanged drug.Drugs having biologically active metabolites, their concentration in systemic circulation can influence greatly the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. 26
  27. 27. Cont….It was found especially significant for drugs which exhibits first pass metabolism during pre-absorptive phase.Phenacetin has more side effects than, its metabolite acteaminophen, which is also pharmacologically active form.In case of aspirin its metabolite salicylic acid is pharmacologically inactive and exhibits serious toxicity. 27
  28. 28. Cont….Based on above findings, it is good practice in bioavailability studies to examine the presence of major metabolites in blood and urine, to determine their concentration and, if possible, pharmacological activity of each. 28
  29. 29. Assay methodThe analytical method used to quantitate the levels of drug and/or its metabolites must be selective e.g., for the unchanged drug in presence of its metabolites.It must be sensitive enough to measure the expected low drug levels in the samples collected last. 29
  30. 30. REFERENCE “Text Book Of Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics”, Dr. Shobha Rani R. Hiremath. Pg no. 31-35. “Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics” Venkatesh Pg no. 331, 336-338. “Biopharmaceutics & pharmacokinetics”, D.M.Brahmankar, S.B.Jaiswal, Pg.no. 283. 30
  31. 31. !! ! u ! y o nk haT 31

×