• Relationship – Affect, Moods, Emotions
• Basic Emotions
• Aspects of Emotions
• Structure of Moods
• Sources of Emotions and Moods
• External Constraints on Moods
• Emotional Labor
• Emotions – Jobs – Payment
• Affective Events Theory (AEI)
• Emotional Intelligence (EI)
• Dimensions of EI
• Team Activity
• EI – For or Against?
• OB Applications
Affect is a generic tern that covers a
broad range of feelings that people
experience which encompasses
both emotions and moods
Intense feelings that are directed at
someone or something
Lesser intensive feelings that are often
lack a contextual stimulus.
Defined as a broad range of feelings that people
experience. Affect can be experienced in the form of
emotions or moods
• Caused by specific event
•Very brief duration
•Specific and numerous
•Distinct facial expressions
• Cause is general and unclear
•Comprised of multiple
specific emotions (+ve or-ve)
•No distinct expressions
5. Basic Emotions
Some emotions (also passions) are complex for facial representation
Cultural norms govern emotional expression
Experiencing an emotion is not the same as showing it.
6. Aspects of Emotion
• Emotions originate in the brain’s limbic system.
• When relatively inactive creates happiness and vice versa.
• More active in women than men.
• People emote/respond differently to identical stimuli due
to mere personality or job requirements.
• To meet the emotional demands of an organization
depends also on the frequency and duration of the effort.Frequency Duration
rationality and emotion
• Critical to rational thinking. Eg: Phineas Gage.
• Employ both thinking and feeling for decision making
• Motivate to engage in actions important for survival.
• Evolutionary psychology - All emotions are useful.
•Eg: Anger to stand up for oneself
8. Sources of Emotions and Moods
• Predisposed intensity of emotional reactions under similar circumstances.
Day of the week, time of the day:
• Negative moods during the beginning of the day and week; better moods during midday, weekends
• Illusionary correlation of weather affecting moods
• Deadlines, fear of exams, financial upheavals, ill health cause negative emotions leading to stress.
• Increase positive moods; have long term health benefits
Lack of Sleep:
• Impairs decision making and emotion controlling attitude leaving individuals fatigued, irritable
• Uplifts moods and therapeutic for the depressed.
• Fewer negative emotions as one gets older
• Women show greater emotional expression ; better at reading non-verbal and paralinguistic cues
9. External Constraints on Emotions
• Boundaries defined by an
organization or culture that identify
which emotions are acceptable and
the degree to which employees
may express them.
• Bias against negative and intense
emotions at workplace
• Collectivist cultures think, emotion
expressed is directed at them unlike
• Easier for people to recognize
emotions from their own cultures
• Certain cultures lack words for
standard American emotional terms
such as anxiety, depression
10. Emotional Labor
• Emotional labor is an employee’s
expression of organizationally desired
emotions during interpersonal
transactions at work.
• Emotional dissonance is the disparity
when an employee has to express one
emotion when actually feeling another.
• Deep acting is modifying one’s true
inner feelings based on display rules
• Surface acting is hiding one’s inner
feelings and forging emotional
expressions in response to display
rules. More stressful.
11. Emotions – Jobs – Payment
• Strong relationship between cognitive demands and pay
• Lower pay for emotionally demanding jobs.
12. Affective Events Theory (AET)
• AET states that employees react
emotionally to things that happen
to them at work and this reaction
influences their job performance
• Emotions provide insights into
understanding employee behavior.
• Hassles and uplifts influence
employee performance and
• Employees must not ignore any
14. Emotional Intelligence (EI)
• Ability to detect and to
manage emotional cues and
• People knowing their own
emotions are good at
“Emotional Intelligence refers to the capacity of re-arranging our own feelings and
those of others, for motivating ourselves and for managing emotions well in ourselves
and our relationships” – Goleman, 1998.
17. EI – For or Against?
• Intuitive Appeal: People who detect others emotions are
better at handling their own emotions
• EI predicts criteria that matter: High level of EI means better
• EI is biological: People who suffer neurological damage
score lower EI and make poorer decisions
• Too vague: “too broad and variegated…not intelligible”
• Cannot be measured: Too diverse components
• Suspicious validity: EI is no more unique once intelligence
and personality are controlled.
Whatever the perspective is – the concept is here to stay!
18. OB Applications of
Emotions and Moods
• Decision Making
• Interpersonal Conflict
• Customer Service
• Job Attitudes
• Deviant Workplace Behaviors
• Managers influence on Moods
• Emotions and Moods are
• Practical and Ethical limits
• They hinder or enhance
• The more complex a task,
the less emotional a worker
can be before interfering
• EI – An awareness tool to
tackle these issues