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  3. RAMAYANA • Author: Valmiki • Culture: Indian • Language: Sanskrit • Genre: Epic poetry • Time: 550 B.C. • Concept: dharma
  4. Valmiki Ramayana has been traditionally divided into seven books, dealing with the life of Rama from his birth to his death.  Bala Kanda  Ayodhya Kanda  Aranya Kanda  Kishkindya Kanda  Sundara Kanda  Yuddha Kanda  Uttara Kanda
  5.  Bala Kanda – Book of the young Rama which details the miraculous birth of Rama, his early life in Ayodhya, his slaying of the demons of the forest at the request of Vishvamitra and his wedding with Sita.  Ayodhya Kanda – Book of Ayodhya in which Dasharatha comes to grief over his promise to Kaikeyi and the start of Rama's exile.  Aranya Kanda – Book of the Forest which describes Rama's life in the forest and the abduction of Sita by Ravana.  Kishkindya Kanda – Book of Kishkinda, the Vanara kingdom in which Rama befriends Sugriva and the Vanara army and begins the search for Sita.
  6.  Sundara Kanda – Book of Sundara (Hanuman) in which Hanuman travels to Lanka and finds Sita imprisoned there and brings back the good news to Rama.  Yuddha Kanda – Book of the War, which narrates the Rama- Ravana war and the return of the successful Rama to Ayodhya and his coronation.  Uttara Kanda – Epilogue, which details the life of Rama and Sita after their return to Ayodhya, Sita's banishment and how Sita and Rama pass on to the next world.
  7. MAIN CHARACTERS Rama is the hero of this epic tale. He is portrayed as an incarnation of the god Vishnu. He is the eldest and the favorite son of the King of Ayodhya, Dasharatha. He is a popular prince loved by one and all. He is the epitome of virtue. Dasaratha, forced by one of his wives Kaikeyi commands Rama to relinquish his right to the throne for fourteen years and go into exile by his father. While in exile, Rama kills the demon king Ravana.  Sita is the wife of Rama and the daughter of king Janaka. She is the incarnation of Goddess Laxmi(Lord Vishnu's wife). Sita is the epitome of womanly purity and virtue. She follows her husband into exile and there gets abducted by Ravana. She is imprisoned in the island of Lanka by Ravana. Rama rescues her by defeating the demon king Ravana.
  8.  Hanuman is a vanara belonging to the kingdom of Kishkinda. He worships Rama and helps find Sita by going to the kingdom of Lanka crossing the great ocean.  Ravana, a rakshasa, is the king of Lanka. He received a boon from Brahma that he will not be killed by either gods, demons or by spirits, after performing a severe penance for ten thousand years. He was also the most intelligent and erudite living being of his time. He has ten heads and twenty arms. After getting his reward from Brahma, Ravana begins to lay waste the earth and disturbs the deeds of good Brahmins. Rama is born a human to defeat him, thus overcoming the boon given by Brahma.
  9.  Lakshmana, the younger brother of Rama, chose to go into exile with him. He spends his time protecting Sita and Rama. He is deceived by Ravana and Maricha into believing that Rama was in trouble while Sita gets abducted.  Dasharatha is the king of Ayodhya and the father of Rama. He has three queens, Kousalya, Sumitra and Kaikeyi, and three other sons, Bharata, Lakshmana and Shatrughna. Kaikeyi, Dasharatha's favourite queen forces him to make his son Bharata heir apparent and send Rama into exile. Dashatara dies heartbroken after Rama goes into exile.  Bharata is the second son of Dasharata. When he learns that his mother Kaikeyi had forced Rama into exile and caused Dasharata to die broken hearted, he storms out of the palace and goes in search of Rama. When Rama refuses to break his exile to return to the capital to assume the throne, he requests and gets Rama's sandals and places them on the throne. Bharata then rules Ayodhya as a representative of Rama.  Vishvamitra is the sage who takes Rama into the forest at the behest of defeating the demons destroying his Vedic sacrifices. On the way back he takes Rama into Mithila where Rama sees and falls in love with Sita.
  10. Bala Rama in the lap of Mother Kausalya
  11. Even as infants, everyone noticed that Rama and Lakshmana were inseparable. It was as if they were one life in two bodies. All four sons grew to be intelligent men. They learned the holy scriptures well. They were devoted to the welfare of others. Dasharatha was finally happy. He enjoyed watching his sons grow before his eyes. He did not say it in so many words, but he did have a special place in his heart for Rama. One day the sage, or wise man, Vishwamitra came to Ayodhya to see the king. The king had great respect for him. He asked King Dasratha to send Rama to protect him from demons. Although reluctant the king agreed his request.
  12. Rama breaking the bow of Siva at Sita's Swayamvara At the end of the stay with Vishwamitra, Rama chanced to pass the kingdom Mithila, and heard that Janaka (the king) had desire her daughter’s Sita married to a man of great strength and righteousness.
  13. Rama wins the Swayamvar…and Janaka gladly gave him his beautiful daughter. Ram and Sita Married…
  14. RAMA'S EXILE  King Dasharatha, began to feel weary of reigning, and decided to make Rama, his eldest son and heir-apparent, the co-regent (Yuvaraja).  People were happy and celebrated this news..  Dasharatha went to discuss the celebrations with his favourite wife Kaikeyi.  BUT… Kaikeyi said-- "I wish to have my son, Bharata, placed upon the throne of Ayodhya. Second, I want Rama banished from the kingdom for a period of no less than fourteen years." The king fell to his knees and begged his young wife not to hold him to these dreadful wishes. Kaikeyi nandhavardhan
  15. BUT… • Rama knelt and touched the feet of his parents respectfully. He stood, turned and left the palace. • Rama tried hard to convince Laxman and Sita to stay but they were insistent. • The 3 leave the palace.. • In time, Dasharatha lost the will to live. His heart simply gave out. Ayodhya mourned the loss of their king.
  16. • In a few days, after leaving palace Rama, Lakshmana and Sita crossed the river Ganges searching for a land undisturbed and isolated from everyone. Soon they reached Chitrakoot, a beautiful place with many trees and streams. It was paradise. They built a small hut near a stream.
  17. Sri Rama crossing the river Ganga with the help of tribal leader Guha
  18. Meanwhile Bharata goes to the forest and Persuades Rama to Return. But Ram was insistent in fulfilling his fathers promise... Bharata took Rama’s sandals, mounted his horse and left the forest. In Kosala, Bharata put Rama's sandals on the red and gold Ayodhya throne.
  19. Sri Rama, Sita and Lakshmana enjoying a serene moment in Dhandaka forest
  20. Surpanakha at Rama's hermitage: Several days passed. Rama, Lakshmana and Sita walked south until they came upon Dandaka forest. Once a beautiful place, Dandaka was now a barren wasteland. Religious men who gave up all worldly comforts and became hermits also lived in the forest. They spoke of the horrors that Ravana's demons had done. Rama and Lakshmana promised they would kill all these demons. Surpanakha (sister of demon king Ravan) taking form of beautiful young girl,tried to seduce Rama.
  21.  Ravana, hear about the beautiful Sita from Surpanakha, resolved to kill Rama in revenge and take Sita for himself.  He enlisted the aid of the demon Maricha--who turned himself into a golden deer that Sita wanted for herself.  Ravana approached the hermitage in the guise of an old man and asked Sita to give him some food. Sita stepped out hesitantly to give the old man some food. Ravana grabbed Sita and fled in his airborne vehicle
  22. Ravana cuts Jatayu's wings
  23. Vanara kingdom  Continuing their search, they encountered the vanara king of Kishkindha, Sugriva, and Hanuman, one of his generals, among whom Sita had dropped from the chariot her scarf and some ornaments.  Sugriva had been deposed from his kingdom by his brother, Vali, who had also taken his wife Roma from him.  Rama agreed to defeat Vali if Sugriva would assist in the search for Sita. Rama shot from his bow and killed Vali
  24. Hanuman in Lanka
  25. Hanuman giving SITA the ring of Rama .
  27. Bridge Over The Sea
  28.  As Ravana fell by this weapon, flowers rained from heaven upon the happy victor, and his ears were ravished with celestial music. VICTORY OF LORD RAM.. Rama killed Ravana using Bramhastra
  29. Lord Ram, Sita and Laxman return Ayodhya after 14 years…
  31. Ethical value may be regarded as a study under ETHICS, which, in turn, may be grouped as philosophy. Ethical value may be regarded as a subgroup of the more broad (and vague) philosophic value. It denotes something's degree importance, with the aim of determining what action or life is best to do, or at least attempt to describe the value of different actions. It deals with right conduct and good life, in the sense that a highly, valuable action or may be regarded as good, and an action of low value may be regarded as bad.
  32. VALUES IN RAMAYANA It contains the teachings of ancient Hindu sages and presents them through allegory in narrative and the interspersion of the philosophical and the devotional. The characters of Rama, Sita, Lakshmana, Bharata, Hanumān and Rāvana (the villain of the piece) are all fundamental to the cultural consciousness of India. One of the most important literary works on ancient India, the Ramayana has had a profound impact on art and culture in the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Brotherly Love The value of a Truth and commitment Love for parents Dharma Mercy even to enemies
  33. Morals in Ramayana  In his Ramayana, Valmiki expresses his view of human code of conduct through Rama: life is evanescent and the hedonistic approach to it is meaningless.  However, that should not allow one to be indifferent to one's own rights and duties laid down in the ancient texts.  He thus adopts the view that Dharma is what is proclaimed in the Veda and it should be followed for its own sake, not for what it brings one in pain or pleasure.
  34. The concepts of Dharma, Artha, Kama (and Moksha) are very old Hindu concepts. They are also known as Purusharthas. There are prominent instances of it being defined in Ramayana. The first was when Bharat came to forest (Chitrakoot) to meet Rama. Rama asked him whether he followed the rules of Dharma, Artha and Kaama properly. As per Rama it is defined as: Artha should not interfere with Dharma and vice versa.  Kaama means pleasure here.  One is allowed to have pleasure but without affecting the duties and earnings.  The other instance of this concept comes in Yudha Kanda.  Here Kumbhakarna, Ravana's brother, advises Ravana that one should use dharma in the morning, artha in the daytime and Kaama at night.  He further says to Ravana that he (Ravana) is busy with Kaama all the time and this will take him to destruction.  Interestingly one of Ravana's ministers Mahodara scolds Kubhakarna and to please his master says that a King can enjoy Kaama at any time. CONCEPT OF DHARMA-ARTHA-KAMA AS PER RAMAYANA
  35. BROTHERLY LOVE When you come to the part about Rama leaving for the forest on his exile, explain how Laxman too insisted on leaving the luxuries of the palace to live besides his beloved elder brother for 14 years. Similarly when Bharat learned of how his mother Kaikayee had banished Rama from Ayodhya, he was devastated.He immediately made plans to go to Rama and bring him back to rule. When Rama refused to return until his exile period was up, Bharat placed Rama's slippers on the throne and ruled Ayodhya in the name of Rama - keeping his place until he returned.  Similarly, when Soorpanakha was insulted by Laxman, she went to her brothers Khaara and Dooshan, who rushed to avenge her. They were, however, vanquished by Rama and Lakshman. She then sought Ravan's aid, setting the wheels for the grand battle between Rama and Ravan, good and evil, into motion. In today's materialistic world where property disputes between siblings are commonplace, stories like Ramayana are needed to be told over and over again. These values are enriched in Ramayana.
  36. Love for parents • Rama's insistence on keeping the promise also shows the deep love Rama had for his parents. • The fact that he willingly gave up 14 years of his life to exile to keep his father's word, shows his love for his parents. His love was such that he would willingly give up his life for his parents. • Similarly, Dashrath too loved his child so deeply that when Rama left for the forest, Dashrath breathed his last.
  37. • Hinduism is not revealed by any act of a personal God, but it is seen by those whose pure minds catch its reflection. • in Judaism, Islam and Christianity lies in the fact that , it is accepted that the truths were revealed by God to be a particular person at a particular time and place . But in the case of Hinduism the realization of the truths and their expressions was the result of a gradual process of reflection by many individuals through centuries.
  38. • Hinduism is more of orthopraxy rather than Orthodoxy. Orthodoxy is the holding of commonly accepted religious opinions but in Hinduism, there is no commonly acceptable religious opinion. • No Revelation: Unlike Christianity and Islam Hinduism does not claim any great revelation of God to an individual at a particular place or time. Rather religious truths are results of reflections by many individuals through the centuries.
  39. • There is a difference in the manners at which Hinduism was revealed to the Hindus ancestors compared with Judaism, Islam and Christianity where the truths were revealed by God to the individuals.
  40. RAMAYANA MAHABHARAT QURAN BIBLE STORY IS ABOUT what sacrifies one person can face for become ideal son,ideal husband, ideal brother etc. narrative of the Kurukshetra War and the fates of the Kauravas and the Pandava princes The scriptures are the massages of allah to mankind. everything mankind will ever know or accomplish. It has directly led to massive undertakings of good will and charity. MAIN CHARACTER 1.RAM (IDEALISTIC) 2.SITA 1.KRISHNA (REALISTIC) 2.DRAUPADI Muhammad sahib Jesus DHARMA HINDUISM HINDUISM ISLAM CHRISTIANITY
  41.  Ramayana and Mahabharata, the two great epics of India, have captivated the hearts of its people for several millennia.  The Rāmāyana is an ancient Sanskrit epic attributed to the poet Valmiki and is an important part of the Hindu canon (smrti).  The name Rāmāyana is a tatpurusa compound of Rāma and ayana "going, advancing", translating to "the travels of Rāma".  The Rāmāyana consists of 24,000 verses in seven cantos (kārnas) and tells the story of a prince, Rama of Ayodhya, whose wife Sita is abducted by the demon (Rākshasa) king of Lanka, Rāvana.
  42.  In its current form, the Valmiki Ramayana is dated variously from 500 BCE to 100 BCE, or about co-eval to early versions of the Mahabhārata.  As with most traditional epics, since it has gone through a long process of interpolations and redactions, it is impossible to date it accurately.  The Rāmāyana had an important influence on later Sanskrit poetry, primarily through its establishment of the Sloka meter.  But, like its epic cousin Mahābhārata, the Rāmāyana is not just an ordinary story.  There are texts of Ramayana in several regional languages, including Sanskrit, Chinese, Thai, Telugu, Bengali, Kashmiri, and Tamil.
  43. • The Epic of Ramayana has a profound effect on their spiritual progress and culture. It is not just a book of beautiful poetry, it is a Dharma Shastra expounding lofty ethical ideal. • The actions of Ramayana are divine and serve as models for imitation. The Rajputs of the present days almost unconsciously take Rama as their model. • Hindu women will follow Sita for her devotion to her husband. • A lot of people of North India acknowledge him as their guide. The Ramayana is a mixture of Bhakti theology and healthy moral spirit . PRESENT STATE OF RELIGION
  44. The Epic's influence on Thai culture was and still is profound. People of all classes and education levels know the story from their childhood. King Rama 2nd translated the Indian version into Thai and it is included in school and university curricula. It has become part of Thai literature and has been adapted to suit Thai culture. The story of Ramayana is currently [198?] being shown on television in India and is watched by virtually the entire country's viewing population.
  45. • Epics are timeless ,ageless and beyond any boundaries.Ramayana is relevant to everyone • Its story ,moral and values are useful for all. It consists of 24,001 verses in six cantos.
  46. • Various Books are been written for awareness such as- • Ramayana [Kindle Edition] • The Ramayana: A Shortened Modern Prose Version of the Indian Epic (Penguin Classics) [Paperback] • The Ramayana: A Modern Retelling of the Great Indian Epic [Paperback]etc.. • Movies are been made on Ramayana.
  48.  Man has forgotten the message of the Ramayana and is leading the life of a Ravana.  Ravana did not understand this principle of divinity. There was no transformation in him,though he had acquired all forms of knowledge and had done severe penance. He ruined himself on account of excessive desires. “Before his death, he gave a message to the people: “O people, with all my skills and expertise in different forms of knowledge I became a victim of desires. I lost my sons, ruined my clan, and burnt my kingdom to ashes, since I could not control my desires. Do not become a victim of desires like me.”
  49. Today, many people read the holy Ramayana, but few understand its essence. They spend their time in acquiring bookish knowledge and superficial knowledge but fail to have practical knowledge. There are many people who can explain the teachings of Ramayana in a beautiful way, but how many of them obey the command of their fathers in their daily life? Not many! What is the use of reading various texts if we do not put into practice the message contained in them? Can anyone enjoy the taste of various delicious items such as mysore pak, gulab jamoon, and jilebi by merely repeating their names?No. One can enjoy the taste only when one eats them.  Mere textual information is of no use. But, today, man is interested only in information and not transformation. Intellect will blossom only when there is transformation
  50. The story of the Ramayana is so enchanting and captivating that one feels like listening to it again and again. Bharatiyas (Indians) have been singing the story of Rama since ancient times. Everyone should try to understand the essence of the Ramayana. The Ramayana teaches that one should have a good character, one should obey the command of the father and respect the parents, and there should be unity among brothers. “If you follow these teachings in letter and spirit, your life itself will become a living Ramayana”