Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.
Causes of Mouth infections:
The following medical conditions are some of the
possible causes of Mouth infections. There ar...
Herpes: Herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD)
caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV -1) and
type 2 (HS...
Mouth ulcers: Introduction
Mouth ulcers include
lesions, sores, laceration,abrasions, or any open break
in the mucosa of t...
Mouth ulcers can occur in any age group or population.
Mouth ulcers can be the result of a mild condition,
such as a canke...
Depending on the cause, mouth ulcers can be short-term
and disappear quickly, such as when mouth ulcers occur
due to ill-f...
Diagnosing mouth ulcers and their root cause begins with
taking a thorough personal and family medical history,
including ...
A diagnosis of mouth ulcers and their cause can easily be
delayed or missed because symptoms of mouth ulcers may
be mild o...
Mouth ulcers: Treatments
Treatment of mouth ulcers begins with prevention.
This includes seeking regular dental care (twic...
Dental conditions
Any condition that affects dental organs such as the teeth and gums.
Examples of dental conditions inclu...
Gingivitis:
Inflammation of the gums which causes them to become
swollen and tender. The gums tend to bleed easily when th...
Treatments for Gingivitis
In mild cases better dental hygiene may be the main
treatment strategy:
Dental hygiene
Brushing ...
Vincent's angina
Vincent's angina: A reoccurring periodontal disease
which results in necrosis and ulceration of the gums....
Noma: A rare disorder characterized by gangrenous
sores that spread rapidly and usually start in the
mouth or lips. It mos...
Candidiasis is a yeast infection that is caused by a
fungal microorganism, most often the fungus Candida
albicans. Candidi...
People at risk for candidiasis include those taking strong
antibiotics, especially for a long period of time.
Antibiotics ...
Symptoms of Candidiasis
Itchy skin rash
Skin inflammation
Small blisters
Armpit skin rash
Skin rash under breasts
Rash in ...
Making a diagnosis of candidiasis includes performing a
complete medical evaluation and history and physical
examination t...
Treatments for Candidiasis
The most effective treatment plan for candidiasis uses a
multifaceted approach. The first step ...
A treatment plan may also include medications,
including prescription topical or oral antifungal
medications, such as fluc...
Syphilis is one type of sexually transmitted disease.
Syphilis is the result of a bacterial infection of the genital
tract...
Syphilis that is caught early in the first stage of the
infection can be quickly and easily treated. If not
promptly recog...
Making a diagnosis of syphilis includes performing a
blood test for syphilis. Diagnosis also includes taking a
medical and...
Treatment of the first stage of syphilis includes
antibiotic therapy. Treatment also includes notifying
and treating all s...
Hand, Foot, & Mouth Disease: Common contagious viral
infant or child condition,a common illness of infants and
children. I...
Leukemia is a type of cancer that occurs in the blood or
bone marrow. Leukemia causes an uncontrolled
growth of abnormal w...
Leukemia is most treatable and curable if caught in the
earliest stages of the disease. Untreated and/or
advanced leukemia...
The abnormal white blood cells formed in leukemia also
accumulate in the organs of the body, such as the spleen,
liver, sp...
Diagnosing leukemia begins with taking a thorough
personal and family medical history, including symptoms
and risk factors...
The prognosis for people with leukemia varies depending
on the type of leukemia and other factors. However,
many types of ...
Agranulocytosis: Total lack of granulocytes in the blood.
Symptoms of Agranulocytosis
Fever
Sore throat
Painful mouth ulce...
Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by abacterial
infection of the lungs, which can also spread to other
parts of ...
When the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria are able
to grow, multiply and spread, this is called active
tuberculosis. Pe...
Making a diagnosis of tuberculosis involves taking a
thorough health history, including symptoms, and
performing a physica...
Possibly curable types of Tuberculosis may include:
Tuberculosis associated with pelvic inflammatory disease
Genitourinary...
The first step in getting correct treatment is to get a
correct diagnosis. Differential diagnosis list for
Tuberculosis ma...
Some of the different medications used in the treatment
of Tuberculosis include:
Prednisolone
A&D w/Prednisolone
Cortalone...
Minims Prednisolone
Mydrapred
Niscort
Nor-Pred
Nova-Pred
Novoprednisolone
Optimyd
Otobione
Peidaject
Pediapred
Polypred
Pr...
Pred-G
Pred Mild
Prelone
PSP-IV
Savacort
Sterane
TBA Pred
Pyrazinamide - used as part of a combination therapy
PMS Pyrazin...
Rifamate
Rimactane
Rimactane/INH Dual Pack
Rofact
Aminosalicylate Sodium - used as part of a combination
treatment
Nemasol...
Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …5
×

Oral infections , tut

oral infections revision for dental students prior to drugs used for the treatment of oral infections.

  • Als Erste(r) kommentieren

Oral infections , tut

  1. 1. Causes of Mouth infections: The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Mouth infections. There are likely to be other possible . Poor oral hygiene : Herpes simplex Mouth ulcers Dental disorders Gingivitis Vincent's angina Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  2. 2. Herpes: Herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV -1) and type 2 (HSV-2). up to 90% of cases are asymptomatic and subclinical.Symptomatic patients show Lip ulcers Mouth ulcers Genital ulcers - rarely Corneal ulcers Conjunctival ulcers Gingivostomatitis Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  3. 3. Mouth ulcers: Introduction Mouth ulcers include lesions, sores, laceration,abrasions, or any open break in the mucosa of the mouth, lips or tongue. Mouth ulcers may also be calledstomatitis and are a symptom of a variety of mild to serious diseases, disorders and conditions. Mouth ulcers can result from vitamin deficiencies, infection, inflammation, trauma, malignancy and other diseases and abnormal processes. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  4. 4. Mouth ulcers can occur in any age group or population. Mouth ulcers can be the result of a mild condition, such as a canker sore or excessive or overly aggressive tooth brushing. Mouth ulcers can also be the result of a moderate condition, disorder or disease, such as gingivitis or a cold sore. Mouth ulcers can also occur due to some diseases, disorders and conditions that can be serious, even life-threatening. These include oral cancer and leukoplakia. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  5. 5. Depending on the cause, mouth ulcers can be short-term and disappear quickly, such as when mouth ulcers occur due to ill-fitting dentures that are replaced by properly fitting dentures. Mouth ulcers can also occur chronically or long-term, such as mouth ulcers that happens with oral cancer or periodontal disease that is not treated. Mouth ulcers can be the result of a wide variety of other conditions, including trauma to the mouth, teeth or gums, and as a side effect of certain medications, such as chemotherapy. For more details about causes, see causes of mouth ulcers. Mouth ulcers often occur in conjunction with other symptoms, which vary depending on the underlying disease, disorder or condition. Other common symptoms include mouth pain, bad breath, jaw swelling, tooth fracture, bleeding gums, unusual patches or rashes in the mouth or on the lips or tongue. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  6. 6. Diagnosing mouth ulcers and their root cause begins with taking a thorough personal and family medical history, including symptoms, and completing a physical examination. This includes an oral examination and oral X- rays. A full dental examination, performed by a dentist and/or periodontist (a specialist in periodontal disease) may be recommended is the cause is believed to be due toperiodontal disease. Diagnosing many common causes of mouth ulcers, such as oral thrush, cold sores and canker sores, can often be made by the symptoms and the appearance of the mouth ulcers. Making a diagnosis of mouth ulcers may also include performing a variety of tests to help to diagnose potential underlying diseases, conditions or disorders, such as oral cancer and leukoplakia. Tests can include biopsy of the mouth ulcers. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  7. 7. A diagnosis of mouth ulcers and their cause can easily be delayed or missed because symptoms of mouth ulcers may be mild or intermittent and for other reasons. For information on misdiagnosis, refer to misdiagnosis of mouth ulcers. Treatment of mouth ulcers varies based on the underlying cause. Some conditions can be easily and successfully treated and cured, while others may require more intensive treatment and may not have an optimal prognosis. For more information on treatment, refer to treatment of mouth ulcers. ...more » Mouth ulcers: Ulcers in the mouth membranes or oral areas. More detailed information about thesymptoms, causes, and treatments of Mouth ulcers is available below. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  8. 8. Mouth ulcers: Treatments Treatment of mouth ulcers begins with prevention. This includes seeking regular dental care (twice yearly) and maintaining good oral hygiene, such as brushing the teeth at least twice a day and flossing once a day. Treatment plans for mouth ulcers are individualized based on the underlying cause, the presence of coexisting diseases, the age and medical history of the patient, and other factors Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  9. 9. Dental conditions Any condition that affects dental organs such as the teeth and gums. Examples of dental conditions include tooth decay, tooth infection, gingivitis, periodontitis, impacted tooth and canker sores. Symptoms of Dental conditions The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for Dental conditions includes the 9 symptoms listed below: Tooth pain Malodorous breath Fever Chills Bad breath Bad taste Abscess Cervical adenopathy Trismus Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  10. 10. Gingivitis: Inflammation of the gums which causes them to become swollen and tender. The gums tend to bleed easily when the teeth are brushed. The condition is usually caused by food particles or plaque becoming trapped between the teeth and gums. The resulting bacteria cause the gums to become inflamed and can lead to serious dental damage if left untreated. Symptoms of Gingivitis Red gums Swollen gums Bleeding gums Tender gums Bad breath Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  11. 11. Treatments for Gingivitis In mild cases better dental hygiene may be the main treatment strategy: Dental hygiene Brushing teeth Flossing teeth Antiseptic mouth rinse Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  12. 12. Vincent's angina Vincent's angina: A reoccurring periodontal disease which results in necrosis and ulceration of the gums. Symptoms may include fever, bone loss, breath odor and enlarge neck and throat lymph nodes. Also called trench mouth, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis or Vincent's infection. Vincent's angina: An acute or chronic GINGIVITIS characterized by redness and swelling, NECROSIS extending from the interdental papillae along the gingival margins, PAIN; HEMORRHAGE, necrotic odor, and often a pseudomembrane. The condition may extend to the ORAL MUCOSA; TONGUE; PALATE; or PHARYNX. The etiology is somewhat unclear, but may involve a complex of FUSOBACTERIUM NUCLEATUM along with spirochetes BORRELIA or TREPONEMA. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  13. 13. Noma: A rare disorder characterized by gangrenous sores that spread rapidly and usually start in the mouth or lips. It mostly occurs in undernourished children living in poor, unhygienic conditions. Symptoms of Noma Oral ulcer Gangrenous lesion Greenish black lesion Increased number of white blood cells in blood Complications Review possible medical complications related to Noma: Alveolar bone destruction Sepsis Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  14. 14. Candidiasis is a yeast infection that is caused by a fungal microorganism, most often the fungus Candida albicans. Candidiasis is also known as thrush and can cause yeast infections in many areas of the body. These commonly include the mouth (oral thrust), the vagina (vaginal yeast infection, vaginal thrush) and the digestive tract (gastroenteritis). Candidiasis can also be a symptom of a serious disease, such as HIV/AIDSor diabetes. The fungal yeast that causes most cases of candidiasis, Candida albicans, normally lives in some places in the body, such as the mouth and vagina, in a certain balance with other microorganisms, such as bacteria. However, some factors or conditions may result in an overgrowth of Candida albicans or other fungi. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  15. 15. People at risk for candidiasis include those taking strong antibiotics, especially for a long period of time. Antibiotics kill bacteria, which can alter the balance of microorganisms in the mouth, vagina, intestines and other places in the body and result in a proliferation of yeast. People with weakened immune systems are also more likely to develop candidiasis and have recurrent bouts of yeast infection. This includes people with HIV/AIDS or those taking steroid medications or on chemotherapy, which all suppress the immune system. People with diabetes are more likely to develop candidiasis because the elevated level of sugar in the body provide food for yeast and encourage its overgrowth. Other people at risk include the very young and very old. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  16. 16. Symptoms of Candidiasis Itchy skin rash Skin inflammation Small blisters Armpit skin rash Skin rash under breasts Rash in skin folds Symptoms of oral thrush: White patches inside cheeks White patches on tongue White patches in throat Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  17. 17. Making a diagnosis of candidiasis includes performing a complete medical evaluation and history and physical examination that focuses on the area of the body with symptoms. Diagnosis is generally made based on the typical appearance of the candidiasis sores, vaginal discharge or other symptoms and a history of factors that make a yeast infection likely. Diagnostic testing may include taking a small sample or swab of the infected area and examining it under a microscope to confirm an overgrowth of yeast. Candidiasis can be successfully treated with an individualized treatment plan that best fits the area of the body affected and the patient's age, medical history, and addresses underlying risk factors, such as diabetes. Treatment may include eating certain foods and medication. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  18. 18. Treatments for Candidiasis The most effective treatment plan for candidiasis uses a multifaceted approach. The first step in treatment is prevention. Prevention measures include maintaining good oral and peri-anal hygiene and using antibiotics only when truly needed. This can help minimize candidiasis that is due to an overgrowth of yeast resulting from antibiotic use. To prevent transmission of candidiasis to a newborn infant, pregnant women should consult with their licensed health care provider if they have symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection, such as vaginal itching, burning with urination, and a cheesy white discharge. Nursing women who have nipple discharge or pain should also notify their provider so they can be examined for candidiasis of the nipples, which could be transmitted to the mouth of a nursing infant. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  19. 19. A treatment plan may also include medications, including prescription topical or oral antifungal medications, such as fluconazole. Treatment of candidiasis also includes diagnosing any underlying diseases that may increase the risk for the infection. These include HIV/AIDS and diabetes. Treating the high blood sugar levels ofdiabetes may resolve a current infection and is key to minimizing the risk of developing recurrent infections of candidiasis. Therapy may also include eating yogurt or taking acidophilus supplements, which can help to correct the abnormal balance of microorganisms in the mouth and digestive tract, which leads to candidiasis. Using antiseptic mouth washes may also be recommended for oral thrush. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  20. 20. Syphilis is one type of sexually transmitted disease. Syphilis is the result of a bacterial infection of the genital tract by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Syphilis is passed from one person another during direct sexual contact with a syphilis lesion that involves vaginal, oral, or anal sex. Syphilis can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during pregnancy and result in stillbirth or serious birth defects. Any person that engages in sexual activity can contract and pass on syphilis. This includes heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual men and women. The more sexual partners a person has, the greater the risk of catching syphilis. Syphilis also increases the risk of HIV infection, which causes AIDS Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  21. 21. Syphilis that is caught early in the first stage of the infection can be quickly and easily treated. If not promptly recognized and treated, syphilis will progress through three stages. Each stage of syphilis has distinct symptoms. The first stage is characterized by the development of a lesion called a chancre. The chancre usually develops in the genital area, but it can develop on the lips, tongue or rectum if these areas have been exposed to a syphilis chancre on another person during oral or anal sexual contact. If left untreated, the syphilis infection can last for years and can lead to serious complications in the third and final stage of the disease. Complications include dementia, paralysis, blindness andaortic aneurysm. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  22. 22. Making a diagnosis of syphilis includes performing a blood test for syphilis. Diagnosis also includes taking a medical and sexual history and completing a physical and pelvic examination for women and an exam of the penis and testicles for men. During the examination, the health care practitioner will examine the reproductive organs for a syphilis chancre and signs of other sexually transmitted diseases. The first step in the treatment of syphilis is prevention. Prevention of syphilis is best accomplished by abstaining from sexual activity or having sex only within a mutually monogamous relationship in which neither partner is infected with a sexually transmitted disease. Latex condoms also provide some protection when used properly. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  23. 23. Treatment of the first stage of syphilis includes antibiotic therapy. Treatment also includes notifying and treating all sexual partners. Treatments for Syphilis Penicillin Injected penicillin Other antibiotics - if allergic to penicillin Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  24. 24. Hand, Foot, & Mouth Disease: Common contagious viral infant or child condition,a common illness of infants and children. It is characterized by fever, sores in the mouth, and a rash . Symptoms Mild fever Poor appetite Malaise Sore throat Treatment Symptomatic treatment Bed rest Fluids Fever treatments Pain treatments Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  25. 25. Leukemia is a type of cancer that occurs in the blood or bone marrow. Leukemia causes an uncontrolled growth of abnormal white blood cells, the infection fighting cells in the blood. Leukemia is one of the most common types of cancer and one of the top ten cancerkillers. Leukemia is a general term for four types of malignant disease of the blood and bone marrow. These includeacute lymphocytic leukemia and acute myelogenous leukemia, which progress rapidly. The other forms of leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia, progress more slowly. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  26. 26. Leukemia is most treatable and curable if caught in the earliest stages of the disease. Untreated and/or advanced leukemia results in a proliferation of abnormal white blood cells that spread throughout the blood stream. These abnormal cells crowd out normal white blood cells. The abnormal white blood cells are not able to fight infections as effectively as the normal white blood cells. This results in increased infections. The abnormal white blood cells of leukemia also crowd out red blood cells, resulting in anemia, a low number of red blood cells. Leukemia also results in lower numbers of platelet cells in the blood, which are needed for normal clotting. This results in impaired clotting. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  27. 27. The abnormal white blood cells formed in leukemia also accumulate in the organs of the body, such as the spleen, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, testes, and brain, and interfere with normal organ functioning. The cause of many cases of leukemia is unknown, but in some cases, leukemia is caused by abnormalities in the chromosomes. People at risk for developing leukemia include those who have been exposed to high doses of radiation, certain types of chemotherapy, or chemicals, such as benzene. Having Down syndrome or Fanconi's syndrome increases the risk as well. Additionally, certain viruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus, are associated with the development of leukemia. Smoking also increases the risk of leukemia. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  28. 28. Diagnosing leukemia begins with taking a thorough personal and family medical history, including symptoms and risk factors for leukemia. Diagnosis also includes completing a physical examination. Diagnostic testing includes a blood test called a complete blood count (CBC). A complete blood count will reveal the presence of high or low numbers of white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. Other blood tests are also done to diagnose the specific type of leukemia. A bone marrow test is also done to diagnose leukemia. A bone marrow test involves using a needle to withdrawal a sample of cells from the bone marrow, where blood cells are formed. The sample is examined under a microscope for the presence of the abnormal leukemia cells. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  29. 29. The prognosis for people with leukemia varies depending on the type of leukemia and other factors. However, many types of leukemia can be effectively treated and some can be cured. Survival rates for leukemia have risen dramatically in the last four decades due to improvements in treatment. Treatment of leukemia varies, depending on the specific type of leukemia, the patient's age, health history, overall health status, and other factors. Treatment may include chemotherapy, bone marrow transplant and enrollment in clinical trials. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  30. 30. Agranulocytosis: Total lack of granulocytes in the blood. Symptoms of Agranulocytosis Fever Sore throat Painful mouth ulcers Anal ulcers Reduced immune response Treatment Broad-spectrum antibiotics Treating any underlying cause Stopping any medication cause Intensive care Granulocyte transfusions Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  31. 31. Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by abacterial infection of the lungs, which can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the brain, kidneys, and bones. Tuberculosis, also known as TB, is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. People who have healthy immune systems can often fight off a tuberculosis infection after breathing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. These people have no symptoms and are not sick, because the immune system is able to prevent the bacteria from growing and multiplying. This is called latent tuberculosis. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  32. 32. When the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria are able to grow, multiply and spread, this is called active tuberculosis. People who are malnourished, have impaired immune systems, or have chronic diseases are most susceptible to developing active tuberculosis. People with active tuberculosis can develop symptoms that include a cough that produces blood-tinged phlegm. Complications of untreated active tuberculosis can be serious and even fatal. People at risk for developing tuberculosis include anyone who has had close contact with a person with active tuberculosis. Another high risk population includes people who are immigrants from areas of the world that have high rates of tuberculosis. People who have impaired immune systems are also at risk. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  33. 33. Making a diagnosis of tuberculosis involves taking a thorough health history, including symptoms, and performing a physical exam. Tests include special blood tests and a tuberculin skin test, which can detect if a person has been infected with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium or has had a vaccination for tuberculosis. These tests cannot detect if the infection has lead to active tuberculosis. Lesions in the lungs that are due to tuberculosis may also be seen on a chest X-ray. Confirming a diagnosis of tuberculosis involves testing samples of phlegm for the presence of the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, some medical testing may be done to rule out or confirm other diseases with similar symptoms, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, or influenza. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  34. 34. Possibly curable types of Tuberculosis may include: Tuberculosis associated with pelvic inflammatory disease Genitourinary tuberculosis Cutaneous tuberculosis Skeletal tuberculosis Pulmonary tuberculosis Hidden causes of Tuberculosis may be incorrectly diagnosed: AIDS Immunodeficiency Pneumoconiosis - in coal mine workers Malnutrition Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  35. 35. The first step in getting correct treatment is to get a correct diagnosis. Differential diagnosis list for Tuberculosis may include: pneumonia lung abscesses (see Lung symptoms) lung tumors respiratory fungal infections Cestodic tuberculosis - similar symptoms to TB but caused by cestode parasites. Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  36. 36. Some of the different medications used in the treatment of Tuberculosis include: Prednisolone A&D w/Prednisolone Cortalone Delta-Cortef Duapred Fernisonone-P Hydelta-TBA Hydeltrasol Inflamase Inflamase Forte Key-Pred Meticortelone Meti-Derm Metreton Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  37. 37. Minims Prednisolone Mydrapred Niscort Nor-Pred Nova-Pred Novoprednisolone Optimyd Otobione Peidaject Pediapred Polypred Predcor Pred Forte Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  38. 38. Pred-G Pred Mild Prelone PSP-IV Savacort Sterane TBA Pred Pyrazinamide - used as part of a combination therapy PMS Pyrazinamide Rifater Tebrazid - used as part of a combination therapy Rifampin Rifadin Rifadin IV Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry
  39. 39. Rifamate Rimactane Rimactane/INH Dual Pack Rofact Aminosalicylate Sodium - used as part of a combination treatment Nemasol Sodium - used as part of a combination treatment Capreomycin - used as part of a combination treatment Capastat Sulfate - used as part of a combination treatment Ethionamide Trecator Braccoprial - used as part of a combination therapy Methambutol Myambutol Zinamide Amna Medani, 2015, Tutorial, Dentistry

×