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Radar bullet
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RADAR BULLET

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This presentation is related to the working of Radar Bullet. Radar Bullet is one of the applications of RADARS. It is widely employed in detection of landmines without any risk factor. This presentation was created using several references. Thanks for the valuable information.

This presentation is related to the working of Radar Bullet. Radar Bullet is one of the applications of RADARS. It is widely employed in detection of landmines without any risk factor. This presentation was created using several references. Thanks for the valuable information.

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RADAR BULLET

  1. 1. CONTENTS  Introduction  What is a Landmine?  Methods Used For Landmine Detection  What is a Radar Bullet?  Principle of RADAR  Working of Radar Bullet  About Magnetic Flux Compression  Advantages  Disadvantages  Future Prospects  Conclusion
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Land mines are very dangerous explosives which are used for wars.  Countries like Afghanistan ,Iraq & Bosnia etc are the victims of these landmines.  Implanted landmines have to be detected & diffused properly.  Else there will be loss of human life.
  3. 3. WHAT IS A LANDMINE ?  It is an explosive device used to disable, immobilize or kill.  It is activated either by a person or vehicle or by electric wire or radio signal.  Most land mines are laid on just below the surface of ground and are activated by pressure.
  4. 4. METHODS USED FOR LANDMINE DETECTION  The following are few methods used for detection of land mines:  Metal detection  Explosive detection  Radar Bullet
  5. 5. METAL DETECTION  Metal is one of the most common component of a landmine.  Metal detectors are capable of signaling the presence of minute metal piece.  Mines can also be casted from different materials like wood, plastic & synthetic.  But from detection point of view metal is a easier component to detect.  Metal free mines are also there, but they pose a challenge to the detectors.
  6. 6. EXPLOSIVE DETECTION  The explosives are one common ingredient that is found in all mines.  Detecting explosives however is a complicated process.  Explosive detection under field conditions is being carried out using snuffer dogs.  A dog’s nose has proven to be a very sophisticated and reliable sensor, however handling these snuffer dog squads and ensuring consistent behavior in varied hazard scenarios is a complicated and demanding tasks.
  7. 7. CONTD..  Metal detection and Explosive detection is conducted in close proximity.  That is detection is conducted after going very near to the mine. This method can prove to be dangerous in many occasions. So these are not considered to be the safest methods.  Hence a safer method is employed in detecting land mines which is “mine detection using radar bullets”
  8. 8.  The radar bullet is a special type of bullet.  The main use of radar bullet is to find landmines without setting foot on the ground.  This consists of firing a special bullet in to the ground from a helicopter.  The bullet is designed in such a way that it gives out powerful blast of radio waves from under the ground.  This pulse strikes the mine and its image gets available on the computer in the helicopter, offering a safe and efficient way of finding land mines. WHAT IS A RADAR BULLET?
  9. 9. RADAR PRINCIPLE  RADAR is Radio Detection And Ranging.  Radar is a sensor that makes use of radio waves to detect and locate objects.  It operates by transmitting electro magnetic energy into the surroundings and detecting energy reflected by object.  If a narrow beam of this energy is transmitted by the directive antenna, the direction from which reflections come and hence the bearing of object may be estimated.
  10. 10. CONTD..  Radars usually consists of the following principal parts: the transmitter antenna, receiver, and display.  The transmitter will transmit an electro magnetic signal through the antenna, which will hit the target and reflect back to the same antenna.  The time difference between the signal transmission and reception is calculated, which will help us to measure the distance of the target from the radar.
  11. 11. RADAR DISPLAY
  12. 12. WORKING OF RADAR BULLET  First of all a special bullet in fired downward into the ground , from a gun mounted on a helicopter flying about 100 m above the ground.  The bullet in designed in such a way that it gives out powerful blast of radio waves from under the ground.  The bullet will produce a pulse of radio waves as it pierces the ground and signal is reflected from any landmines within about a 15 meter radius will be detected by an antenna on the helicopter.
  13. 13. CONTD..  Once the mines are located they can be destroyed at once or there exact position are noted so they can be destroyed at once or their exact positions are noted so that can be diploid later. And if the bullet hits it, it would explode.  The Radar pulse is generated from the bullets kinetic energy by a process known as, “Magnetic flux compression.”
  14. 14. MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION  Inside the bullet is a metal cylinder, surrounded by a tightly wounded coin of wire.  As the bullet leaves the gun, there is a battery generating a magnetic field in the cylinder.  When the bullet smashes into the ground ,the sudden deceleration forces the cylinder out from inside the coil.  The sudden movement of the metal cylinder through the magnetic field induces a large pulse of current in the coil.  The coil thus acts like an antenna converting the pulse into a short burst of high frequency radiation.
  15. 15. ADVANTAGES  The light weight system can be fitted to any helicopter (i.e gun, computer controls etc.)  Extremely small bullets can be used for detection (A 30 mm bullet gives out a 4 kW radar pulse. Almost 10 times more power than a standard ground penetrating radar from 20cm down)  Also since the bullet is beneath the surface of the ground, it transmits more radio wave into the ground. (For ordinary penetrating radar, little radiation penetrates the soil, most is reflected by the ground because of the sudden change in density between the air and the soil. Here the radiation has to change the medium twice. First from air to ground, and then after reflection, from ground into air. Therefore weak signals are obtained. But in radar bullet principle the radiation has to change the medium only once i.e.; from the ground into the air and hence stronger signals are obtained.)
  16. 16. DISADVANTAGES  It cannot detect plastic land mines, but researches are working hard to overcome this.  Since the equipment is to be mounted on a helicopter, the cost of operation is higher.  But considering its future prospects and the static’s released by red –Cross, cost can never be considered as a disadvantage.
  17. 17. FUTURE PROSPECTS o As the UN has already implemented a worldwide ban on anti-personal mines. The invention of radar bullet helps to speed up the destruction of mines. o Mass graveyards which result from internal civil wars as in Cambodia, Kosovo and in same African nations can be detected using radar bullets. o This can be applied is future space travels, when we go to a different planet, in that case we can shoot this bullet in to the ground and detect mineral deposits and other deposits.
  18. 18. CONCLUSION  Mines are major cause of concern in many countries. Detection and removal of mines is very important as it is hazardous to both man and animals alike.  The conventional methods that are being used right now for mine detection involves working in close proximity for the mines.  So overall mine detection using radar bullets is a cutting edge technology that is safe and effective.  With all its advantages it may be hoped that mine detection using radar bullets will be more used in detection of mine there by making the world safer place to live in.

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