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SHOCK
DR. AMITHA
DEPT OF ORAL & MAXILLOFACIAL
PATHOLOGY
 WHAT IS SHOCK
 TYPES OF SHOCK
 ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF SHOCK
 STAGES OF SHOCK
 PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES
 CLASS...
Shock or Cardiovascular
collapse
 Shock may be defined as a condition in which
circulation fails to meet the nutritional ...
Shock is also defined as a clinical state of cardiovascular
collapse characterised by:
An acute reduction of effective cir...
1)Primary or Initial shock
Is a transient and usually benign vasovagal attack resulting from sudden
reduction of venous re...
Clinically  Patient develops,signs and
symptoms similar to that of syncope
Unconsciousness
Weakness
Sinking Sensation
Pal...
2) Secondary (or) True shock
……occurs due to haemodynomic derangements with hypoperfusion of the
cells, this type of shock...
Systemic
hypoperfusion
Initially
Hypotension
Impaired tissue
perfusion
Cellular hypoxia
Persistence causes
reduction in -c...
ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF SHOCK
Stages of shock
Deteriotion of the circulation in shock is a progressive
phenomenon and can be devided arbitarily into 3 s...
 Widespread vasoconstriction: In resaponse to
reduced blood flow(hypotension) and tissue anoxia,
the neural and hormonal ...
IRREVERSIBLE STAGE
 It is the progression of shock to a stage where therapy does not help.
 The Brain fails to function ...
In the early stage of shock, an attempt to maintain adequate
cerebral and coronary blood supply by redistribution of blood...
 Hypotension
 Oliguria
 Tachypnea, due to pulmonary hypoperfusion
 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) …….. due...
Fluid conservation by the kidney: the following factors
may assist in restoring the blood volume and improve
vennous retur...
 PROGRESSIVE DECOMPENSATED SHOCK:
 This is a stage when the patients suffer from some
stress or risk factors besides per...
PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES
 When cardiac output fall…..Cardiogenic, Hypovolaemic or obstructive
shock….BP remain stable as ...
ULTIMATE EFFECTS OF ANAEROBIC METABOLISM
Inadequate
Energy
Production
Metabolic
Failure
Lactic
Acid
Production
Metabolic
A...
CLASSIFICATION of shock
 Hematogenic / hypovolemic shock
 Septic shock
 Cardiogenic shock
 Traumatic shock
 Neurogeni...
Hypovolaemic shock
 Results from loss of blood or plasma volume.
 This may be caused by hemorrhage, fluid loss
from seve...
Clinical features
Mild shock Moderate shock Severe shock
<20% loss of
volume
20-40% loss of
blood volume
>40% loss of
volu...
Treatment
 Resuscitation
 Control of bleeding
 Extracellular fluid replacement
 If there is blood loss, it is best rep...
Septic shock
 Septic shock is caused by systemic response to a
severe infection.
 Occurs most frequently in elderly or
i...
Septic shock is the most common cause of mortality in the intensive care
unit.
It is the 13th leading cause of death overa...
 In these instances, widespread vasodilation causes a sudden
increase in the vascular bed capacitance, which is not adequ...
Etiology
 Most commonly, this occurs in the setting of gram-negative and
gram positive infections, though any agent that ...
Pathophysiology
 Sepsis is triggered by bacteria or fungi that ordinarily do not cause
systemic disease in immunocompeten...
 Animals have exquisite mechanisms for recognizing and
responding to conserved microbial molecules.
 The endotoxins of a...
 Engagement of TLR on endothelial cells can lead directly to down-
regulation of natural anticoagulation mechanisms.
 Pr...
At low doses, LPS predominantly serves to activate monocytes and
macrophages, with effects intended to enhance their abili...
At still higher levels of LPS, the syndrome of septic shock supervenes
the same cytokines and secondary mediators, now at ...
 Skin remains warm, pink well perfused
 Cutaneous veins remains full
 Pulse rate is high
 Intermittent spikes of fever...
Treatment
 Treatment of infection by early surgical debridement
or drainage , appropriate antibiotics
 Treatment of shoc...
Traumatic shock
 Caused by major fractures, crush injuries, burns,
extensive soft tissue injuries.
 Hypovolemia due to b...
 They occlude pulmonary vasculature.
 Microthrombi induce a generalized increase in
capillary permeability.
 Loss of pl...
Clinical features
 Similar to those of hypovolemic shock.
 2 differentiating features
- Presence of peripheral and pulmo...
Treatment
 Resuscitation
 Local treatment of trauma and control of bleeding.
 Fluid replacement
 Full body anticoagula...
Cardiogenic shock
 Caused by injury to heart, MI, cardiac arrythmias
Compressive cardiac shock
 When the heart is compre...
Clinical features
 Initially skin is pale and cool
 Urine output is low
 Pulse becomes rapid, arterial BP is low
 Righ...
Treatment
 Airway is cleared with adequate oxygenation
 Large doses of heparin IV (if shock is due to
massive pulmonary ...
Neurogenic shock
 Caused by paraplegia, quadriplegia, trauma to
spinal cord or spinal anesthesia.
 Loss of arterial and ...
Clinical features
 Skin is warm ,pink & well perfused
 Urine output may be normal
 Heart rate is rapid, BP is low
Treat...
DISTRIBUTIVE SHOCK
This occurs when the blood volume is normal but the capacity of the circulation
is increased by marked ...
ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK
It is an allergic condition in which the cardiac output and arterial pressure
often fall dramatically.
...
CLINICAL FEATURES
Signs of profound vasodilatation
a) Warm peripheries
b) Low blood pressure
Erythema, Urticaria Angioedem...
Anaphylactic shock
 In humans, systemic anaphylaxis may occur after administration
of foreign proteins (e.g., antisera), ...
 The severity of the disorder varies with the level of sensitization.
 Extremely small doses of antigen may trigger anap...
BURN SHOCK
The most apparent abnormality in this is loss of plasma as exudates from
burned surface
• So there is increased...
Biochemical Changes Seen In Such
Patients
Electrolyte imbalance:.
Hypoproteinaemia:
Hyperglycemia
Increased blood urea cre...
CHANGES IN BLOOD
Hemoconcentration due to outpouring of serum
Increased number of RBC due to outpouring of serum
Sludging ...
HYPOADRENAL SHOCK
The normal host response to the stress of illness,
operation, or trauma requires that the adrenals gland...
Treatment for shock
 BLOOD TRANSFUSION
 PLASMA TRANSFUSION
 ADMINISTATION OF PLASMA SUBSTITUTES
 ADMINISTRATION OF YMP...
Thank you
Shock
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Shock

  1. 1. SHOCK DR. AMITHA DEPT OF ORAL & MAXILLOFACIAL PATHOLOGY
  2. 2.  WHAT IS SHOCK  TYPES OF SHOCK  ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF SHOCK  STAGES OF SHOCK  PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES  CLASSIFICATION OF SHOCK  HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK  SEPTIC SHOCK  TRAUMATIC SHOCK  NEUROGENIC SHOCK  DISTRIBUTIVE SHOCK  ANAPHYLATIC SHOCK  BURN SHOCK  TREATMENT OF SHOCK. CONTENTS
  3. 3. Shock or Cardiovascular collapse  Shock may be defined as a condition in which circulation fails to meet the nutritional needs of the cells and at the same time fails to remove the metabolic waste products.  A final common pathway for many potentially lethal clinical events (hemorrhage,trauma, burns, large MI, massive pulmonary embolism microbial sepsis)
  4. 4. Shock is also defined as a clinical state of cardiovascular collapse characterised by: An acute reduction of effective circulating blood volume An adequate perfusion of cells and tissues. The end result is hypotension and cellular hypoxia and if uncompensated may lead to impaired cellular metabolism and death.
  5. 5. 1)Primary or Initial shock Is a transient and usually benign vasovagal attack resulting from sudden reduction of venous return to the heart caused by neurogenic vasodilatation and consequent peripheral pooling of the blood. It can occur immediately following Trauma Severe pain Emotional overreaction due to a) Fear b) Sorrow and surprise c) Sight of blood
  6. 6. Clinically  Patient develops,signs and symptoms similar to that of syncope Unconsciousness Weakness Sinking Sensation Pale and Clammy limbs Weak and rapid pulse and Low Blood Pressure ……Primary shock can be labelled as a severe form of syncope….Lasting few seconds to minutes.
  7. 7. 2) Secondary (or) True shock ……occurs due to haemodynomic derangements with hypoperfusion of the cells, this type of shock is the ‘true shock’.
  8. 8. Systemic hypoperfusion Initially Hypotension Impaired tissue perfusion Cellular hypoxia Persistence causes reduction in -cardiac output or -effective circulating blood volume Reversible cellular injury Irreversible tissue injury Death Shock
  9. 9. ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF SHOCK
  10. 10. Stages of shock Deteriotion of the circulation in shock is a progressive phenomenon and can be devided arbitarily into 3 stages: 1. Non – progressive (initial. Compensated reversible)shock 2. Progressive decompensated shock 3. Decompensated (irreversible) shock.
  11. 11.  Widespread vasoconstriction: In resaponse to reduced blood flow(hypotension) and tissue anoxia, the neural and hormonal factors(e.g. Baroreceptors,chemoreceptors, catecholamines, renin VEM or Vasoexitor material from hypoxic kidney). Are activated. All these bring about vasoconstriction , partiularly in the vessels of the skin and abdominal viscera. It is a protective mechanism as it causes increased peripheral reasistance, increased heart rate(tacchycadia). And incresesd blood pressure.
  12. 12. IRREVERSIBLE STAGE  It is the progression of shock to a stage where therapy does not help.  The Brain fails to function due to cerebral ischemia  Even infusion of blood fails to restore blood pressure  Multiple organ failure occurs.  Depression of cellular high energy phosphates  Finally, cardiac failure occurs due to decreased myocardial activity and decreased arterial tone. If Low Perfusion States persists: IRREVERSIBLE DEATH IMMINENT!!
  13. 13. In the early stage of shock, an attempt to maintain adequate cerebral and coronary blood supply by redistribution of blood so that the vital organs(brain and heart) are adequately perfused and oxygeneted. This is achieved by activation of various neurohormonal mechanism causing WIDESPREAD VASOCONSTRICTION and by FLUID CONSERVATION BY THE KIDNEY. Non – progressive (initial. Compensated reversible)shock
  14. 14.  Hypotension  Oliguria  Tachypnea, due to pulmonary hypoperfusion  Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) …….. due to pulmonary hypoperfusion.  Acidosis due to anoxia of liver causing reduced clearance of lactate. Clinically in progressive shock…….
  15. 15. Fluid conservation by the kidney: the following factors may assist in restoring the blood volume and improve vennous return to the heart : release of aldosterone from hypoxic kidney. Release of ADH due to to decreased effective circulayting blood volume. Reduced glomerular filtration tate Shifting of tissue fluid into plasma due to lawered capillary hydrostatic pressure.
  16. 16.  PROGRESSIVE DECOMPENSATED SHOCK:  This is a stage when the patients suffer from some stress or risk factors besides persistance of of the shock so that there is progressive deterioration.  DECOMPENSATED (IRREVERIBLE) SH0CK At this stage patient has features like coma, worsened heart function and progressive renal failure and it is characterised by irrreversibility of shock with tissue anoxia occupying central role an dthese are under  1.PERSISTANCE OF WIDESPREAD VASOCONSTRICTION  2.VASODILATION AND INCREASED VASCULAR PERMEABILITY  3.MYOCARDIAL ISCHAEMIA  4.CEREBRAL ISCHAEMIA  5.VASODEPPRESOR MATERIAL(VDM)  6.TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS(TNF)  7.INTESTINAL FACTORS  8.BACTERIAL FACTORS  9.HYPERCOAGULABILITY OF BLOOD
  17. 17. PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES  When cardiac output fall…..Cardiogenic, Hypovolaemic or obstructive shock….BP remain stable as long as a compensatory increase in the peripheral vascular resistance occurs. Low B.P. Baroreceptors Hypothalmous impulse Adrenal Medulla Catcholamines Increased peripheral vascular resistance Chronotropic and inotropic effect Incresaed blood flow to heart & brain Decreased blood flow to the extremities
  18. 18. ULTIMATE EFFECTS OF ANAEROBIC METABOLISM Inadequate Energy Production Metabolic Failure Lactic Acid Production Metabolic Acidosis CELL DEATH Inadequate Cellular Oxygen Delivery Anaerobic Metabolism
  19. 19. CLASSIFICATION of shock  Hematogenic / hypovolemic shock  Septic shock  Cardiogenic shock  Traumatic shock  Neurogenic shock  Miscellaneous shock (anaphylactic shock, insulin shock etc)
  20. 20. Hypovolaemic shock  Results from loss of blood or plasma volume.  This may be caused by hemorrhage, fluid loss from severe burns, or trauma.  Hemorrhage usually occurs from the small veins and systemic venules.
  21. 21. Clinical features Mild shock Moderate shock Severe shock <20% loss of volume 20-40% loss of blood volume >40% loss of volume Collapse of subcutaneous of extremities, – pale & cool Features of mild shock + oliguria Pallor, low urinary output Sweat – forehead, palms, feet Pulse rate increased (but <100). BP remains normal initially, fall in later stages Rapid pulse, low Urinary output, pulse rate, BP normal
  22. 22. Treatment  Resuscitation  Control of bleeding  Extracellular fluid replacement  If there is blood loss, it is best replaced by blood. Blood substitutes cannot replace blood
  23. 23. Septic shock  Septic shock is caused by systemic response to a severe infection.  Occurs most frequently in elderly or immunocompromised patients or those who have undergone invasive procedure in which bacterial contamination has occurred.
  24. 24. Septic shock is the most common cause of mortality in the intensive care unit. It is the 13th leading cause of death overall mortality ranges from 15% in patients with sepsis to 40-60% in patients with septic shock. There is a continuum of clinical manifestations from SIRS ----sepsis ---- severe sepsis ---septic shock to Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). Overview of septic shock
  25. 25.  In these instances, widespread vasodilation causes a sudden increase in the vascular bed capacitance, which is not adequately filled by the normal circulating blood volume  hypotension, tissue hypoperfusion, and cellular anoxia result  Patients go into shock and even die within the hour  The risk of anaphylaxis must be borne in mind when certain therapeutic agents are administered. Although patients at risk can generally be identified by a previous history of some form of allergy, the absence of such a history does not preclude the possibility of an anaphylactic reaction.
  26. 26. Etiology  Most commonly, this occurs in the setting of gram-negative and gram positive infections, though any agent that is capable of producing infection (viruses, fungi, parasites).  The most common organisms which cause septic shock are E.coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Bacteroids in decreasing frequency.
  27. 27. Pathophysiology  Sepsis is triggered by bacteria or fungi that ordinarily do not cause systemic disease in immunocompetent hosts.  Microbes exploit deficiency in the host defenses to survive in the body.  Pathogens in turn overcome the defenses by elaborating toxins or other virulence factors.  Body fails to kill the invaders and mount a severe sepsis.
  28. 28.  Animals have exquisite mechanisms for recognizing and responding to conserved microbial molecules.  The endotoxins of a gram negative bacterial cell wall is the best example.  The lipopolysaccharides (LPS) present on the cell wall account for their endotoxic activity. LPS consists of 3 regions  Region I – polysaccharide portion  Region II – core polysaccharide.  Region III – glycolipid (lipid A) = responsible for endotoxic activity.
  29. 29.  Engagement of TLR on endothelial cells can lead directly to down- regulation of natural anticoagulation mechanisms.  Profound mononuclear cell activation  Presumably, this series of responses helps to isolate organisms and to trigger elements of the immune system to efficiently eradicate invading microbes.  Unfortunately, depending on the dosage and numbers of macrophages that are activated, the secondary effects of LPS release can also cause severe pathologic changes, including fatal shock.
  30. 30. At low doses, LPS predominantly serves to activate monocytes and macrophages, with effects intended to enhance their ability to eliminate invading bacteria With moderately severe infections, and therefore with higher levels of LPS, cytokine-induced secondary effectors become significant. Systemic effects of the cytokines such as TNF and IL-1 may begin to be seen - fever and increased synthesis of acute phase reactants
  31. 31. At still higher levels of LPS, the syndrome of septic shock supervenes the same cytokines and secondary mediators, now at high levels, result in:  Systemic vasodilation (hypotension)  Diminished myocardial contractility  Widespread endothelial injury and activation, causing systemic leukocyte adhesion and pulmonary alveolar capillary damage  Activation of the coagulation system, culminating in DIC
  32. 32.  Skin remains warm, pink well perfused  Cutaneous veins remains full  Pulse rate is high  Intermittent spikes of fever with bouts of chills.
  33. 33. Treatment  Treatment of infection by early surgical debridement or drainage , appropriate antibiotics  Treatment of shock- fluid replacement, steroids
  34. 34. Traumatic shock  Caused by major fractures, crush injuries, burns, extensive soft tissue injuries.  Hypovolemia due to bleeding externally and internally and due to toxic factors resulting fragments of tissue entering blood stream.  The traumatized tissue activate coagulation cascade and release microthrombi into circulation.
  35. 35.  They occlude pulmonary vasculature.  Microthrombi induce a generalized increase in capillary permeability.  Loss of plasma into interstitial tissue throughout the body.  Depletes the vascular volume to great extent
  36. 36. Clinical features  Similar to those of hypovolemic shock.  2 differentiating features - Presence of peripheral and pulmonary edema in traumatic shock. - Infusion of large volumes of fluid may be adequate for pure hypovolemic shock, is usually inadequate for traumatic shock.
  37. 37. Treatment  Resuscitation  Local treatment of trauma and control of bleeding.  Fluid replacement  Full body anticoagulation (1 IV dose of 10,000 U of heparin)
  38. 38. Cardiogenic shock  Caused by injury to heart, MI, cardiac arrythmias Compressive cardiac shock  When the heart is compressed enough from outside to decrease cardiac output due to pneumothorax, pericardial tamponade etc Due to right ventricle dysfunction Due to left ventricle dysfunction Right heart is unable to pump blood into lungs in adequate amounts. Filling of left heart decreases. Left ventricular output decreases Unable to maintain adequate stroke volume Engorgement of pulmonary vasculature due to normal right ventricular output, but failure of left heart.
  39. 39. Clinical features  Initially skin is pale and cool  Urine output is low  Pulse becomes rapid, arterial BP is low  Right ventricular dysfunction – neck veins distended, liver enlarged  Left ventricular dysfunction – bronchial rales heard. Gradually heart is enlarged, later neck veins are also distended.
  40. 40. Treatment  Airway is cleared with adequate oxygenation  Large doses of heparin IV (if shock is due to massive pulmonary embolism)  For pain – morphine
  41. 41. Neurogenic shock  Caused by paraplegia, quadriplegia, trauma to spinal cord or spinal anesthesia.  Loss of arterial and venous tone with pooling of blood in dilated peripheral venous system.  heart does not fill normally = CO falls
  42. 42. Clinical features  Skin is warm ,pink & well perfused  Urine output may be normal  Heart rate is rapid, BP is low Treatment  Elevation of legs  Fluids  Vasoconstrictor drugs
  43. 43. DISTRIBUTIVE SHOCK This occurs when the blood volume is normal but the capacity of the circulation is increased by marked vasodilatation Also called as “Warm shock as the skin is not cold and clammy, as it is in Hypovolemia shock Eg: Anaphylactic shock and neurogenic shock
  44. 44. ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK It is an allergic condition in which the cardiac output and arterial pressure often fall dramatically. A rapidly developing, severe allergic relation that sometimes occur when an individual who has previously been sensitized to an antigen is exposed to it.
  45. 45. CLINICAL FEATURES Signs of profound vasodilatation a) Warm peripheries b) Low blood pressure Erythema, Urticaria Angioedema, Pallor, Cyanosis Bronchospasm, Rhinitis Odema of the Face, Pharynx and Larynx Pulmonary odema Hypovolaemia due to capillary leak Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps.
  46. 46. Anaphylactic shock  In humans, systemic anaphylaxis may occur after administration of foreign proteins (e.g., antisera), hormones, enzymes, polysaccharides, and drugs (such as the antibiotic penicillin).  Initiated by a generalized IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response  Said to be due to increased histamine release by combination of antigen with IgE on mast cell and basophils
  47. 47.  The severity of the disorder varies with the level of sensitization.  Extremely small doses of antigen may trigger anaphylaxis,  Within minutes after exposure, itching, hives, and skin erythema appear, followed shortly thereafter by a striking contraction of respiratory bronchioles and respiratory distress  Laryngeal edema results in hoarseness.  Vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and laryngeal obstruction follow, systemic vasodilation and increased vascular permeability
  48. 48. BURN SHOCK The most apparent abnormality in this is loss of plasma as exudates from burned surface • So there is increased – Hematocrit and Hemoconcentration found. • Complex metabolic changes seen in such patients.
  49. 49. Biochemical Changes Seen In Such Patients Electrolyte imbalance:. Hypoproteinaemia: Hyperglycemia Increased blood urea creatinene levels due to kidney damage in extensive burns.
  50. 50. CHANGES IN BLOOD Hemoconcentration due to outpouring of serum Increased number of RBC due to outpouring of serum Sludging of blood – intravascular agglutination An abrupt fall in eosinophil count during the first 12 hour which slowly begun to increase Increased blood viscosity.
  51. 51. HYPOADRENAL SHOCK The normal host response to the stress of illness, operation, or trauma requires that the adrenals glands hyper secrete cortisol in excess of that normally required. Hypoadrenal shock occurs in settings in which the unrecognized adrenal insufficiency complicates the host response to the stress induced by acute illness or major surgery.
  52. 52. Treatment for shock  BLOOD TRANSFUSION  PLASMA TRANSFUSION  ADMINISTATION OF PLASMA SUBSTITUTES  ADMINISTRATION OF YMPATHOMIMITIC DRUGS LIKE EPINEPHRINE AND NOREPINEPHRINE.  ADMINISTATION OF GLUCOCORTICOIDS  OXYGEN THERAPHY  BY CHANGING THE POSTURE
  53. 53. Thank you
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