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Micro teaching
Micro teaching
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  2. 2. Objectives By the end of this presentation you should be able to: – State the need for microteaching – List the important teaching skills – Describe the process of a microteaching session – Draw the microteaching cycle – Outline the process of giving feedback
  3. 3.  Medical Teachers have no Special, prior or in-service training in teaching  Their ability to teach is largely dependent on two modalities of self training: – Observation of other teachers – By a process of trial & error while actually teaching in a class room situation
  4. 4. Complexities of learning to teach in a class room  Pressure of length of the lecture  Scope and content of matter to be conveyed  Need to teach for a relatively long duration of time  Need to face large number of students  Off which some students have a hostile temperament
  5. 5. MICROTEACHING: Its Origin  Originated in 1961 at Stanford University (USA)  Immediate predecessor of microteaching was the demonstration lesson used at Stanford until 1961  Demonstration lesson involves a student presenting a lesson to a small group of fellow students while the rest of the class looks on  Teacher education should focus on not “what” teachers should teach, but more on “how” they should teach
  6. 6. MICROTEACHING: Meaning  Defined as: "Microteaching is a scaled-down sample of actual teaching which generally lasts ten to fifteen minutes and involves four to ten students. A microteaching session simulates a regular classroom instructional period in every way except that both time and number of students are reduced". “The lesson is scaled down to reduce some of the complexities of the teaching act, thus allowing the teacher to focus on selected aspects of teaching".
  7. 7. MICROTEACHING: Characteristics  Real teaching situation  Reduces the complexity of the real classroom teaching situation in terms of the number of students, the amount of time and the amount of learning contents  Emphasizes training for mastery of teaching activities such as skills, techniques, methods, and curriculum selection  Offers better control over practicing teaching activities  Feedback dimension is expanded considerably
  8. 8. MICROTEACHING: Principles Reduced situation: Limitation of  Number of students: approximately five  Amount of teaching time: between ten and fifteen minutes  Number of teaching skills: only one  Amount of learning content: is a logical consequence especially of the limitation of teaching time
  9. 9. MICROTEACHING: Principles Training and practice situation:  Preparation for a micro-lesson session – Formulating the aim – Didactic-pedagogic founding of the teaching skill – Modelling – Designing a micro-lesson  The micro-lesson session – Presenting a micro-lesson – Feedback and evaluation – Re-planning, re-presenting and feedback
  10. 10. Parameters of Effective Strategy (OPPEI) 1. Objectives – cognitive, psychomotor, affective 2. Planning – lesson / instructional planning 3. Presentation • Content • Mode • Instructional materials • Interaction, student participation • Individual differences 4. Evaluation – not of student but of teacher 5. Improvement – in the light of evaluation and feedback
  14. 14. TEN SKILLS
  15. 15. PLANNING  Objectives vs Contents  Teaching for 40 minutes needs 40 x 5 = 200 minute planning  Gathering the sources  Outline from A-to-Z  Possible bottle necks  Expected questions  Time budget vs content  Method of attack (Methodology, Procedure of teaching)  Achievements of objectives  Evaluation of success through feedback (what will be the procedure)
  16. 16. SET INDUCTION  How to start  Learning readiness  Motivation  Known to unknown  Easy to difficult  Rapport  Questions  Activities by students / teacher  Incidents, Stories, Events  Experimentation  Localization
  17. 17. PRESENTATION  Clear concepts  Sequential organization  Exemplification  Linkages  Student’s participation  Activities  Knowledge and Understanding  Logical Positivism
  18. 18. QUESTIONING  Float the question over the heads of all participants  Give time to think  Give option for answering (Volunteer)  Correct the answer if wrong  Be polite
  19. 19. ENCOURAGING STUDENTS TO QUESTION  Inquiry approach  Controversies  Brainstorming  Probing  Appreciating the questions
  20. 20. EXAMPLIFICATION  Subject oriented  Environment oriented  Problem Solver  Relevance  Valid Examples
  21. 21. COMMUNICATION  Pitch of the voice  Pauses  Speed  Linkages  Reference to context  Level of students  Fatigue and boredom (Avoid)  Non-verbal Communication  Humour  Pronunciation
  22. 22. METHODOLOGY  Lecture  Demonstration  Practical  Activities  Discussion, Quiz  Mastery learning  Peer teaching  Participatory learning  Inquiry approach  Problem solving  Seminar
  23. 23. JUDGING THE STUDENTS PROBLEMS  Level of Students  IQ of students  Talented, Normal, Slow learners, Distributed students  Knowing individual differences, difficulties & helping them out  Making the difficult concepts understandable for all  Guidance and counselling in problematic situations
  24. 24. END OR SUMMING UP  Summary of two minutes in the form of message of presentation  Students usually remember it for longer time  This may be in the form of one or two main points  Evaluate your teaching by one or two simple questions of that lesson  Application should be the focal point of end message
  25. 25. PROCEDURE
  26. 26. PROCEDURE FOR “Micro- Teaching” Prepare a 15-minute lesson plan with following five key elements:  Bridge-In: Explains the value of the lesson to the learner and provides motivation  Objective: What must the learner do? Under what conditions? How well?  Pre-test: Identifies any prior knowledge and whether or not the learner can already accomplish the objective  Participatory Learning: The learner is actively involved in the learning process as soon as possible  Post-Test: Determines if the learner has indeed learned
  27. 27. PROCEDURE FOR “Micro- Teaching” Rehearse the plan. Practice on your own. Get feedback.  Perform the practice teaching session  Regard your audiences as you would a regular class (i.e. assume that the content you are teaching is new to them)  Choose content you would enjoy presenting to a group of your colleagues  Feel free to experiment  Evaluate your performance using feedback and videotape  Remember, the emphasis is on process rather than content
  28. 28. PROCEDURE FOR “Micro- Teaching”  Before presentation, objectives placed on blackboard  During presentation, elements considered: – Setting Atmosphere: more important than an introduction – Introduction: overview of material, activities, goals and objectives – Organisation: instructor’s ability to present in clear & logical manner – Stimulus variation: instructor’s movement around classroom, gestures, voice level – Visual aids – Closure: summarizing and integrating the major points, demonstration or discussion  After presentation, group leader discusses strengths and areas that need improvement in the presentation
  29. 29. Guiding Useful Feedback  Can student explain, demonstrate, or apply the concept taught?  If teaching aids were used, how effective were they?  What did you like about this presentation?  What would you like to see changed for the next session?  What other teaching techniques could have been used?  Comment on the quality, clarity and complexity of the questions asked.
  30. 30. MICROTEACHING AND LIVE TEACHING EXPERIENCE FEEDBACK  Name of Presenter: _______________________  Date: __________________________________  Session Title: ____________________________  Feedback is most effective when: – It is specific, descriptive and detailed. – It focuses on observable behaviour. – It contains both positive feedback and constructive criticism
  31. 31. MICROTEACHING AND LIVE TEACHING EXPERIENCE FEEDBACK 1. Overall, how do you think the session went? Why? 2. Did the participant communicate the key learning objectives and key concepts/content effectively? 3. Were the learners engaged throughout the session? 4. Do you have any specific comments on the following: i. Pace and Voice: ii. Movement: iii. Presentation Structure and Content: iv. Eye Contact: v. Visual Aids: 5. What worked well in this session? 6. What suggestions for improvement do you have for the instructor?
  33. 33. AM I READY? Preparation Checklist for Presentations 1) Is my topic clear, specific and limited? 2) Are the subtopics closely related to the main topic? 3) Are my objectives clear, specific and learner centred? 4) Do I know what my time limit is? 5) Do I have a plan for the management of this time?
  34. 34. AM I READY? Preparation Checklist for Presentations 6) Have I consulted a variety of resource materials and people? 7) Are all necessary materials and teaching aids ready? 8) Have I chosen a strategy of presentation, which will encourage maximum group involvement in the learning experience? 9) Do I have extra material available as a back up? 10)Is my plan flexible enough to allow time for questions
  35. 35. MICROTEACHING: Advantages  Advantages are: – does not influence that student's performance – Fellow students provide more answers, therefore more demands – Participation (as "pupils") makes the students more sensitive to the teaching skills – opportunity to present his micro-lesson on any grade level – opportunity to put themselves in the pupil's position – experience in communication – Students who act as pupils can provide valuable challenges to the student who presents the micro-lesson
  36. 36. MICROTEACHING: Disadvantages  Use of real pupils would be ideal - raises problems  Consequently, fellow students are used as "pupils"  Disadvantages are: • unrealistic situation • an artificial interaction • cannot form a very clear image of the real teaching situation • "pupils" can easily become bored • spontaneity with fellow students is not the same • reluctant to critique fellow students • cannot reap the full advantage of developing self confidence
  37. 37.  Puts the teacher under Microscope  All faults of the teacher are observed  Observer gives a constructive feed back  Used purely for helping the teacher to improve his/her teaching skills and not as a tool for making a value judgment of his/her teaching capacity by his/her superiors
  38. 38. Remember that it is NOT AT ALL a teaching method. rather than It is a device for skill practice
  39. 39. MINITEACHING  A modified concept of microteaching which was propunded by Hargie et al in 1976  Here teaching skills are practiced in a controlled low risk environment  Mini teaching provides a simple form of teaching situation and aims at gradual integration of skills besides aiming to fit the mini lesson in the real teaching programme  Feedback is its essential component
  40. 40. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MICRO & MINI TEACHING MINITEACHING • It has re teach session • It is for 5 to 10 minutes only • It involves 3 to 4 students, a supervisor & a peer if necessary • Each time only a few teaching skills are concentrated upon MICROTEACHING • No re teach session • It extends from 5 to 40 minutes • It may involve either a small group or whole class • It aims at gradual integration of teaching skills & to fit mini lessons into a real teaching programme
  41. 41. THANK YOU.