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HIST 2111_chp11.pdf

  1. HIST 2111 Chapter 11: A Nation on the Move: Westward Expansion, 1800-1860
  2. Jefferson’s Corps of Discovery Heads West • Europeans had always been looking for the alleged ‘Northwest Passage’ – an all-water route across the North American continent. Hoped it would be a quick route to the Pacific Ocean and to trade with Asia • May 1804 – September 1806, Meriwether Lewis (Jefferson’s personal secretary) and William Clark (once had been Lewis’ commanding officer) along with 4 dozen men, and a Shoshone teenager, Sacajawea and her husband, French fur trapper Toussaint Charbonneau (and their baby), explore and map the Missouri River, the Rocky Mountains, and the Pacific Coast for over a year • Took notes and samples of things they encountered. Curious, Lewis often tasted samples of minerals that he found, which made him seriously ill • Kept records of geography and different Native American civilizations they encountered. • Also tried to establish good relationships with them so they would not block white settlements. The Blackfoot were hostile and 2 of them were killed by the corps
  3. Jefferson’s Corps of Discovery Heads West • Only 1 member of the expedition died (appendicitis), though they suffered from snake bites, dysentery, venereal disease, etc. • Lewis was named governor of the Louisiana Territory but died in 1809 – probable suicide (2 prior attempts) • Sacajawea died in 1812 and Clark became guardian of her 2 children
  4. Spanish Florida and the Adams–Onís Treaty • The boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase were contested: • The U.S. claim to West Florida was in dispute and most of the nation wanted the entire peninsula • Adams began negotiations in 1817; however, Andrew Jackson commanded American troops along the Florida frontier and had orders from Secretary Calhoun to stop the continuing raids on American territory by Seminole Indians south of the border. • Jackson used these orders as an excuse to invade Florida and seize Spanish forts at St. Marks and Pensacola (Seminole War). • Adams urges the government to assume responsibility for the raid and said that the U.S. had the right under international law to defend itself against threats from across its borders • This demonstrated to the Spanish that the U.S. could easily take Florida and Adams implied that it may do so • Therefore, Spanish minister, Luis de Onís agreed to a settlement: Adams–Onís Treaty: 1819, Spain ceded all of Florida to the U.S., and gave up its claim to territory north of the 42 parallel in the Pacific Northwest. In return (for a time), the U.S. gave up its claim to Texas and forgave Spain’s $5 million debt to the U.S.
  5. The Missouri Crisis • Slavery was already established in Missouri when it applied for admission to the Union in 1817 • Representative James Tallmadge, Jr. of NY proposed an amendment to the Missouri statehood bill that would prevent the further introduction of enslaved peoples into Missouri and provide for the gradual emancipation of those already there. He stated that enslavement was immoral and opposed to the nation’s founding principles of equality and liberty • In the South, they argued that enslavement was necessary for wealth and allowed “free white men” to exercise their true talents instead of toiling in the soil. They also argued that enslaved peoples were ‘cared for’ and ‘better off exposed to Christianity and enslaved peoples than living as free heathens in uncivilized Africa’ • Provoked a controversy for the next 2 years • In 1819, there were 11 free states and 11 slave-holding states, and the admission of Missouri would upset that balance
  6. The Missouri Crisis • Maine was also up for admission and Speaker of the House Henry Clay told northern members that if they blocked Missouri from entering the Union as a slave state, southerners would block the admission of Maine • However, the Senate agreed to combine the admission of Missouri and Maine into the same bill, with Maine being admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state • Senator Jesse B. Thomas of Illinois then proposed an amendment prohibiting slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase territory north of the southern boundary of Missouri . • The Senate adopted the Thomas Amendment and Speaker Clay managed with much difficulty, to guide the amended Maine-Missouri bill through the House • This is known as the Missouri Compromise and was considered a “happy” resolution of a danger to the Union – it maintained an equal balance between free and slave states
  7. American Settlers Move to Texas • U.S. offered to purchase Texas twice in the 1820s from Mexico • 1824 – Mexican government enacted a colonization law offering cheap land and a four-year exemption from taxes to any American willing to move into Texas, to increase the non-Native population and provide a buffer zone. Americans agreed to uphold the Mexican Constitution there. • Thousands arrived, mostly southerners and their enslaved peoples (goal: build cotton plantations) • Mexico outlawed slavery in 1829 • By 1830, there were 7000 Americans in Texas, outnumbering the Tejanos (Mexican residents of the region) • Stephen F. Austin: of Missouri established the first legal American settlement in Texas in 1822
  8. American Settlers Move to Texas • Friction between American settlers and Mexican government: • Americans disliked the Mexican legal system, which provided for an initial hearing by an alcalde- an administrator who often combined the duties of major, judge, and law enforcement. Then, a written record of the proceeding was sent to a judge in Saltillo, the state capital, who decided the outcome. • Intense anger of Mexico’s ban against enslavement • Disliked Roman Catholicism • Believed they were superior to Mexicans • Often tried to undermine the Mexican system of government
  9. American Settlers Move to Texas • 1830: due to the American settler's reluctance to abide by Mexican law, and their desire for independence, the Mexican government forbade U.S. immigration in 1830 • It also increased its military presence • American settlers continued to stream illegally across the long border • 55 delegates from the Anglo-American settlements met in 1831 to demand the suspension of customs duties, the resumption of immigration from the U.S., better protection from tribes, the granting of promised land titles, and the creation of an independent state of Texas • Mexico’s new president, Santa Anna agreed to ALL demands, except the call for statehood
  10. American Settlers Move to Texas • General Santa Anna seized power as dictator of Mexico in the mid 1830s and overthrew the Mexican Constitution of 1824: • Increased the powers of the government at the expense of the state governments • He sent troops to collect customs duties • Texans assumed this was aimed at them • Sporadic fighting between Mexicans and Texans began in 1835 • 1836 – American settlers proclaimed their independence from Mexico
  11. Remember the Alamo! • Santa Anna led a large army into Texas • Mexican forces annihilated an American garrison at the Alamo mission in San Antonio after a famous (if futile) defense by Texas “patriots” including Davy Crockett • Women and children inside the mission were allowed to leave, with an enslaved male who was freed by the Mexican army • General Sam Houston managed to keep a small force together • April 21, 1836: Battle of San Jacinto, Houston defeated the Mexican army and took Santa Anna prisoner. Under pressure, Santa Anna signed a treaty giving Texas independence • Santa Anna was soon removed from power and the Mexican Congress refused to be bound by the agreement
  12. The Lone Star Republic • Sam Houston was now president of Texas (its own country) • Sent a delegation to Washington with an offer to join the Union • President Jackson feared that adding a large new slave state would increase sectional tensions and blocked annexation. He delayed recognizing the new republic until 1837 • England and France began to forge ties with the new republic and President Tyler persuaded Texas to apply for statehood again in 1844 • Northern senators, fearing the admission of a new slave state, defeated it • Some Mexican residents of Texas (Tejanos) had fought with Americans, but after Texas won its independence, their positions grew difficult • The Americans did not trust them and feared they were agents of the Mexican government. They were driven out of the new republic and the ones who stayed had to settle for a politically and economically subordinate status • Anglo-American settlers in Texas now wanted New Mexico
  13. James K. Polk and the Triumph of Expansion • Control of “Oregon country” in the Pacific northwest was also a major political issue: • Both Britain and the U.S. claimed sovereignty in the region • Agreed in 1818 (treaty) to allow citizens of each country equal access to the territory and this continued for 20 years (joint occupation) • By the mid1840s, white Americans substantially outnumbered the British • Also devastated much of the Native American population (measles epidemic) • Democrat James K. Polk, resolves the Oregon question: asserted the right to claim all of Oregon after he was rebuffed by the British minister in Washington to establish the U.S.-Canadian border at the 49th parallel • British government finally agrees to Polk’s plan • June 15, 1846, the Senate approved a treaty that fixed the boundary there
  14. War with Mexico, 1846-1848 • Mexico broke relations with America after Texas became a state • Dispute emerges over the boundary between Texas and Mexico: • Texans claimed the Rio Grande as their western and southern border: • Mexico argued that it was the River Nueces to the north of the Rio Grand • Polk accepted the Texas claim and sent a small army under General Zachary Taylor to Texas in the summer of 1845 to protect it against a possible Mexican invasion • Part of the area in dispute was New Mexico, where Spanish and native residents lived in a multiracial society that had endured for nearly a century and a half
  15. War with Mexico, 1846-1848 • Members of several Native American tribes and around 7,000 Mexicans lived in California • Americans began to arrive gradually, 1st as traders, then merchants, and lastly as farmers • Polk decided he wanted New Mexico and California for the U.S. • Sent secret instructions to the commander of the Pacific naval squadron (same time as he sent Taylor to Texas) to seize the California ports if Mexico declared war • Representatives of the president quietly informed Americans in California that the U.S. would response sympathetically to a revolt against Mexican authority there
  16. War with Mexico, 1846-1848 • Polk sent a special minister to try to buy off the Mexicans, but his offer was rejected • Polk ordered Taylor’s army to move to the Rio Grande on January 13, 1846. • The Mexicans refused to fight for months • According to disputed American accounts, some Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked a unit of American soldiers • May 13, 1846, Congress declared war 40-2 in the Senate, and 174-14 in the House • Whig critics argued that Polk deliberately led the U.S. into war and had staged the border incident • Victory was not as quick as Polk had wanted • Polk also ordered more offensives against New Mexico and California • The conquest of California was completed by the autumn of 1846
  17. War with Mexico, 1846-1848 • Mexico still refused to concede defeat • Polk and General Winfield Scott launched a new campaign • Scott’s forces were about 14,000, and he kept American casualties low, and never lost a battle before seizing the Mexican capital • A new Mexican government took power and announced they were interested in a treaty • Polk sent Nicholas Trist to negotiate and on February 24, 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was reached. Mexico agreed to cede California and New Mexico to the U.S. and acknowledged the Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas • The U.S. promised to assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico and to pay the Mexicans $15 million • Polk was angry as he had wanted Mexico too
  18. California and the Gold Rush • January 1848, traces of gold were found in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada: • News of this spread t/o nation and much of the world; hundreds of thousands of people flocked to California • Crazed excitement and greed! • Migrants were known as “Forty-Niners” and abandoned farms, jobs, homes, and families • The Gold Rush also attracted some of the first Chinese migrants to the western U.S. Hoped to become rich quickly and return to China. • Emigration brokers loaned them money • The Gold Rush produced a serious labor shortage in California, and this provided opportunities for many, including Chinese immigrants • A new state law permitted the arrest of ‘loitering’ or orphaned Native Americans and their assignment to a term of “indentured” labor. • Few forty-niners ever found gold
  19. The Liberty Party, the Wilmot Proviso, and the Antislavery Movement • David Wilmot, committed to protecting white workers, attached an amendment to an 1846 revenue bill: the Wilmot Proviso: would have barred slavery from all the territory acquired from Mexico. It passed the House but failed in the Senate • Wilmot’s stance hinted at the party divisions that were to come • Formation of the Liberty Party: 1840, a single-issue party of abolitionists who fervently believed that slavery was evil and should be ended by political means • Antislavery advocates were different from abolitionists: they did not challenge the presence of slavery in states where it already existed. They opposed its expansion of slavery because of its effect on white labor
  20. The Free-Soil Party and the Election of 1848 • Barnburners: Martin Van Buren’s antislavery supporters supported the Wilmot Proviso • Hunkers, were their opponents and refused to support it • The Barnburners held their own convention and chose anti-slavery pro-Wilmot Proviso delegates to send to the Democrats’ national convention in Baltimore • Both sets of delegates were seated and most votes went to Lewis Cass, an advocate of popular sovereignty – citizens should be able to decide issues based on the principle of majority rule • Angry, the Barnburners united with antislavery Whigs and former members of the Liberty Party formed a new party – the Free-Soil Party: “free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men” – sought to exclude slavery from the western territories, leaving these areas open for settlement by farmers and ensuring that laborers would not have to compete with enslaved peoples
  21. The Free-Soil Party and the Election of 1848 • Many Free-Soilers believed in a cabal known as “Slave Power” – a term Northerners used to describe the disproportionate influence that they felt elite southern slaveholders wielded in both domestic and international affairs • The Free-Soil party selected Van Buren as its presidential candidate • For the 1st time, a national political party committed itself to the goal of stopping the expansion of slavery • The Democrats chose Lewis Cass • The Whigs chose General Zachary Taylor (owned enslaved peoples) • The Democrats split their votes between Van Buren and Cass, causing Taylor to win.
  22. The Compromise of 1850 • Henry Clay presented a bill to the Senate in January 1850 regarding the controversy over California entering as a free state and upsetting the balance between slave and free states. • Debated for 7 months • President Taylor dies suddenly of food poisoning, July 9, 1850; Millard Fillmore becomes president, and he is flexible • Persuades northern Whigs to call into line • Clay was ill so Stephen Douglas (D, Illinois) introduces a series of separate measures, enacted in September – Compromise of 1850: • To satisfy the North: California was admitted as a free state, trade of enslaved peoples was prohibited in Washington, D.C., and Texas lost its boundary dispute with New Mexico • To satisfy the South: there were no slavery restrictions in Utah or New Mexico territories, slaveholding was permitted in Washington, D.C., Texas received $10 million, and the Fugitive Slave Law required northerners to return runaway enslaved peoples to their owners under penalty of law