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CHINESE LITERAT-WPS Office.pptx

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CHINESE LITERAT-WPS Office.pptx

  1. 1. CHINESE LITERATURE
  2. 2. There is a wealth of early Chinese literature dating from the Hundred Schools of Thought that occurred during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770–256 BC).
  3. 3. The most important of these include the Classics of Confucianism, of Daoism, of Mohism, of Legalism, as well as works of military science and Chinese history.
  4. 4. What are the famous literature in China? 1. Water Margin  Water Margin is one of the earliest Chinese novels written in vernacular Mandarin and is attributed to Shi Nai'an. It is also translated as Outlaws of the Marsh and All Men Are Brothers.
  5. 5. 2. Journey to the West Journey to the West is a Chinese novel published in the 16th century during the Ming dynasty and attributed to Wu Cheng'en. It is regarded as one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature, and has been described as arguably the most popular literary work in East Asia.
  6. 6. 4. Dream of the Red Chamber Dream of the Red Chamber or The Story of the Stone is a novel composed by Cao Xueqin in the middle of the 18th century. The intricate strands of its plot depict the rise and decline of a family much like Cao's own and, by extension, of the dynasty itself.
  7. 7. Writing in China dates back to the hieroglyphs that were used in the Shang Dynasty of 1700 – 1050 BC. Chinese literature is a vast subject that spans thousands of years. One of the interesting things about Chinese literature is that much of the serious literature was composed using a formal written language that is called Classical Chinese.
  8. 8. However, this written language wasn’t the vernacular language even two thousand years ago. The empires and groups of kingdoms of all these eras were composed of people speaking many different native languages.
  9. 9. If Europe had a literary history like China’s, it would be as if most European writers until the 20th century always tried to write in ancient Classical Greek that became a dead language more than two millennia ago.
  10. 10. Shang Dynasty (about 1700-1050 BC) — Development of Chinese Writing
  11. 11.  The first dynasty for which there is historical record and archaeological evidence is the Shang Dynasty. It was a small empire in northern central China. No documents from that country survive, but there are archaeological finds of hieroglyphic writing on bronze wares and oracle bones. The hieroglyphic writing system later evolved into ideographic and partly-phonetic Chinese characters.
  12. 12. Zhou Dynasty (1045-255 BC) — Basic Philosophical and Religious Literature Confucius Statue
  13. 13.  The Zhou Dynasty was contemporaneous with the Shang Dynasty, and then they conquered the Shang Dynasty. Their dynasty lasted for about 800 years, but for most of the time, their original territory was broken up into dozens of competing kingdoms, and these finally coalesced into several big and warring kingdoms by the end of the Zhou era.
  14. 14. Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) — Literary Disaster and Legalism The First Imperial Dynasty in China
  15. 15.  The Qin Dynasty had big armies and conquered the others. Once the Qin emperor had control, he wanted to keep it, and they squelched any opposition to his authority. In the conquered territories, there were teachers of many different doctrines and religions. A big philosophical and religious school then was called Mohism. They were particularly attacked by the Qin Dynasty, and little is known about it.
  16. 16. Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) — Scientific and Historical Texts Cai Lun invented the writing paper
  17. 17.  A former peasant leader overthrew the Qin Empire. The Han Dynasty era lasted for 400 years. At the beginning of the era, Confucianism was revived. Confucian texts were rewritten and republished. Confucianism was mixed with the Legalism philosophy of Li Si. The resulting ideology was the official ideology of the Han Dynasty and influenced political thinking afterwards.
  18. 18. Tang Dynasty (618-907) — Early Woodblock Printing and Poetry Li Bai
  19. 19.  Tang Dynasty had a big empire that benefited from trade with the west along the Silk Road, battled with the Tibetan Empire, and experienced the growing influence of organized Buddhist religions. This era’s main contribution to Chinese literature was in the poetry of Dufu, Li Bai and many other poets. Dufu and Li Bai are often thought of as China’s greatest poets.
  20. 20. Song Dynasty (960-1279) — Early Woodblock Printing, Travel Literature, Poetry, Scientific Texts and the Neo- Confucian Classics Emperor Taizu of Song Dynasty
  21. 21.  The next dynasty is called the Song Dynasty. It was weaker than the Tang Dynasty, but the imperial government officials made remarkable scientific and technical advances. Military technology greatly advanced.
  22. 22.  They traded little with the west due to the presence of warring Muslim states on the old trade routes. There wasn’t territorial expansion, but the empire was continuously attacked by nomadic tribes and countries around them.
  23. 23. Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) — Drama and Great Fictional Novels The puppet drama in Yuan Dynasty
  24. 24.  The Mongols were nomadic people who herded cattle north of the Tang Empire and wandered over a large area fighting on horseback. They believed that they might be able to conquer the world. They easily conquered Persia far to the west. It was a big empire with high technology, a big population and a big army.
  25. 25.  Then they decided to try to conquer all the countries around them. They attacked the Tang Dynasty, the Dali Kingdom in Yunnan, and much of Asia, and they formed the biggest empire in the history of the earth until then.
  26. 26. Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) — Novels Xuanzang
  27. 27.  The Chinese rebelled against the Mongols, and the Ming Dynasty era began about 1368. The Mongols and the Ming government still sometimes fought. Because of this and the presence of Muslim countries in between, trade with the west was reduced to the pre-Yuan level.
  28. 28.  The Ming initially were interested in exploration, and Muslims whose ancestors arrived during the Yuan Dynasty and who were familiar with seagoing trade were employed to make long voyages to the Indian Ocean, the Middle East and perhaps Africa. Then they became isolationist.
  29. 29. Modern Era (1912-present) — Westernized Literature Sun Yat-sen
  30. 30.  Sun Yat-sen led a revolution that marked the end of Chinese dynasties in which a clan rules an empire. Of course, the big change of Chinese society that happened with the change of government led to a change in literature. It became westernized, and the Classical Language wasn’t used. The national government wanted women to have more of an equal status in society, and women writers and scholars were taken more seriously.
  31. 31.  There was a lot of politically oriented literature printed. Scholars had access to foreign literature, and many students studied abroad. Until about 1923, there was a New Culture Movement. Writers generally wanted to lead the way in transforming China into a modern industrialized country and replacing Confucian life-style with a westernized one.
  32. 32. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING! 🙂🙂🙂 Presented by: Amado C. Manuel III

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