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Assignment Organizational Behavior.docx

What is Transactional Analysis in Organisational Behaviour?
Explain the following three types of transactional analysis:
Transactional Analysis:
Transactional Analysis by Late Dr. Eric Berne is a highly effective and popular psychological theo...
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  2. 2. What is Transactional Analysis in Organisational Behaviour? Explain the following three types of transactional analysis: Complementary, crossed and ulterior. Organizational Behavior (OB) can be defined as the understanding, prediction and management of human behavior both individually or in a group that occur within an organization. Internal and external perspectives are the two theories of how organizational behavior can be viewed from an organization’s point of view. In this tutorial, we will be learning in detail about both the theories. Importance of OB While working in an organization, it is very important to understand others behavior as well as make others understand ours. In order to maintain a healthy working environment, we need to adapt to the environment and understand the goals we need to achieve. This can be done easily if we understand the importance of OB. Following points bring out the importance of OB −  It helps in explaining the interpersonal relationships employees share with each other as well as with their higher and lower subordinates.  The prediction of individual behavior can be explained.  It balances the cordial relationship in an enterprise by maintaining effective communication.  It assists in marketing.  It helps managers to encourage their sub-ordinates.  Any change within the organization can be made easier.  It helps in predicting human behavior & their application to achieve organizational goals.  It helps in making the organization more effective. Thus studying organizational behavior helps in recognizing the patterns of human behavior and in turn throw light on how these patterns profoundly influence the performance of an organization.
  3. 3. Transactional Analysis: Transactional Analysis by Late Dr. Eric Berne is a highly effective and popular psychological theory developed in the 1970s. Understanding Transactional Analysis (also known as TA) is beneficial for every person. You could be a professional doing a regular job routine, an entrepreneur, a student, or a homemaker! You could be anyone looking to improve your communication with self and others using the TA model. Transactional Analysis elevates your thinking to a high level while raising awareness so you can understand your own difficult and dysfunctional behaviors and communication patterns to develop deeper connections with self and the world. Isn’t that truly life-changing? Imagine being in control of the results you want and having a deep understanding of people and relationships TYPES OF TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS: The three different types of transaction are: 1. Complementary, 2. Crossed, and 3. Ulterior  Complementary Transactions: A complementary transaction occurs when the sender of the message gets the intended response from the Employee `I just dropped the thing when I was almost done. Now I have to do it all over again.' receiver. For example, an employee makes a mistake and, wanting some sympathy, apologizes to the boss. Supervisor `It happens to all of us; don't worry about it.' This complementary transaction is illustrated below SUPERVISOR EMPLOYEE P
  4. 4. A C Another example of a complementary transaction isa supervisor who wants a job done and delegates it, expecting the employee to do it. The supervisor behaves on an adult-to-adult level. Supervisor `please get this order ready for me by two o'clock.' Employee `I'll have it done before two o' clock, no problem.' Generally, complementary transactions result in more effective communication with fewer hurt feelings and arguments. In other words, they help human relations and performance. Exceptions are if an employee uses an adapted child or critical parent ego state and the supervisor does, too. These complementary transactions can lead to problems.  Crossed Transactions: Crossed transactions occur when the sender of the message does not get the expected response from the receiver. Returning to our first example: Employee `I just dropped the thing when I was almost done. Now I have to do it all over again.' Supervisor `you are so clumsy.' This transaction is illustrated below SUPERVISOR EMPLOYEE P A
  5. 5. C From our second example: Supervisor `please get this order ready for me by two o' clock.' Employee `why do I have to do it? Why don't you do it yourself? I am busy.' This cross transaction is an adult adapted to child response. Generally, cross transactions result in surprise, disappointment, and hurt feelings for the sender of the message. The unexpected response often gets the person emotional, which often results in his or her changing to the adapted child ego sate, which causes the communication to deteriorate further. Cross transactions often end in arguments and hurt human relations. Cross transactions can be helpful when the negative parent or child ego response is crossed with an adult response. This cross over may result in the preferred adult to adult conversation  Ulterior Transactions: Ulterior, or hidden, transactions occur when the words seem to be coming from one ago state, but in reality the words or behaviors are coming from another. For example, after a training program, one of the participants came up to a consultant asking advice on an adult ego sate. When the consultant gave advice, the participant twice had quick responses as to why the advice would not work (child rather than adult behavior). The consultant realized that what the participant actually wanted was sympathetic understanding for his situation, not advice. The consultant stopped making suggestions and listened actively, using reflective responses. The consultant changed from the adult to the sympathetic parent ego state in order to have a complimentary transaction. Sometimes people don't know what they want or how to ask for it in a direct way, so they use ulterior transactions. When possible, it is best to avoid ulterior transactions because they tend to waste time. Avoid making people search for your hidden meanings. Plan your message before you send it. When receiving messages look for ulterior transactions and turn them into complimentary transactions, as stated above
  6. 6. How can we motivate people in an organization? Explain the responsibilities of a member of a team: Motivation in the public (people) sector is strongly linked to the institutional setting, as has been discussed above. From a theoretical viewpoint, institutional theory may provide further insights into the origins of employee motivation in the public sector. Values, norms, and rules - as the defining parts of institutions - infuse social structures with values and promote stability and persistence over time (Peters 2000; Selznick 1984). Viewed as organizations, institutions are shaped in response to their external environment and transcend to the individual level of an employee’s identity, influencing his/her values and motives, which, in turn, define a range of permissible and prohibited behavior (Ritz and Brewer 2013; Perry 2000; Scott 1987). Thus, employee motivation in the public sector is a function of the degree to which an organization shares the individual’s values or provides opportunities for the employee to satisfy these values (Christensen and Wright 2009). In addition, it is not the sector that is the decisive element in the development of motivation. Instead, employees’ values are influenced by the organization’s degree of ‘publicness’. This characteristic defines organizations not only in the public sector, but also in the private and non-profit sectors (Bozeman 1987). However, in the following we simply distinguish between two major types of employee motivation in the public sector: public sector motivation and public service motivation. In doing so, we disentangle the various roles public sector organizations play both in public servants’ motivation and in their internalization of different types of values (Christensen and Wright 2009; Brewer and Selden 1998). The first motivation concept with a key focus on public organizations is public sector motivation. According to institutional theory, public sector motivation implies a “logic of consequentiality” involving institutional rules and interpretations to be treated as alternatives in a rational choice problem (March and Olsen 1989). Rational choice theory characterizes administrators as generally rational individuals (constrained by certain informational and cognitive boundaries) who have a fixed set of preferences and who seek to maximize their utility (Brennan and Buchanan 1985). The responsibilities of a member of a team: Roles refer to one’s position on a team. Responsibilities refer to the tasks and duties of their particular role or job description. Employees are held accountable for completing several tasks in the workplace. The clearer their supervisor outlines the tasks, the better employees can
  7. 7. achieve their team’s goals and succeed in their individual roles at the company. For a supervisor or team leader to effectively delegate, however, they must understand that individual’s role at the company. It can also be beneficial to understand the benefits of implementing functional roles and responsibilities. Understanding how to develop the right roles for your team is crucial to your company’s success. In this article, we define what roles and responsibilities are and determine how to best use each employee’s skillset for your team’s overall objective Benefits of functional roles and responsibilities Along with increasing team efficiency, creating functional roles and responsibilities provides several other benefits that could help your company as a whole. Understanding these benefits will motivate team leaders to implement them in the future if they haven’t already. Here are some of the benefits of establishing functional roles and responsibilities. 1. Increased productivity When teams understand what’s expected of them, they know what they need to work on. Having a clear definition of their responsibilities will increase your team’s overall productivity. This productivity will then lead to your team’s increased momentum and success in the long run. 2. Team success By effectively delegating necessary tasks and having a set schedule, you’re setting your team up for success. Employees with clear duties and deadlines have all the tools they need to get the job done and achieve optimal success. 3. Increased morale and momentum When an employee’s responsibilities are clearly defined and they are successful in their role, the entire team will benefit from it. Team success is a great way to build momentum for future projects, thus fostering more productivity. This same success will also contribute to the team’s heightened confidence.
  8. 8. Team member roles and responsibilities Each team member has a role to play on the team, defined by skillset and experience. Some might be optimists, encouraging, innovative ideas and positivity, while others will be more pragmatic and encourage definable goals and structure. The point is that all roles have their own value in the collaboration of a team. Here are some general roles and responsibilities for a team member:  Actively participate.  Be an active listener.  Take notes.  Complete tasks and assignments. Team Member Responsibilities:  Executing all tasks assigned by the team leader or manager diligently, on schedule, and to the highest standard.  Working with team members to achieve daily, weekly, and monthly targets.  Participating in meetings and voicing concerns as well as suggestions for improvement.  Answering or escalating concerns and queries from clients or other stakeholders.  Completing a range of administrative tasks.  Maintaining a high level of professionalism while representing the company.  Expanding your skills by attending workshops and training sessions.  Effectively managing your time by prioritizing urgent tasks.  Assisting the manager or leam Leader as required. Team Member Requirements:  High school diploma.  A relevant degree or associate’s degree may be required.  Previous experience working in a team would be advantageous.  Excellent time management and interpersonal skills.  Self-starter with a positive attitude.  Ability to remain professional at all times.
  9. 9. Who do we understand the other person from his/her point of view: When you tell a story, an important thing to choose is the point of view that the story should take. Point of view determines who tells the story, as well as the relationship that the narrator has to the characters in the story. A story can have a much different feel depending on who is doing the telling. The main points of view are first person and third person, with second person appearing less frequently but still common enough that it gets studied in writing classes. These are also the terms used to distinguish the personal pronouns. The pronouns I and we are first-person pronouns; they refer to the self. The pronoun you, used for both singular and plural antecedents, is the second-person pronoun, the person who is being addressed. The third person pronouns—he, she, it, they—refer to someone or something being referred to apart from the speaker or the person being addressed. Narratives are often identified as first, second, or third person based on the kinds of pronouns they utilize First Person Point of View In first-person narration, the narrator is a person in the story, telling the story from their own point of view. The narration usually utilizes the pronoun I (or we, if the narrator is speaking as part of a group). The character who tells the story might be in the middle of the action or more of a character who observes the action from the outer limits, but in either case you are getting that character’s recounting of what happens. It also means that impressions and descriptions are colored by that character’s opinions, mood, past experiences, or even their warped perceptions of what they see and hear. Second Person Point of View Second-person narration a little-used technique of narrative in which the action is driven by a character ascribed to the reader, one known as you. The reader is immersed into the narrative as a character involved in the story. The narrator describes what "you" do and lets you into your own
  10. 10. thoughts and background. The most well-known piece of fiction that employs second-person narration might be Jay McInerney’s novel Bright Lights, Big City. Third Person Point of View In third-person narration, the narrator exists outside the events of the story, and relates the actions of the characters by referring to their names or by the third-person pronouns he, she, or they. Third-person narration can be further classified into several types: omniscient, limited, and objective. These high-impact influencers follow a pattern of four steps that all of us can put into action. In earlier pieces we covered Step 1: Go for great outcomes and Step 2: Listen past your blind spots. Later we’ll cover Step 3: Engage others in “their there.” Step 4: When you’ve done enough… do more. Here we cover To understand why this step is so important, imagine that you’re at one end of a shopping mall — say, the northeast corner, by a cafe. Next, imagine that a friend of yours is at the opposite end of the mall, next to a toy store. And imagine that you’re telling that person how to get to where you are. Now, picture yourself saying, “To get to where I am, start in the northeast corner by a cafe.” That doesn’t make sense, does it? Because that’s where you are, not where the other person is. Yet that’s how we often try to convince others — on our terms, from our assumptions, and based on our experiences. We present our case from our point of view. There’s a communication chasm between us and them, but we’re acting as if they’re already on our side of the gap.
  11. 11. Like in the shopping mall example, we make a mistake by starting with how we see things (“our here”). To help the other person move, we need to start with how they see things (“their there”). For real influence we need to go from our here to their there to engage others in three specific ways: 1. Situational Awareness: Show that You Get “It.” Show that you understand the opportunities and challenges your conversational counterpart is facing. Offer ideas that work in the person’s there. When you’ve grasped their reality in a way that rings true, you’ll hear comments like “You really get it!” or “You actually understand what I’m dealing with here.” 2. Personal Awareness: You Get “Them.” Show that you understand his or her strengths, weaknesses, goals, hopes, priorities, needs, limitations, fears, and concerns. In addition, you demonstrate that you’re willing to connect with them on a personal level. When you do this right, you’ll hear people say things like “You really get me!” or “You actually understand where I’m coming from on this.” 3. Solution Awareness: You Get Their Path to Progress. Show people a positive path that enables them to make progress on their own terms. Give them options and alternatives that empower them. Based on your understanding of their situation and what’s at stake for them personally, offer possibilities for making things better — and help them think more clearly, feel better, and act smarter. When you succeed, you’ll hear comments like, “That could really work!” or “I see how that would help me.” Explain the issues of Authority, Power and Conflicts in organizational behavior: INTRODUCTION Managers are hired to ensure that organizational goals are accomplished, and they do this by making choices among alternatives. This decision making process would be only an exercise if the managers could not put these decisions into effect. Power and authority are the means for accomplishing this purpose. In the management of organizations, managers use both the official and the unofficial powers and authority in their disposal
  12. 12. as managerial weapons to guide, modify, direct, and influence the behaviours and actions of their subordinates toward the realization of the organizations objectives. In carrying out this critical managerial function, there is the obvious tendency that these activities will generate disagreement and conflict between the managers and their subordinates, among the groups that make up the subordinates, and within the individuals that constitute the groups that formed the subordinates. It is the ability of a manager to effectively and efficiently use his managerial powers and authority to manage these conflicts in such a manner so that they will positively contribute to the realization of the organization objectives instead of producing dysfunctional behaviour that will be detrimental to the operations and growth of the organization that differentiate between experience and inexperience manager. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: In every human endeavour, it is objective that directs what should be done and how it should be done. Objective is simply the “where” of management. It is when one knows where one is going, that he or she will know how to get there and when he or she has gotten to the place or destination. Relying on the above background, the objectives that direct the flow of this article are stated below. (a). To examine the functional relationship of authority, power, and conflict in the management and operations of organizations. (b). To find out the nature of their relationship – whether positive or negative. (c). To evaluate the implications of each of the relationships as they relate to the overall functioning, growth, and development of organizations AUTHORITY: The word authority probably brings to our mind a picture of a parent scolding a child or a military officer giving a command to a troop or a
  13. 13. manager guiding or altering the behaviour of subordinates. Well, all these are aspects of authority. Authority is a formal right to make decision based on formal organizational relationships. Authority is also seen as the right to command others to act or not to act in a manner deemed by the possessor of the authority to further organization objectives. Directing the behaviour of others is based on two sub-rights: (a). the right to decide, and (b). the right to issue appropriate implementing instructions. Without the right to decide, no manager could be a successful planner, and without the right to issue orders and instructions, the manager’s plans would be worthless. This is because there could be no assurance of the implementation of the plans. Authority is the corner-stone of every organization. It gives every organization the characteristic of hierarchy that establishes a defined chain of command. Authority establishes the relationship between the job to be done and the people that will do the job. Thus, authority is fundamental to every organization because the nature of managerial responsibility involves decision making and influence. FORMS OF AUTHORITY: There is no general consensus among management writers and researchers on what constitute the forms/ types of authority. Although different writers and researchers give different names to the forms of authority in obedience to the angle from which each of them looks at it, a careful analysis of the different forms shows that the actual meaning which they attach to the forms if summed together goes to the same direction. The difference is only in the connotation and nomenclature and not on the facts. In this article, we adopt the following forms of authority and the aim is to treat the components and uses of authority in order to demonstrate how they affect organizational behaviour and therefore its performance. 1. Managerial Authority. This is the form of authority given to managers of formal organizations because they are responsible for acquiring,
  14. 14. deploying, and controlling resources needed to accomplish objectives. Managerial authority is composed of the right to enforce those choices based on official position. Without these components, no manager, can successfully carryout responsibilities. This is true because all managers, regardless of their positions in the organization structure, are charged with the responsibility of making decisions and ensuring that they are carried out. Thus, managerial authority is the key means for executing managerial responsibility. The exact nature and amount of managerial authority required at any given location in the organization structure should be a function of the responsibility there. Consequently, the manager’s responsibility should be a determining factor in deciding the amount of authority that the manager is granted. This balance between responsibility and authority is in keeping with the principle of parity of authority and responsibility – a long recognized guide to building and maintaining a sound organization structure. 2. Staff Authority. This is a kind of authority given to all staff of an organization to make suggestions and recommendations about the solution to problems, procedural changes or how their jobs could be made easier or more attractive. Even though we normally associate this type of authority with experts or professional personnel, it is actually possessed by every member of the organization. This is because everyone in an organization whether superior or subordinate has the right to recommend, to suggest, and to advice. One possible confusing aspect of the use of staff authority is the fact that subordinates often do not elect to use their staff authority for one reason or the other. In addition, some superiors discourage their subordinates from using it. This situation can be compared to the right to vote. In voting situation, there are those who voluntarily choose not to exercise their voting rights, and there might be occasions where they are virtually prohibited from doing so by others. Whether they are used or not, voting rights are possessed by all qualified citizens and so it is with staff authority. 3. Situational Authority. This is a form of authority that has both the elements of managerial authority and that of staff authority. Generally, this
  15. 15. kind of authority is delegated to a staff expert who is restricted in the areas of organization structure and functions in which it can be exercised. This expert is given the right to make binding decisions about a given function in the organization structure. This type of organization relationship often begins as a staff authority relationship. For example, an accountant may be given the right to make recommendations, give advice, or make suggestions on the matter European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.6, No.22, 2014 176 of proper accounting methods. As time passes and the expert’s superior gains confidence in the quality of advice, the expert might be given a grant of situational authority that is approved by the officer who supervises the chief accountant. This means that the accountant can now issue decisions that have the prior approval of the superior through the grant of situational authority. Therefore, it is not necessary to involve the superior in every decision. In practice, situational authority can be quite disruptive to the organization if it is misused but if properly used, it can be an effective managerial aid. Situational authority is a potent right and should only be delegated after careful consideration and it should have some safeguards about over what activities it can be exercised. 4. Operative Authority. This is a type of right given to members of an organization to take certain decisions about how, in what order, and with which tools they will carry out their assignments. Also included here is the right to work without undue supervision. Some people do not include the operative authority in their list of forms of authorities but here, we deemed it necessary to include it in order to give a complete explanation of the rights of organization members. For example, at times a worker may be asked to take a decision about work priorities, schedules, and tools and materials to be used for the work. The decision is outside the scope of the managerial, staff, and situational authority and because of that, the decision will be made by using operative authority.
  16. 16. Operative authority is made up of two basic rights – the right to carry out responsibility and the right to determine, within reason, how and when it will be done. Whether one is a manager, a technician, or an unskilled labourer, one has these minimum rights. Without them, it would not be possible to plan and carry out one’s personal responsibility. POWER: Power is the potential or actual ability of a person to affect the behaviour of others. This ability can be based on a number of factors, such as knowledge, personality, and even on authority. When power receives formal recognition and backing by the organization, it will be called authority. In other words, power is a larger concept than authority and indeed, subsumes it as a formal power relationship. Power can also be seen as the influence that is not based on organizational positions. Because of this, power applies to any interpersonal influence that exists either within or outside the bounds of formal organizational relationship. The brief explanation below throws more light on the difference between power and authority. If a supervisor issues directives to subordinates on how to carry out a normal work routine, these directives will be considered by both the supervisor and the subordinates to be official. Here, the supervisor can be said to have used power in the form of position authority which attaches to his or her role as a manager and which has been delegated to him or her by a superior officer in order to get certain organizational goals accomplished. If a supervisor directs a subordinate to do a personal errand for him or her, this errand is clearly outside the official relationship between the supervisor and the subordinate and therefore, the instruction cannot be founded on authority. This instruction, then, is an attempt to use power as the basis of influence. The extent to which an individual can exercise power can be viewed as a function of the dependency relationship that exists between the parties. The higher the dependency ratio; other things being equal, the higher the power and vice versa.
  17. 17. FORMS OF POWER: Influence that is based on power has many forms and in our discussion here, we shall try as much as possible to explain how power gains its support and potency in organization as the base for our classification. 1. Rational or Legal Power. This is a type of power that is recognized and accepted by subordinates as being in agreement with the laid down rules and regulations that are considered legitimate by both parties. Here, there is little or no question about whether its use is considered proper or not. Whatever its source might be, whether through ability or knowledge, once the members of the society or organization consider it legitimate to accept a given type of influence, that influence will be properly classified as rational power. 2. Reward Power. This is a form of power that comes from one’s ability to control and dispense benefits to others. The controller of the benefits has the ability to shape the behaviour of others by the simple act of dispensing or withholding these benefits. The strength of this type of power is primarily determined by two major forces and these are the size of the reward and the belief that it will be dispensed. This proposition is based on the assumption that other things being equal, a large reward gives greater power than a small reward. 3. Coercive Power. This is a kind of power that emanates from a person’s ability to punish others. This ability to punish others is often strong motivation and can, in many ways, be viewed as the obverse of reward power. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.6, No.22, 2014 177 While reward power relies on dispensing of rewards for its strength, coercive power depends on the meting out of punishment for its effectiveness. The effectiveness of coercive power depends on the definition of the punishment, its perceived impact, the probability that it will be used, and the measurement of desired behaviour.
  18. 18. For example, if the possible punishment is not defined as such by the offender, if it is seen to be relatively mild, or if the chances of its being used is slight, coercive power will be less effective and vice versa. 4. Referent Power. This is a form of power that exists when one has influence over another because the other identifies with him or her. For instance, if “A” has influence over “B” because “B” identifies with “A”, that power or influence will be called referent power. This identification will give “A” the power to influence the behaviour of “B” even though “A” may not be aware of the identification. For example, star athletes are worshipped by aspiring youngsters who see that their own abilities can be enhanced by emulating the star’s behaviour. At times, people with whom others identify might not be aware of their own referent power. Because of this, it is often difficult to completely trace power relationship in referent power. 5. Charismatic Power. This is a kind of power that occurs as a result of one’s magnetic quality of personality. The possessor of the personality uses it to influence the behaviour of others. For example, Hitler exercised this type of power in Germany before and during World War II. Those who possess’ charismatic powers find it relatively easy to influence their followers. One of the dimensions of charismatic power that helps explain its potency is that charismatic leaders also help their followers attain personal goals. By following such leaders, the followers can realize their own objectives. 6. Expert Power. Expert power exists where one exerts influence over others because of one’s possession of knowledge or special skill. This skill attracts respect for the expert. For example, Nobel Scientists are respected for their skills and because of this; they are said to posses’ expert power. Those who admire the skill or who need it to solve problems are willing to subordinate themselves in return for the expert’s assistance. A student who needs a teacher’s help in solving a problem is an example. The student attributes the power of knowledge to the teacher and behaves in a manner that will enable him or her to have the advantage of the teacher’s knowledge in solving the problem. A successful use of expert power within its sphere of influence tends to increase its potency while its use outside its sphere tends to weaken its strength.
  19. 19. SOURCES OF POWER: In the work environment just like the general society, there are numerous sources through which managers and leaders or anybody in authority can enrich himself or herself with power. These sources all revolve around the dependency of one actor on another. The ability to create and manage dependency relationship is among the most important determinants of the amount of power any actor can wield. Some of these sources of power are discussed below. 1. Power through the Control of Resources. This is one of the most important sources of power in the organizations and even in our society. Those that possess resources exert tremendous influence on the behaviour of others. Naturally, resources such as money and materials are not equitably distributed and because of this, those who possess them command respect and wield influence which enables them to influence the behaviour of others. This is in line with the general notion in commerce that money commands variety. The word “variety” here includes respect and influence. 2. Position Power. This source of power is attached to offices in organization. Various offices have powers emanating from them and the higher the office in the organization chart, the higher the power that comes from it. Organization chart generally depicts the hierarchy of formal authority through which position power gains its potency and recognition. 3. Personal Qualities. Personal qualities are another good source of power to some managers and leaders. These qualities consist of knowledge, charisma, and possession of special skills. These qualities enable the individuals that possess them to influence the behaviour of others and therefore enhance their ability to manage and control their subordinates. 4. Professionalism. Professionalism as a source of power in organization comes as a result of an increase in professional expertise through professional examinations and training. In the organization, those people that passed professional examinations and equally had some training usually possess more power than those that did not pass any professional
  20. 20. examination and did not even attend any training. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org... ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT: Conflict is a problem. Human life is full of problems. There is no living human being that does not have one type of problem or the other no matter the person’s level of intelligent, wisdom, and the amount of authority and power that the person possesses. This is the same thing with organizations. Organizations are made up of human beings and therefore cannot avoid conflict. Organizational conflict occurs when two or more individuals or groups that have opposing goals, ideas, philosophies, or orientations disagree with each other in organization decision making. The conflict most of the time is as a result of disagreement on resource allocation. At times, conflict can occur as a result of bad organizational system which does not allow enough freedom to the workers or as a result of clash of values that is caused by job requirements. Conflict is central to organization life and no organization can do without it. Although conflict often leads to some frustrations and confrontations within or between organizations, it is part of the universal principles of organizational management THE VALUE OF CONFLICT: Conflict is a natural phenomenon and therefore unavoidable in organization life. In managing organizations, managers must appreciate and recognize the value of conflict as it relates to the performance of organizations. Our discussion of the value of conflict covers both the negative and the positive aspects of the conflict and their contributions to organizational goals. On the negative side of conflict are the consequences or adverse effects of conflict in organization where some management writers and researchers of the classical thinking argued that conflict could cause losses in productivity because groups or workers would not cooperate in getting work finished on time as they would not share important information. They
  21. 21. equally pointed out that too much conflict distract managers from their work and reduce their concentration on the job and that conflict can affect the morale of the workers. Buttressing their points further, they said that long stretched conflict could cause stress, frustration, and anxiety, which are detrimental to workers well-being. It was based on these arguments that Robbins, S.P. (1978) pointed out that conflict should be avoided by all possible means and when it appeared by any mistake, it should be stopped as quickly as possible by managerial fiat. On the positive side of conflict are the management writers and researchers from the modern school of thought. Here, they argued that conflict can be a catalyst for change as it can force organizations to re- examine corporate goals or reset priorities and that it can also force managers to face important issues they have been ignoring and make higher- quality decisions on those issues. They also pointed out that suppressing all conflict at times leads to further negative consequences as workers will begin to sabotage each other covertly rather than confronting each other directly. They went further to say that managers should allow some levels of conflict in organization because it can serve as a mechanism for fine-tuning the organization’s goal hierarchy and that after its resolution, it can clarify the proper power and authority relationships between different organizational members or subunits. It was on the strength of these arguments that Paul L. and Lorsch J. (1969) advised that some optimal levels of conflict are necessary in organization and that managers should be recognized and rewarded based on their skills in conflict diagnosis and management rather than on their skills in conflict suppression. A summary of all the arguments show that the modern view and by implication the popular view is not to oppose conflict but to provide for it. The aim is not to eliminate fire, or have a wildfire, but to have a “controlled burn”. Managers, like foresters, must know when conditions are right for “burning” and when it is enough. Seen in this perspective, conflict can be considered healthy and good for both the organization and the workers; not evil and inhibiting in the organization’s striving for effectiveness.
  22. 22. Write a short note on:  Organizational culture. Organizational culture is the collection of values, expectations, and practices that guide and inform the actions of all team members. Think of it as the collection of traits that make your company what it is. A great culture exemplifies positive traits that lead to improved performance, while a dysfunctional company culture brings out qualities that can hinder even the most successful organizations. Don’t confuse culture with organizational goals or a mission statement, although both can help define it. Culture is created through consistent and authentic behaviors, not press releases or policy documents. You can watch company culture in action when you see how a CEO responds to a crisis, how a team adapts to new customer demands, or how a manager corrects an employee who makes a mistake. Organizational culture affects all aspects of your business, from punctuality and tone to contract terms and employee benefits. When workplace culture aligns with your employees, they’re more likely to feel more comfortable, supported, and valued. Companies that prioritize culture can also weather difficult times and changes in the business environment and come out stronger.
  23. 23. Culture is a key advantage when it comes to attracting talent and outperforming the competition. 77 percent of workers consider a company’s culture before applying, and almost half of employees would leave their current job for a lower-paying opportunity at an organization with a better culture. The culture of an organization is also one of the top indicators of employee satisfaction and one of the main reasons that almost two-thirds (65%) of employees stay in their job.  Organizational politics: Meaning of Organizational Politics: – Organizational politics are informal, unofficial, and sometimes behind efforts to sell ideas, influence an organization, increase power, or achieve other targeted objectives. Political behavior in organizations involves many activities such as spreading rumors, leaking confidant information, favoring others in the organization for mutual benefit. Organizational Politics is self-serving behavior not approved by the organization. It is also known as office politics and organizational politics. It involves the use of power and social networking within a workplace to achieve changes that benefit the organization or individuals within it.  The positive side of organizational politics is characterized by their analysis of the situation in terms of personal and organizational goals, open problem solving, and victory.  The downside of organizational politics is characterized by observing the situation in a win-win situation, keeping hidden agendas, advancing self- interest.  When people play politics, it causes controversy, conflict, tension, anxiety and uncertainty in the organization. Organizational politics has the following feature:–
  24. 24.  It’s purpose is personal gain arising from the use of power and not organizational gain.  It is a deliberate attempt to use politics as a source to broaden its power base.  It is not part of a person’s job requirement. It is used to benefit a person.  It may be legitimate or illegal mate political behavior.  Organizational communications: Organizational communication can be defined as a method of conveying and sharing information such as organizational goals, plans used to achieve those goals, policies, rules & regulations, and other trivial details. Informally, communication in an organization might take place in different ways, but, formally, each organization follows a particular communication method to convey information. Organizational communication is an integral part of every organization, and it plays an essential role in building a successful business. Communication in an organization affects the way people behave in the organization. Communication in an organization is a vital managerial component because the role of management is to make plans and give directions. People working in an organization, whether managers or employees who work at the front line, must be aware of how to behave to create the best working environment in the organization. Communication in an organization also shapes the way people behave in the organization. The behavior of people in the organization affects the way people motivate each other to achieve organizational goals. Organizational communication plays an essential role in the way people interact with one another in meetings. On the other hand, ineffective organizational communication results in misunderstanding, lack of coordination, and incompetence in the organization.
  25. 25. Therefore, it is essential to have effective communication in the organization to execute plans effectively and contribute to the organization’s success. Effective communication in an organization is so vital that nowadays, even recruiters look for communication skills as one of the primary skills in the people they want to hire. You will commonly find phrases such as business communication, corporate communication, or organizational communication skills in job advertisements.  Organizational change: Organizational Change looks both at the process in which a company or any organization changes its operational methods, technologies, organizational structure, whole structure, or strategies, as well as what effects these changes have on it. Organizational change usually happens in response to – or as a result of – external or internal pressures. It is all about reviewing and modifying structures – specifically management structures – and business processes. Small commercial enterprises need to adapt to survive against larger competitors. They also need to learn to thrive in that environment. Large rivals need to adapt rapidly when a smaller, innovative competitor comes onto the scene. To avoid falling behind, or to remain a step ahead of its rivals, a business must seek out ways to operate more efficiently. It must also strive to operate more cost effectively.
  26. 26. Ever since the advent of the Internet, the business environment today has been changing at a considerably faster pace compared to forty years ago. Organizational change is a requirement for any business that wants to survive and thrive. Explain the following principles underlying design of organizations:
  27. 27. Specialization: Specialization is a strategy developed by a business to focus on the production of a very limited range of products or services in order to gain maximum productivity, expertise and leadership in the targeted field. Companies that specialize say they get a better return on investment. It is the opposite of diversification – when a company spreads from its core activity into new areas. Specialization may also refer to regions of a country or even whole nations. Several countries around the world specialize in producing goods or delivering services that are native to their geographical area, and they import other goods and services. The term may also refer to an agreement within an organization, group or community under which the members most suited for a specific task or activity assume greater responsibility for its performance and execution. Police officers focus on maintaining law and order, doctors concentrate on keeping people healthy, accountants specialize in balancing the books, etc.
  28. 28. Specializations exist in every profession. In medicine you can become a pediatrician, a biologist can become an astrobiologist, while an accountant can specialize in corporate accounts, tax, etc. Specialization – division of labor
  29. 29. The division of labor refers to the separation of tasks in a community, organization or company so that workers or members may specialize. People, organizations and countries are blessed with or acquire specialized capabilities and either form combinations or trade to exploit those capabilities in others as well as their own. Adam Smith (1723-1790), a Scottish pioneer of political economy and moral philosopher, considered by many as the ‘father of modern economics’ wrote about the division of labor right at the beginning of his famous work – An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Meaning of Coordination: The purpose of organising, division of work, departmentation, span of management, centralisation and decentralisation, delegation of authority and organisation structure is to optimally achieve the organisational goals. This is possible if departments of the organisation are co-ordinated in a unified direction. Once the activities of the organisation are broken into smaller units which are re- grouped into departments (on the basis of similarity of features), managers need to coordinate the activities of these departments by communicating organisational goals to each department, setting departmental goals and linking the performance of each department with others so that all the departments collectively contribute towards the organisational goals. Coordination is “the process of linking the activities of various departments of the organisation.” It is “the process of integrating the objectives and activities of the separate units (departments or functional areas) of an organisation in order to achieve organisational goals efficiently.” Coordination is “integration of the activities of individuals and units into a concerted effort that works towards a common aim.” — Pearce and Robinson Co-ordination maintains unity of action amongst individuals and departments. Absence of co-ordination will result in sub-optimal attainment of goals. In extreme situations, it may result in losses and liquidation of companies.
  30. 30. Co-ordination harmonizes and balances conflicting opinions of individuals and departments, promotes group effort and directs their movement in a unified direction — the organisational goal. For example, if production department does not coordinate its activities with the sales department, production may be more or less than the required sales. Production more than sales will result in piling of stock and blocking up funds in inventory and production less than sales will result in loss of sales revenue and goodwill of the firm. Coordination, thus, facilitates smooth running of a business. Effective coordination is based on interdependence of organisational activities. It is based on systems approach to management which acknowledges that different departments of the organisation are interdependent (input of one is the output of other). It also assumes interdependence of organisation’s internal and external environment. The degree of coordination depends upon the degree of interdependence. More the interdependence (internal or external), more is the need for coordination and vice versa. If there is no interdependence amongst organisational activities, there is no need for coordination. This is known as systems approach to coordination. Coordination is the most basic and fundamental principle of organisation. It is “the orderly arrangement of group effort to provide unity of action in the pursuit of a common purpose. KNOWLEDGE AND COMPETENCE The core competence approach of strategy views the business in a particular way. For this approach business are open systems intermingling with their
  31. 31. environments to obtain resources and deliver outputs. As per this approach of strategy, the capacity of the business to build up core competences that are not acquired by its competitors and that generate recognizable profits for consumers form the basis of its superior performance. The business can create competitive advantage in both new and current markets as below:  By leveraging the presently available core competences  By building new competences  Through alliance relationships with suppliers, customers and also competitors The collective learning or knowledge of the organization forms the basis of its core competences. Knowledge In recent time the study of core competences has concentrated more on knowledge as its main aspect. In an organizational perspective, principles, facts, skills, and rules which update the organizational decision-making, behaviour and actions are regarded as knowledge. The organization’s activities, competences, products and services are founded on this knowledge. Also the capability of the organization to build up new knowledge, and thereby core competences, faster and more efficiently when compared to its competitors form the key for its competitive advantage. Competence The competence-competence principle, which recognizes the power of an arbitrator to determine his or her own jurisdiction under the arbitration agreement, is widely recognized in most jurisdictions around the world. However, the so-called “negative effect” of the principle - the notion that courts ought not to pronounce on the validity and scope of the arbitration agreement, which should first be determined by the arbitrator - is less widely and consistently accepted. In a case involving Uber Technologies Inc. and its related companies (Uber), the Supreme Court of Canada has re-affirmed the application of the
  32. 32. competence-competence principle to the vast majority of challenges to an arbitrator’s jurisdiction, including challenges based on the alleged invalidity of the arbitration agreement, but created a new and narrow exception where referral of a jurisdictional challenge to the arbitrator would effectively prevent access to arbitration Knowledge and Resource based Approach In the knowledge and resource-based approach to strategy, the point of concentration as the chief supply of competitive advantage is the business itself instead of the industry. The business which is capable of performing extraordinarily in a global market is able to do so as it has certain qualities which make them both distinguishable from and better than their competitors. Core competences of the business are these distinctive qualities. Core competences are certainly distinguishable for competences. While competences are Abilities acquired by all competitors in an industry form the competences where as core competences are acquired only by those who accomplish superior performance. Core competences have to be based on superior knowledge. For a good strategy for business it is important to know the elements of the core competences, details of the knowledge on which they are formed, creation and management of knowledge and lastly about, the knowledgeable deployment of the core competences. Under standing these aspects are essential to give proper strategic direction to the business. Control and commitment The larger shape of institutional change is always difficult to recognize when one stands right in the middle of it. Today, throughout American industry, a significant change is under way in long-established approaches to the organization and management of work. Although this shift in attitude and practice takes a wide
  33. 33. variety of company-specific forms, its larger shape—its overall pattern—is already visible if one knows where and how to look. Consider, for example, the marked differences between two plants in the chemical products division of a major U.S. corporation. Both make similar products and employ similar technologies, but that is virtually all they have in common. The first, organized by businesses with an identifiable product or product line, divides its employees into self-supervising 10- to 15-person work teams that are collectively responsible for a set of related tasks. Each team member has the training to perform many or all of the tasks for which the team is accountable, and pay reflects the level of mastery of required skills. These teams have received assurances that management will go to extra lengths to provide continued employment in any economic downturn. The teams have also been thoroughly briefed on such issues as market share, product costs, and their implications for the business. A recent management campaign to document an “airtight case” against employees who have excessive absenteeism or sub-par performance mirrors employees’ low morale and high distrust of management. A constant stream of formal grievances, violations of plant rules, harassment of supervisors, wildcat walkouts, and even sabotage has prevented the plant from reaching its productivity and quality goals and has absorbed a disproportionate amount of division staff time. Dealings with the union are characterized by contract negotiations on economic matters and skirmishes over issues of management control. At issue here is not so much age or unionization but two radically different strategies for managing a company’s or a factory’s work force, two incompatible views of what managers can reasonably expect of workers and of the kind of partnership they can share with them. For simplicity, I will speak of these profound differences as reflecting the choice between a strategy based on imposing control and a strategy based on eliciting commitment.
  34. 34. The “control” strategy. The traditional—or control-oriented—approach to work-force management took shape during the early part of this century in response to the division of work into small, fixed jobs for which individuals could be held accountable. The actual definition of jobs, as of acceptable standards of performance, rested on “lowest common denominator” assumptions about workers’ skill and motivation. To monitor and control effort of this assumed caliber, management organized its own responsibilities into a hierarchy of specialized roles buttressed by a top-down allocation of authority and by status symbols attached to positions in the hierarchy. The “commitment” strategy. Since the early 1970s, companies have experimented at the plant level with a radically different work-force strategy. The more visible pioneers—among them, General Foods at Topeka, Kansas; General Motors at Brookhaven, Mississippi; Cummins Engine at Jamestown, New York; and Procter & Gamble at Lima, Ohio— have begun to show how great and productive the contribution of a truly committed work force can be. For a time, all new plants of this sort were nonunion, but by 1980 the success of efforts undertaken jointly with unions— GM’s cooperation with the UAW at the Cadillac plant in Livonia, Michigan, for example—was impressive enough to encourage managers of both new and existing facilities to rethink their approach to the work force. Innovation and Adaptation: Innovation and adaptation have permitted humanity to not only survive but to reach new heights. Innovation led to the development of new tools, industrialization, computerization and untold scientific advancements, with both positive and negative consequences. Adaptation has involved, amongst others, design of warmer, lighter or even camouflages clothes and shoes, construction of sturdier structures and migration. Today, with billions of mouths to feed and the
  35. 35. risk that climate change will cause rapid and unprecedented impacts, the stakes are as high as ever and the need to innovate and adapt ever greater. Innovation In agriculture, innovation encompasses the successful development, transfer, adoption and diffusion of techniques and technologies to increase agricultural productivity. It is mediated by institutions (practices, norms, and policies), individuals or groups, and is specific to socio-economic and cultural contexts. Farmer innovations, in particular, are based on traditional knowledge as well as external knowledge (through agricultural extension, NGO projects) and take the form of informal experimentation or planned interventions. Agricultural innovation is not just about new technologies; it also encompasses new ways of doing things, (institutional changes), new perspectives (cognitive changes), and aiming for different goals (aspirational changes). Grassroots innovations have been found to be effective among farmers because they tend to develop locallyappropriate technologies that are suited to particular contexts. However, linking the successes of such innovations to existing policies is often difficult because they are typically informal, difficult to test or replicate, and not recorded in the way scientific experiments are. Whether an innovation will be adopted by others is difficult to predict. We try to address this gap by documenting innovations by farmers, assessing what has enabled these innovations, and exploring factors that have enabled diffusion of their innovation Adaptation: Simply put, adaptation is “the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects”. Adaptation actions can occur at different levels (individual, household, community, village, district, nation) and by several actors (NGOs, farmers, government officials). • The Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) or Farmer Science Centre, which assesses location-specific technology to improve cultivation and agricultural output through technology demonstrations and trainings.
  36. 36. • District-level horticulture and agriculture departments acknowledge and support farmers using innovative farming practices by providing relevant information on available government schemes, climate services, such as weather advisories, and advice on fertiliser dosage and pest management. • National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) provides credit support through a range of programmes covering subsidies, financial inclusion, development of farmer cooperatives etc. • Non-governmental organisations, such as Gram Vikas and MYRADA, play key roles in providing technical assistance and serving as knowledge brokers to facilitate capacity building at the grassroots level. To adapt, people must have the capacity to do so. This capacity to make adjustments in one’s practices, is called adaptive capacity. It can be in the form of technical capacity (e.g. developing drought-tolerant crop varieties), informational capacity (e.g. access to weather forecasts), and institutional capacity (e.g. having policies and processes to implement adaptation at multiple scales). Also critical is natural capacity (access to fertile soil and water for irrigation), social capacity (e.g. networks to rely upon during food shortages), financial capacity (credit facilities), and personal attributes (e.g. education). Team functioning: A team is a group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal. A team works as a whole together to achieve certain things. A team is usually located in the same setting as it is normally connected to a kind of organization, company, or community. Teams can meet in-person (directly face-to-face) or virtually when practicing their values and activities or duties. As defined by Professor Leigh Thompson of the Kellogg School of Management, "[a] team is a group of people who are interdependent with respect to information, resources, knowledge and skills and who seek to combine their efforts to achieve a common goal".[1]
  37. 37. Team members need to learn how to help one another, help other team members realize their true potential, and create an environment that allows everyone to go beyond their limitations.[4] A team becomes more than just a collection of people when a strong sense of mutual commitment creates synergy, thus generating performance greater than the sum of the performance of its individual members. One of the many ways for a business to organize employees is in teams. A team is made up of two or more people who work together to achieve a common goal. Teams offer an alternative to a vertical chain-of-command and are a much more inclusive approach to business organization, Teams are becoming more common in the business world today. Effective teams can lead to an increase in employee motivation and business productivity. The team can be defined by following ways too:  A group of people who compete in a sport, game, etc., against another group.  A group of people who work together.  A group of two or more animals used to pull a wagon, cart, etc.
  38. 38.  A number of persons forming one of the sides in a game or contest.  A number of persons associated in some joint action: a team of experts. Team decision making: Group or team decision making can often be problematic, depending on the personalities and agendas of those involved, and the types of decisions you’re needing to make. Drawing on a varied, diverse range of expertise can support your team reaching a better decision, but there can be challenges in trying to get people in the same “room” (in person or virtually) and reaching an agreement. We’ve seen the power of using Loomio to make group decisions, and wanted to share some common decision making techniques you can deploy offline, or online, using a tool like ours to land on the best possible outcome. Common group decision making techniques Team decision making, whether you’re a board, professional services firm, or a nonprofit organisation is complex. The degree to which your organisation is willing to make collective decisions will differ depending on the type of decisions needing to be made and organisational culture. We’ll outline some common techniques used amongst boards, senior leaders and volunteer organisations the world over - which technique will resonate best with your team, and deliver quality decisions, every time? 1. Brainstorming Not uncommon to most organisations, brainstorming allows a free flowing range of ideas and alternatives to be generated by a group or team. This is a quantity versus quality approach, as these initial ideas or thought starters are not necessarily a final decision, but may guide the group to reach one. In general, steps should be taken to:  Accept all ideas from the group, without judgement  Build on the ideas of others
  39. 39.  Ensure a level playing field, regardless of a contributor’s role in the organisation  Listen to everyone invited to participate  Record ideas for further discussion By producing a high volume of ideas, from a wide range of participants, you should produce a diverse pool of concepts and actions that aren’t influenced by the strong opinions of one or two individuals. If you feel that some of your team will be unwilling to participate in a traditional meeting environment, you may want to consider a “digital brainstorming” solution, like Loomio. This will allow multiple people to suggest ideas at the same time, at their own pace, and remove any of the common anxiety and confidence barriers that can exist by sharing ideas in a group setting. 2. Nominal Group Technique The Nominal Group Technique provides a way for people to put forward their ideas or arguments in a private way, and evaluate those ideas to reach a final team decision. Generally, a Nominal Group decision would ensure:  Ideas are submitted in writing, individually  Each member has the opportunity to present their ideas to the group and provide further detail  The group will then discuss the ideas presented and privately vote on the presented options  A decision is made based on the majority vote, or may continue with another cycle of voting once the most popular ideas are established. This structured process tends to encourage timely, efficient decision making, and removes any unhelpful and time consuming digressions or debates. Group members can feel more accountable for taking a position and presenting their ideas to the wider group. The turn taking element allows everyone to have an equal say on the matter and avoids quick agreement on an issue until all voices are heard. Although effective, this technique can limit creativity of ideas.
  40. 40. A digital tool like Loomio can be useful supporting the sharing of ideas, and transparent voting on the options available. 3. The Delphi Technique If it’s difficult to assemble your team members, then this technique could be useful for your organisation. Led by a non participating coordinator, a group’s ideas are collated, reviewed and revised without anyone formally meeting. Typically, the Delphi Technique is deployed by:  Email questionnaires sent by and collated by a coordinator  Ideas are submitted in writing, individually  Coordinator summarises ideas and distributes them back to the team anonymously  Team members are provided the opportunity to refine ideas and comments on pros and cons of other’s ideas  The coordinator continues this process until ideas are finalised and no further input is received  Sometimes, a clear decision will emerge from this process, but team members may be asked to vote on the clear favourites. The anonymous contributions in this process seek to provide team member accountability, reduce anxiety and eliminate biases from dominant group members. Removing the need to schedule meetings can also fast track the decision making process. Premature decisions aren’t made before all ideas are shared with the group. Traditionally this decision making technique has been lengthy, but employing digital tools to support the decision making process, especially around the feedback loop and voting process if required can certainly streamline the technique. 4. The Stepladder Technique Similar to the Nominal Group and Delphi methods, the Stepladder Technique ensures that ideas are provided by a group, and evaluated. However, this method
  41. 41. staggers the entry of team members to make a decision and a final decision is made collaboratively as a group. Starting with two people who assess the problem or issue. Then one more member is added to the decision making team to present their ideas and discuss the issues. Members then continue to be added one at a time until everyone has become part of the discussion. They then work together to get an outcome, or decision. Key factors to bear in mind include:  Allowing team members adequate time to consider the problem  New group members have the opportunity to speak first, before other’s ideas are presented  Discussion time for new ideas must be allowed for  Final solutions must wait until all group members are on board The structure of this process allows similar positives to other team decision making techniques: team member accountability and eliminating biases from dominant group members. It also prevents decisions being made too hastily before everyone has a chance to participate. The feeling of collective decision making is often reported with this technique, as is high quality decision making. Using a digital tool such as Loomio can help support the Stepladder Technique. Setting up closed Threads or Groups, then slowly inviting more team members, can assist the step by step ideation of this approach. It can also ensure that all information is being captured in one place, and is transparent to the decision making team. If these common group decision making techniques don’t appeal, there are some simple strategies you can apply to get the best quality decision making from your team. Try these tips in your next Limo decision thread. 1. Keep your groups smaller for important decisions - large groups tend to make biased decisions based on others in the group, 2. Ensure your group has a diverse range of experience and opinions - generally diverse ideas generate better outcomes,
  42. 42. 3. Use a devil’s advocate - having someone actively challenge the ideas of others can ensure you’re making the right decisions for the right reasons, 4. Gather individual opinions before sharing with a wider group - this can reduce bias in a group situation, 5. Providing a safe place to speak out - you won’t generate good ideas without a safe place to share them (constructive criticism is key), 6. Experts don’t necessarily make the best decision makers - they can be part of your decision making process but shouldn’t hold the only opinion, 7. Collective responsibility - the final outcome and decision making process should feel like everyone’s journey. Team Conflict A team is formed when more than one person is involved and work according to the norms set by the organization. When more than one person with the heterogeneous nature comes together, there is always the possibility for conflict to take birth. Conflict in an organization arises when there is a difference in ideologies, beliefs, experience, skills, viewpoints, circumstances, rules, methods of working and so on. All these come under sources of conflict. Conflict in teams arises when there’s a lack of agreement amongst two or more team members. They can take the form of arguments, problematic relationships, negative behaviors, or even aggressive actions
  43. 43. Conflicts in an organization are the main cause of bad working, management, etc. If in an organization, the working and management system will not work according to norms then the company’s goals and profits are affected. So, to avoid this situation in an organization, the conflicts must be dealt by the leader as soon as possible. The leader should possess some effective conflict resolution skills for resolving team conflict at work. So, What is Conflict Resolution? Conflicts within an organization should not be ignored instead one should complain, blame or should even deal with it with common strategies of compromise or negotiation.
  44. 44. One should understand and go in depth of the matter and then should solve it step wise step by maintaining a healthy balance within the employers and in the organization. So this is called conflict resolution in the workplace. 12 Team Conflict Resolution Techniques: Workplace conflicts arises due to many reasons. Let’s have a look at few workplace conflict resolution strategies on how to resolve conflict in a team: 1. Refer the conflict in depth: This is the initial step to resolve the conflict in workplace. The head or the leader should refer the conflict in teams by going in depth of it, so that the reason is known behind the matter. The head should discuss the matter with other team members and then after thorough discussion one should start the conflict resolution process. Referring the conflict at work means to have a view or an overview of the matter that what exactly has happened. This should be done as soon as possible because if the issue is not seen or taken into account within the time, the conflict rises to a larger extent. It ultimately affects the working, pace and the organization on the whole.
  45. 45. 2. See its impact, cooperation needed: After referring the conflict, see its impact on the working and performance. Then discuss it with the team members. After the team members know about the conflict, they should start the process of resolving it after reaching the consensus. At this point, the need for cooperation is vital because if every member of the team will cooperate only then the work on the resolution of conflict will commence. Seeing the impact will help the members to know in which manner the problem should be solved and by using what kind of strategy. Sometimes, the issue is small and its impact too, but the strategy used to resolve the issue is lengthy, and then it wastes time as well as the money. So, to prevent such wastage of time as well as the money, one should evaluate the impact properly. 3. Communicate: Communicating throughout the resolution is necessary. The communication should be kept open. The team members should talk about the issue openly that too with active participation. In order to communicate well, one must be a good listener. Listen to what others say and then respond accordingly, but in accordance with the discussion and resolution. Etc etc,,,
  46. 46. Problem Solving Teams: Problem-solving team, which is a team from the same department or functional area that’s involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems. Members share ideas or offer suggestions on how work processes and methods can be improved. Problem-solving team is the temporary combination of workers who gather to solve ... A team of people collected to deal with a task that includes settling at least one issues that have just emerged or to manage issues as they emerge. In a business setting, a critical thinking group will normally be shaped temporarily casing joining staff from various hierarchical levels with different significant ranges of abilities. Critical thinking Teams is a program that unites key line chiefs to take care of ongoing task issues with the assistance of a facilitator. It is the missing connection among learning and doing. Authoritative structure framed by laborers who offer thoughts or offer recommendations on the most proficient method to improve working procedures and strategies. Critical thinking groups assume a significant job concerning association inspected and identified with elements of critical thinking groups.
  47. 47. Theproblemsolvingactivitiesare: The success of a company or organization depends heavily on the managers’ ability to help workers develop their problem solving skills. Problem solving activities that address areas such as teamwork and cooperation, adaptability or reinforcement of decision-making strategies help. All processes of problem solving begin with the identification of the problem. The team will then evaluate the possible course of action and select the best way to tackle it. This needs a profound understanding of your team and its core strengths.
  48. 48. Not only among corporates, but problem solving activities find their use in educational settings as well. Students who are good at solving problems will become much more successful than those who are not. Remote work and education are on the rise. Enabling smooth interpersonal communication to solve problems can become a task in these situations. However, engaging all the people concerned in problem solving activities before shifting to the remote space can ease the process. THE END