What is Photo-Realism?<br />Evolved from Pop Art movement and was a response to the flowing brush strokes and explosion of paint that was Abstract Expressionism. Photo realist relied extensively on photographic reference to compose and execute their works.<br />Began in the late 1960’s in North America.<br />Other names for Photorealism can be Super, Hyper, Sharp focus, or New Realism, <br />There are two main types of Photorealism: Sculpture and Painting.<br />Focused on capturing life exactly as is and using precision.<br />
Techniques of Photorealism and defining qualities<br />
Sculpture<br /> Sculptures are made through a complicated process of casting from a live model, and recreating it in bronze fiber glass resin.<br />The fiber glass model is then painted to look as life like as possible. Veins, eyelashes, bruises, hangnails/nails and common human flaws are added.<br />Tiny Hairs are added to the arms and real hair wigs are added to the heads. The eyes are made out of glass balls, and fake teeth are used in mouths to make them look like real people.<br />Accessories and real clothing is then put on the sculptures.<br />
Painting<br />The artist picks out a photo that is transferred to the canvas by mechanical means. Artist can use a projector, the grid method, or transfer paper.<br />The artist then paints the copied photograph exactly as pictured. Detail and precision are extremely important. The goal is for the viewer to find it hard to differentiate the painting from a photograph.<br /> The paintings are built in many layers: beginning with the under paint, after this thin layers of glazes continue to be added.<br /> A final layer of varnish is added which seals the painting, makes it appear to be photographic.<br />
TIME PERIOD<br />Emerged in the wake of the Vietnam War and the United States humiliating withdrawal beginning in 1973.<br />1970’s Americans began to lose confidence in their government mainly during Nixon’s presidency.<br />Oil embargo resulted in the quadrupling of oil prices in 1973<br />Watergate scandal- forced Nixon’s resignation<br />Commercial success<br />Creation of realistic video games and devices<br />
ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM<br />mid 1940’s<br />Photorealist emerged the movement of Abstract Expressionism.<br /> They did not like the large sweeping brush strokes and vivid motion that Abstract Expressionism used instead they wanted to create an image that was very precise and less personal. <br />
MINIMALISM<br /> Like Photorealism it was a reaction against Abstract expressionism<br />Photo realists wanted to contract this movement.<br />It was very basic and fundamental<br />Used simplistic and geometric shapes<br />Beauty of natural patterns<br />Natural surfaces<br />Plain<br />
Ralph Goings<br />Born May 9, 1928, California<br />Attended California College of Arts and Crafts<br />Began painting in 1966<br />Felt that the painted image is more important than the reality or the photo image.<br />Photograph is not the subject, but merely a source of information that must be translated into paint information.<br />
Duane Hanson<br />Born in Minnesota during 1925 and died 1996<br />Taught art to high school students then moved on to pursue art with a degree in 1951<br />First exhibits where of brutal scenes<br />While studying he had several French realists he admired<br />Main medium was sculpture<br />
Chuck Close <br />Born July 5, 1940, Monroe, Washington, U.S.<br /> noted for his highly inventive techniques used to paint the human face. He is best known for his large-scale, Photo-Realist portraits.<br />He lost his dad at age 10<br />Started painting at a young age because of inspiration from Jackson Pollock<br />Had a seizure in 1988 and was paralyzed from the neck down. He still paints today with with assistance. <br />
Audrey Flack<br />Born 1931 and went to an art/music school in New York<br />First identified herself as an abstract expressionist<br />As an artist at first she felt treated like a sex object because she was a woman.<br />She was rebellious<br />First photo-realist to have a piece displayed (1966 modern art museum)<br />
Criticisms of Photorealism<br />They fail to hold much interest beyond the way they were painted.<br />Could just be taken by cameras and shows no talent<br />Not creative or unique<br />Satirical and cruel<br />
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