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43. soil amendments and fertilizers by allah dad khan

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43. soil amendments and fertilizers by allah dad khan

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43. soil amendments and fertilizers by allah dad khan

  1. 1. Soil Amendments and Fertilizers  What is a soil amendment and what is a fertilizer?  Soil amendment – is a material that primarily adds _________________ matter to the soil  Organic matter important for soil organisms  Does contain nutrients needed by plants  Fertilizer – is a material that primarily adds _________________ to the soil  Some fertilizers may contain organic matter  May not have all the nutrients that plants need
  2. 2. Soil Amendments  The impact of soil amendments on the soil and vegetable plants is dependent on the amount of ____________ and nitrogen in the amendment  Carbon to nitrogen ratio  Normal carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in soils is about _____:_____  Adding organic matter alters this ratio  Problem  Materials with too ___________ a C:N ratio will tie up nitrogen making it unavailable for vegetable plants  Soil organism use the carbon as an energy source and the nitrogen for ________________
  3. 3. Soil amendments  Examples  _______________  Is a living culture of organic matter similar to yogurt  Rule: anything that is entirely organic in origin can be composted  Peat ____________  Sawdust  C:N ratio of 450:1  Green manures
  4. 4. Soil amendments – Green manures Introduction  _____________ manures – are rapidly growing plants that are incorporated into the soil before planting the vegetables  Advantages  Can supply ____________ to the vegetable plant  Some green manures are legumes  _____________ loss of nutrients  Makes plant nutrients available to the vegetable crop  Improves the ___________
  5. 5. Soil amendments  What is a legume?
  6. 6. Soil amendments  What is a legume?  It is a plant that has nodules on their roots which contain ___________________ bacteria  The bacteria are able to convert nitrogen in the air into a form that plants can use  Were used as a ____________ source before synthetic fertilizers were widely available
  7. 7. Soil amendments - Cover crops  Cover crops – are plants that are rapidly growing and after they die they are left on the soil surface  Purpose  Protect the soil from _______________  Tie-up nutrients  Prevent ____________ growth  Cover crops are most commonly fall-seeded  Examples of plants used  Cereal ______________  _______________ vetch
  8. 8. Soil amendments/ Fertilizers Animal manures  Are intermediate between a soil amendment and a fertilizer  Vary greatly in their ___________ composition  Caused by:  Animal  Feed used  Type of litter or bedding  Degree of composting or decomposition  Must be _________________ before use
  9. 9. Animal Manures  Problems with manures  May contain harmful or undesirable contaminants  _________ and other harmful bacteria may be in fresh manure  Manures are _________ in nutrients compared to synthetic fertilizers  The most common commercially available types of manures  ____________ manure  Chicken (Poultry) manure
  10. 10. Animal manures
  11. 11. Table: Typical Composition of Manures Source _____ P2O5 K2O Alfalfa hay _____ 0.5 2.1 Cow manure 0.6-2.1 0.7-1.1 2.4-3.6 Composition (% Dry Matter)
  12. 12. Fertilizers Introduction  Plants take up the same nutrients whichever category of fertilizer is used  Several categories of fertilizers  ____________ versus synthetic  Rapid versus slow _____________  Solid versus liquid
  13. 13. Organic Fertilizers  Advantages  Nutrients are released ________________  May improve the taste of the vegetable  Nutrients are less likely to leach  May benefit the soil microorganisms  Problems  Are low in potassium  “Semi-organic” or “________________ based”  Cost per unit of nutrient
  14. 14. Organic Fertilizers  Rapid release forms of plant nutrients  Most of the plant nutrients are available soon after application of the fertilizer  Most organic examples are general compound fertilizers contain a number of ________ nutrients
  15. 15. Organic Fertilizers – Rapid release  Animal byproducts  Source are processing plants or slaughterhouses  Include  Dried ________  Fish meal  _________ meal
  16. 16. Organic Fertilizers – Rapid release  Bone meal  Excellent source of phosphorus and _____________  Problem  Might transmit diseases  Mad cow  ____________  No evidence that has occurred
  17. 17. Organic Fertilizers  Slow release  Are either plant byproducts or ground rock materials  Release nutrients over a growing season or more  Examples  _______________ meal  Rock __________  Greensand
  18. 18. Organic Fertilizers  Slow release  Plant byproducts  _________ meal  Rich in minor nutrients  Contains 60 to 70 different chemical compounds
  19. 19. Organic Fertilizers  Rock phosphate  A finely ground natural rock powder  There are two kinds:  Hard rock phosphate  __________ phosphate  Potassium  Rock potash (greensand)  Wood ashes  Are very ____________
  20. 20. Organic Fertilizers  Liquid fertilizers  Fertilizer nutrients are dissolved in __________  Advantages  Easy to apply  The nutrients are available immediately  Problems  Can injure plants  Easy to over apply  May ______________ or contaminate surface waters  Organic Examples  ________________ teas  Manure teas  Seaweed extract
  21. 21. Typical Composition of Some Organic Fertilizers Fertilizer N P2O5 K2O Blood 13.0 2.0 1.0 Bone meal _____ 15.0 ---- Fish meal 10.0 6.0 ---- Greensan d ---- ---- ____ Composition (% Dry Weight)
  22. 22. Synthetic Fertilizers Introduction  Many “_________________” fertilizers are derived from natural deposits  The nutrients are concentrated  Converted into a form that is readily available in the soil
  23. 23. Synthetic Fertilizers  Advantages  Easy to apply  ________________  Are readily available  Disadvantages  May easily be over-applied  Can lead to ___________ build-up  May have adverse effects on soil organisms  Can be leached from __________ zone
  24. 24. Synthetic Fertilizers  Nitrogen fertilizer  Most important component of synthetic fertilizers  Synthesized from nitrogen in the air  Offshoot of World War II ammunition production  Production is very _________________ intensive  Forms of nitrogen fertilizer  Ammonia  _____________  Urea

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