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General research methodology mpharm

  2. Table of contents  Introduction  Definition  Objective  Requirements of research  Practical difficulties  Review of literature  Study design  Types of studies
  3. Introduction The term ‘RESEARCH’ consists of two words: RESEARCH= RE+SEARCH ‘RE’ means again and again ‘SEARCH’ means to find out something Following in the process observes collection of data again and again analysis of data Person phenomena conclusions
  4. Definitions  Research methods: All those methods/techniques that are used for conduction of research. Research methods or techniques, thus, refer to the methods the researchers use in performing research operations.  Research methodology: It is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically.
  5. Definition of research  Research refers to a search for knowledge. A scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. “A careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.” The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English “Systematized effort to gain new knowledge” Redman and Mory.  Research is a process of manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in the construction of theory or in the practice of an art” Slesinger and Stephenson in Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences. The search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is “research
  6. Type of Research  Descriptive  Analytical  Applied  Fundamental  Quantitative  Qualitative  Conceptual  Empirical
  7. Objectives of Research:  To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies).  To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies).  To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies)  To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis testing research studies)
  8. Research process Formulation the research problem Extensive literature survey Development of a working hypothesis Preparing the research design Determining the sample design Collection of data Execution of project Analysis of data Hypothesis testing Generalization and interpretation of data Preperation of research report
  9. Criteria of Good Research  Purpose should be clearly defined.  Research Process (source of data etc.) should be described in sufficient detail (except when secrecy is required).  There is a clear statement of research aims, which defines the research question.  Design (Sampling, questionnaire, observation etc) should be thoroughly planned so as to yield objective results.  High ethical standards.  Limitations should be frankly revealed (e.g. flaws in design) so that the decision maker is made aware.  Analysis of data should be adequate and methods of analysis appropriate. Should check for reliabilityand validity, and probability of error  Unambiguous presentation  Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of the research.
  10. Good research  Systematic  Logical  Empirical  Replicable
  11. Significance of research  To those students who are to write a master’s or ph. D thesis research may mean a careerism or a way to attain a high position in the social structure.  To professional in research methodology, research may mea a source of livelihood.  To philosophers and thinker research may mean the outlet for new ideas and insights.  To literary man and women ,research may mean the development of new styles and creative work.  To analysts and intellectuals, research may mean the generalisations of new theories.
  12. Requirement  Sources of problems  Review of Literature  Formulation of hypothesis  Research design
  13. Source of Problems  Reading  Academic Experience  Daily Experience  Exposure to Field Situations  Consultations  Brainstorming  Research  Intuition
  14. Process involved in defining the problem  The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria.  Internal / Personal criteria – Researcher’s Interest, Researcher’s Competence, Researcher’s own Resource: finance and time.  External Criteria or Factors – Research ability of the problem, Importance and Urgency, Novelty of the Problem, Feasibility, Facilities, Usefulness and Social Relevance, Research Personnel.
  15. Cont. Problem definition or Problem statement is a clear, precise and succinct statement of the question or issue that is to be investigated with the goal of finding an answer or solution. There are two ways of stating a problem: 1) Posting question / questions 2) Making declarative statement.
  16. Understanding the nature of problem  Surveying the available literature  Understanding the nature of problem  Surveying the available literature  Developing ideas through discussions  Rephrasing the research problem
  17. Review of Literature Literature Review is the documentation of a comprehensive review of the published and unpublished work from secondary sources of data in the areas of specific interest to the researcher. The main aim is to find out problems that are already investigated and those that need further investigation. It is an extensive survey of all available past studies relevant to the field of investigation. It gives us knowledge about what others have found out in the related field of study and how they have done so.
  18. Purpose of Review  To gain a background knowledge of the research topic.  To identify the concepts relating to it, potential relationships between them and to formulate researchable hypothesis.  To identify appropriate methodology, research design, methods of measuring concepts and techniques of analysis.  To identify data sources used by other.
  19. Sources of literature  Books and Journals  Electronic Databases  Bibliographic Databases  Abstract Databases  Full-Text Databases  Govt. and Industry Reports  Internet  Research Dissertations / Thesis
  20. How to write the review?  There are several ways of presenting the ideas of others within the body of the paper.  For Example; If you are referring the major influencing factors in the Sheth’s model of Industrial Buying Behaviour, it can be written as, Sheth (1973, p-50) has suggested that, there are a number of influencing factors  According to Sheth (1973) model of industrial buying behaviour. 1) In some models of industrial buying behaviour, there are a number of influencing factors (Sheth, 1973). 2) In some models of industrial buying behaviour, there are a number of influencing factors1. 1. Sheth J.N (1973), A Model of Industrial Buying Behaviour, Journal of Marketing, 37(4), 50-56.
  21. Points to be kept in mind while reviewing literature  Read relevant literature.  Refer original works.  Read with comprehension.  Read in time.  Index the literature.
  22. Study design  The study design should be appropriately selected prior to initiation of any research investigation.  Selecting an inappropriate study design may potentially undermine the validity of a study in its entirety.  Investigators are encouraged to critically think about the possible study designs to ensure that the research question is adequately addressed and should be able to adequately justify their choice.  These study designs have been variously classified and one common classification system is quantitative vs. qualitative study designs.  Study designs play a major role in determining the scientific value of research studies. .
  23. Type of study Research design Exploratory of formulative Descriptive /diagnostic Overall design Flexible design (design must provide opportunity for considering different aspects of the problem ) Rigid design (design must make enough provision for protection against bias and must maximise reliability) 1. Sampling design 2. Statistical design 3. Observational design 4. Operational design Non-probability sampling design . No pre-planned design for analysis. Unstructured instruments for collection of data. No fixed decisions about the operational procedures Probability sampling design . Pre-planned design for analysis. Structured or well thought out instrument for collection of data. Advanced decisions about operational procedures.
  24. Reference 1. C.R. Kothari, Research Methodology- Methods and techniques, 2nd revised edition, New age international publishers, page no.1-54. 2. John W. Best, James V. Kahn, Research in Education, 7th edition ,1995, Prentice hall of India, Page no. 1-61. Sandra Poncet, Research Methodology 2: Writing a good research paper, Semester 1, Academic year, 2012- 2013. 3. Getu DeguTegbar Yigzaw, Research Methodology, In collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center, the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education, 2006. 4. Principles of good research and research proposal guide, Prepared by the Policy, Performance and Quality Assurance Unit (Adults) Tamsin White, March 2006.