Table of contents
Requirements of research
Review of literature
Types of studies
The term ‘RESEARCH’ consists of two words:
‘RE’ means again and again ‘SEARCH’ means to find out something
Following in the process
observes collection of data
again and again analysis of data
Person phenomena conclusions
All those methods/techniques that are used for conduction of
research. Research methods or techniques, thus, refer to the
methods the researchers use in performing research operations.
It is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be
understood as a science of studying how research is done
Definition of research
Research refers to a search for knowledge. A scientific and
systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In
fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. “A careful
investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in
any branch of knowledge.” The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary
of Current English “Systematized effort to gain new knowledge”
Redman and Mory.
Research is a process of manipulation of things, concepts or
symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or
verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in the
construction of theory or in the practice of an art” Slesinger and
Stephenson in Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences. The search for
knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding
solution to a problem is “research
Type of Research
Objectives of Research:
To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights
into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory
or formulative research studies).
To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual,
situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known
as descriptive research studies).
To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with
which it is associated with something else (studies with this object
in view are known as diagnostic research studies)
To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables
(such studies are known as hypothesis testing research studies)
Criteria of Good Research
Purpose should be clearly defined.
Research Process (source of data etc.) should be described in
sufficient detail (except when secrecy is required).
There is a clear statement of research aims, which defines the
Design (Sampling, questionnaire, observation etc) should be
thoroughly planned so as to yield objective results.
High ethical standards.
Limitations should be frankly revealed (e.g. flaws in design) so
that the decision maker is made aware.
Analysis of data should be adequate and methods of analysis
appropriate. Should check for reliabilityand validity, and
probability of error
Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of
Significance of research
To those students who are to write a master’s or ph. D
thesis research may mean a careerism or a way to attain a
high position in the social structure.
To professional in research methodology, research may
mea a source of livelihood.
To philosophers and thinker research may mean the
outlet for new ideas and insights.
To literary man and women ,research may mean the
development of new styles and creative work.
To analysts and intellectuals, research may mean the
generalisations of new theories.
Source of Problems
Exposure to Field Situations
Process involved in defining the problem
The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the
identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives
against certain criteria.
Internal / Personal criteria – Researcher’s Interest, Researcher’s
Competence, Researcher’s own Resource: finance and time.
External Criteria or Factors – Research ability of the problem,
Importance and Urgency, Novelty of the Problem, Feasibility,
Facilities, Usefulness and Social Relevance, Research Personnel.
Problem definition or Problem statement is a clear, precise
and succinct statement of the question or issue that is to be
investigated with the goal of finding an answer or solution.
There are two ways of stating a problem:
1) Posting question / questions
2) Making declarative statement.
Understanding the nature of problem
Surveying the available literature
Understanding the nature of problem
Surveying the available literature
Developing ideas through discussions
Rephrasing the research problem
Review of Literature
Literature Review is the documentation of a
comprehensive review of the published and
unpublished work from secondary sources of data in
the areas of specific interest to the researcher.
The main aim is to find out problems that are already
investigated and those that need further investigation. It
is an extensive survey of all available past studies
relevant to the field of investigation. It gives us
knowledge about what others have found out in the
related field of study and how they have done so.
Purpose of Review
To gain a background
knowledge of the research
To identify the concepts relating
to it, potential relationships
between them and to formulate
To identify appropriate
methodology, research design,
methods of measuring concepts
and techniques of analysis.
To identify data sources used by
Sources of literature
Books and Journals
Govt. and Industry Reports
Research Dissertations / Thesis
How to write the review?
There are several ways of presenting the ideas of others within
the body of the paper.
For Example; If you are referring the major influencing
factors in the Sheth’s model of Industrial Buying Behaviour, it
can be written as,
Sheth (1973, p-50) has suggested that, there are a number of
According to Sheth (1973) model of industrial buying
1) In some models of industrial buying behaviour, there are a
number of influencing factors (Sheth, 1973).
2) In some models of industrial buying behaviour, there are a
number of influencing factors1. 1. Sheth J.N (1973), A
Model of Industrial Buying Behaviour, Journal of
Marketing, 37(4), 50-56.
Points to be kept in mind while reviewing
Read relevant literature.
Refer original works.
Read with comprehension.
Read in time.
Index the literature.
The study design should be appropriately selected prior to
initiation of any research investigation.
Selecting an inappropriate study design may potentially
undermine the validity of a study in its entirety.
Investigators are encouraged to critically think about the possible
study designs to ensure that the research question is adequately
addressed and should be able to adequately justify their choice.
These study designs have been variously classified and one
common classification system is quantitative vs. qualitative study
Study designs play a major role in determining the scientific
value of research studies.
Type of study
Research design Exploratory of
Overall design Flexible design (design must
provide opportunity for
considering different aspects
of the problem )
Rigid design (design must
make enough provision for
protection against bias and
must maximise reliability)
1. Sampling design
2. Statistical design
No pre-planned design for
for collection of data.
No fixed decisions about the
Pre-planned design for
Structured or well thought
out instrument for
collection of data.
Advanced decisions about
1. C.R. Kothari, Research Methodology- Methods and
techniques, 2nd revised edition, New age international
publishers, page no.1-54.
2. John W. Best, James V. Kahn, Research in Education,
7th edition ,1995, Prentice hall of India, Page no. 1-61.
Sandra Poncet, Research Methodology 2: Writing a
good research paper, Semester 1, Academic year, 2012-
3. Getu DeguTegbar Yigzaw, Research Methodology, In
collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training
Initiative, The Carter Center, the Ethiopia Ministry of
Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education, 2006.
4. Principles of good research and research proposal
guide, Prepared by the Policy, Performance and
Quality Assurance Unit (Adults) Tamsin White, March