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Shaper & planer machines

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Shaper & Planer Machine | Types | Operations | Applications

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Shaper & planer machines

  1. 1. Shaper & Planer Machines Machine Tools & Machining Mechanical Engineering D e p a r t m e n t University of Engineering & Technology Lahore
  2. 2. Presented By: Ali Raza 2017-ME-516
  3. 3. SHAPER MACHINES
  4. 4. Table of Contents  Shaper Machine  Labeled Diagram  Working Principle  Quick Return Motion Mechanism  Classification  Operations  Parts  Advantages  Disadvantages  Applications
  5. 5. Shaper Machine • Shaper Machine  The Shaper Machine is a reciprocating type of machine tool basically used to produce Horizontal, Vertical or Inclined flat surfaces by means of straight-line reciprocating single-point cutting tools similar to those which is used in lathe operation.  The flat surface produced maybe horizontal, vertical or inclined at an angle.
  6. 6. Labelled Diagram
  7. 7. Working Principle Shaper machine is working on the following principle: • A shaper machine holds the Single point cutting tool in ram and workpiece is fixed over the table. • The ram holding the tool reciprocates over the workpiece and metal is cut during the forward stroke called a cutting stroke • No metal is cut during its return stroke is called an Idle stroke. • •The feed is given at the end of the cutting stroke. • •Generally, the cutting stroke is carried out at slows peed and the idle stroke is carried at high speed with the help of quick return mechanism.
  8. 8. QUICK RETURN MOTION MECHANISM  In the forward stroke, the slider moves fast and removing the material from the workpiece. Whereas in the return stroke, the slider moves faster than the return stroke that means Quick return, it takes less time to return, called a return stroke. This mechanism is called Quick return Motion Mechanism.
  9. 9. Classification of Shaper Machines 1. Based on the type of driving mechanism different shaping machines are;  Crank type (Example: Quick return Motion Mechanism)  Geared type shaper  Hydraulic shaper machine 2. Based on Ram travel types of Shaper machines:  Horizontal Shaper  Vertical Shaper
  10. 10. Classification of Shaper Machines 1. Based on table design type shaping machines are;  Standard or Plain Shaper  Universal Shaper 2. Based on Ram travel types of Shaper machines:  Push type Shaper Machine  Draw type Shaper Machine
  11. 11. Universal Shaper Machine • This machine is similar to plain shaper expect that the table can be tilted at various angle making it possible to inclined flat surface • The table can be swivelled about 360 degree
  12. 12. Standard or Plain Shaper Machine • In this machine the table has only two motions • Crosswise in the horizontal plain and vertical movement (up and down) • The table is not provided with a swivelling motion
  13. 13. Operations Performed on Shaper • There are four types of operations 1. Horizontal Cutting 2. Vertical Cutting 3. Inclined cutting 4. Irregular cutting
  14. 14. Parts of Shaper Machine 1. Base 2. Column 3. Cross rail 4. Saddle 5. Table Ram 6. Tool Head
  15. 15. Parts : Tool Head Tool head consist of 1. Apron 2. Clapper box and clapper block
  16. 16. Advantages of Shaper Machine  The single point tool used is inexpensive or we can say low tooling cost.  The cutting stroke having a definite stopping point.  The work can be held easily in the shaper machine.  The set up is very quick and easy and also can be readily changed from one job to another job.
  17. 17. Disadvantages of Shaper Machine  By nature, it is a slow machine because of its straight-line forward and returns stroke the single point cutting tool requires Several strokes to complete a work. (its are slow)  The cutting speed is not usually very high speed of reciprocating motion due to high inertia force developed in the motion of the units and components of the machine
  18. 18. Applications of Shaper Machine  To generate straight and flat surfaces.  Smooth rough surfaces.  Make internal splines.  Make gear teeth.  To make dovetail slides.  Make key ways in pullies or gears.  Machining of die, punches, straight and curved slots.
  19. 19. PLANER MACHINES
  20. 20. Table of Contents  Planer Machine  Working Principle  Quick Return Motion Mechanism  Working  Parts  Mechanism  Operations  Types  Advantages  Disadvantages  Applications
  21. 21. PLANER MCHINE  A planer is a machine tool primarily designed to produce planes and flat surfaces by a single-point cutting tool.  A planer machine is just like a shaper machine but, it is very large and massive and it is capable of machining heavy jobs which can’ t be done by the shaper.
  22. 22. WORKING PRINCIPLE The working principle of the planer machine is the same as the shaper machine which is a Quick return motion mechanism. While the Workpiece moving forward the forward stokes complete and while it moving back there turn stroke complete. In a forward stroke, the material is cut and in backward no material is cut.
  23. 23. QUICK RETURN MOTION MECHANISM  In the forward stroke, the slider moves fast and removing the material from the workpiece. Whereas in the return stroke, the slider moves faster than the return stroke that means Quick return, it takes less time to return, called a return stroke. This mechanism is called Quick return Motion Mechanism.
  24. 24. How Planer Machine Works Initially, the tool head of the machine is in a stationary position and the work table can be move. The tool single point cutting tool is fixed in the tool head and the workpiece is fixed on the work table. Now we switch on the machine that means power supply to the machine and the worktable moves forward hence it cuts the material and it is called cutting stroke. The work table moves downward there is no cutting of materials so it is called there turn stroke. The process will be continued unless you change the power supply or others.
  25. 25. Parts of Planer Machine • Plainer machine consist of following parts • Bed • Table or planer • Housing or column • Cross rail • Tool head
  26. 26. Planer Machine Mechanism • There are two important planer mechanism 1. Table drive mechanism 2. Feeding mechanism The Different table drive mechanisms are • Open and cross belt drive • Reversible motor drive • Hydraulic drive
  27. 27. Planer Machine operation The common operation that can be performed in the planer machine are:  Planning Flat horizontal surfaces. Planning Flat vertical surfaces. Planning angular surfaces and machining dovetails. Planning curved surfaces. Planning slots and grooves
  28. 28. Planer Machine Types • Following are different types of planer machines generally used  Double housing Planer Machine  Open side Planer Machine  Pit Planer Machine  Edge or Plate Planer machine  Divided table Planer Machine
  29. 29. Advantages of Planer Machine There are some advantages of Planer Machine and those are: • Greater accuracy • Good surface finish • The major advantages are at a time more than one tool can perform on the workpiece • Low maintenance requires comparatively other machine tools
  30. 30. Disadvantages of Planer Machine There are some disadvantages of Planer Machine and those are: • The machine price is high • The power consumption is quite more • Skilled worker required • Only tool single point is used. We can not use other than a single-point cutting tool
  31. 31. Applications of Planer Machine These are the applications of Planer Machine: • Planer machine used for providing flat surfaces on the workpiece • It is also used for cutting angular surfaces
  32. 32. Difference Between Shaper & Planer Machine
  33. 33. Difference between Shaper & Planer Machine Shaper Machine • These are lighter, smaller and cheaper. • The tool is held on a ram which reciprocates and the work mounted on the table remains stationary and gives the feed. • It is in tended for small jobs. • Low machining accuracy. • Simple in construction. • Not possible to make deep cuts and heavy feeds. Planer Machine • These are heavier, larger and costlier. • Work is mounted on a table which reciprocates while the tool is held on the machine frame and fed into the work. • It is intended for large jobs. • High machining accuracy. • It is a robust one or robust in construction. • Possible to make deep cuts and
  34. 34. Difference between Shaper & Planer Machine Shaper Machine • Suitable for machining small and medium-size work, one or few at a time. • Usually, only one tool is used on a shaper. • Cutting and return speeds vary throughout the strokes. • Work setting requires less skill and less time. • Tools used are lighter and smaller. • Limited cutting and return speeds are available. Planer Machine • Not suitable for machining small and medium-size work, one or few at a time. • Multiple tooling permits machining of more than one surface at a time. • Cutting and return speeds are uniform throughout the strokes. • Work setting require smore skill and more time. • Tools used are heavier, stronger & larger. • A wide range of cutting and return speeds are available.

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