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Primitive Subsistence FarmingThis type of farming is still practiced in few pockets of India.Primitive subsistence agriculture is practiced on smallpatches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks, and family/community labour.This type of farming depends upon monsoon, naturalfertility of the soil and suitability of other environmentalConditions to the crops grown.Jhumming Cultivation :- It is a slash and burn agriculture. Apatch of land is cleared and cereals and other food cropsare produced. When the soil fertility decreases, the farmersshift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation. The soil’sFertility is replenished through natural processes. LandProductivity is low as the farmers don’t use fertilizers orOther modern inputs.
Different Names of JhummingCultivation NAME REGION/ PLACE• Milpa Mexico and Central America• Conuco Venezuela• Roca Brazil• Masole Central Africa• Ladang Indonesia• Ray Vietnam• Bewar or Dahiya Madhya Pradesh• Podu or Penda Andhra Pradesh• Pama Dabi or Koman or Bringa Orissa• Kumari Western Ghats• Valre or Waltre South Eastern Rajasthan• Khil Himalayan Belt• Kuruwa Jharkhand
Intensive Subsistence FarmingThis type of farming is practiced in areas of high populationPressure on land . Its labour intensive farming , where highDoses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used forObtaining higher production.Through its ‘ right to inheritance’ leading to the division ofAmong successive generations has rendered land holdingSize uneconomical , the farmers continue to take maximumOutput from the limited land in the absence of alternativeSource of livelihood. Thus, there is enormous pressure onAgricultural land.
Commercial Farming• .Use of Higher doses of modern inputs like HYV seeds ( Higher Yielding Variety) , chemical fertilisers , insecticides, pesticides etc.• Degree of commercialization of agriculture changes fromone region to another.• Plantation is also a type of commercial farming where a single crop is grown on a large area.• All the produce is used as raw material in industries.• In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana etc. are important plantation crops.• Tea in Assam and North Bengal coffee in Karnataka are some important plantations grown in these states.• As the production is mainly for market, a well- developed network of transport and communication connecting the plantation areas, processing industries and market plays an a important role in the development.
Different Types of Cropping PatternsRabi Crops :- Rabi crops are sown in winter from Octoberto December.• Harvested in In summer from April to June• Important Rabi crops – wheat, barley, peas, gram, and mustard.• Grown in – States from North and North western parts such as Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh• Success of Green Revolution In Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan has also been an important factor in the growth of the Rabi Crops.• Availability of precipitation during winter months due to western temperate cyclones helps in the success of these crops.
Different Types of Cropping PatternsKharif Crops :-• These crops are grown with the onset of monsoon and harvested in September-October.• Important crops grown during this season are rice (paddy), maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean.• Some of the most important kharif regions are Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Orissa, the Konkan coast, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.Zaid Crops :-• In between the rabi and the kharif seasons, there is a short season during the summer months known as the Zaid season.• Some of the crops produced during ‘zaid’ are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops and Sugarcane.
Rice• It is the staple food crop of aMajority of people in india.• Our country is the largestProducer of rice after China.• It is a Kharif CropConditions required for the crop:-• It requires high temperature(above 25°C ) and high humidity.• Annual rainfall above 100 cm• In the areas of low rainfall, it growsWith the help of irrigationAreas where it is found:-• North Eastern India, Plains of north, coastal areas and deltaic regions
Wheat• This is the second mostImportant cereal crop.• It is the main food crop in, inNorth and north western part of India• This is a rabi crop.Conditions required for the crop:-• It requires cool growing season and bright sunshine at the time of ripening.• It requires 50 – 75 cm of rain of annual rain evenly distributed over the growing season.Areas of cultivation:-• Ganga – Satluj plains on the north west and black soil region of the Deccan.• Punjab , Haryana , Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan and parts of Maharashtra
MilletsThere are three important millets grown in India:-• Jowar• Bajra• RagiThough these are known as coarse grains, they have high nutritional value.• Jowar• It is the third most important crop• It is a red-fed crop mostly gown in moist areas.• Maharashtra is the largest producer followed by Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.• Bajra• It grows well in sandy soils and shallow black soil.• Rajasthan is the largest producer followed by Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujrat and Haryana.
Ragi• It is a crop of dry regions and grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils.• Karnataka is the largest producer followed by Tamil Nadu.• Other important producers of ragi are Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.• Ragi is very rich in iron, calcium, other micronutrients and roughage.
Maize• It is used both as food and fodder.Conditions required for the crop:-• It is a kharif crop which requires temperature between 21°C to 27°C.• It grows well in old alluvial soil.• In some states like Bihar maize is grown in rabi season also.Areas of cultivation:-• Bihar, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
Beverage CropsTEA• Tea is an example of plantation agriculture.• It is a labour-intensive industry needing abundant, cheap and skilled labour.• India is the leading produce and exporter.Conditions required for the crop:-• It grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates.• It needs deep and fertile well-drained soil rich in humus and organic matter.• Tea bushes require warm and moist-free climate all through the year along with frequent showers.Areas of cultivation:-• Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts of West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and Tripura.
Coffee• India produces about 4% of he world’s coffee production.• It is famous for its good quality coffee.• The Arabica variety produced in India was brought from Yemen.• Initially its cultivation was introduced in the Baba Budan hills.• Even today its cultivation is confined to the Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.• Brazil is the largest producer of coffee in the world producing one third of the world’s total coffee.
Sugarcane• It is a tropical as well asSubtropical crop.Conditions required for theCrop:-• It grows well in hot and humidClimate.• It requires a temperature of 21°C to 27°C• An annual rainfall between 75cm. and 100cm.• Irrigation is required in the regions of low rainfall.Areas Of Cultivation :-• It needs manual labour from sowing to harvesting.• The major sugarcane-producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.
Oil Seeds• India is the largest producerOf oilseeds in the world.• Different oil seeds are grown coveringapproximately 12 per cent of the totalcropped area of the country.• Main oil-seeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower.• Most of these are edible and used as cooking mediums. However, some of these are also used as raw material in the production of soap, cosmetics and ointments.
Oil SeedsGroundnut• It is a kharif crop and accounts for about half of the major oilseeds produced in the country.• Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of groundnut followed by Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat and MaharashtraLinseed and mustard• These are rabi crops• Sesamum is a kharif crop in north and rabi crop in south India.• Castor seed is grown both as rabi and kharif crop.• 8.
Rubber• Rubber is an important industrialRaw material• India ranks fifth among the world’snatural rubber producers.Conditions Required for the crop:-• It is an equatorial crop, but underspecial conditions, it is also grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas.• It requires moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cm.• Temperature above 25°C.Areas of Cultivation :-• It is mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman and Nicobar islands and Garo hills of Meghalaya.
Cotton• India is believed to be theoriginal home of the cotton plant.• Cotton is one of the main raw materials for cotton textile industry.• India is the third-largest producerof cotton in the world.Conditions Required For The Crop :-• Cotton grows well in drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau.• It requires high temperature, light rainfall or irrigation, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.• It is a kharif crop and requires 6 to 8 months to matureAreas Of Cultivation• Major cotton-producing states are – Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh,Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
Jute• It is known as the golden fibre.• It is used in making gunny bags,mats, ropes, yarn, carpets andother artifacts.• Due to its high cost, it is losing market to synthetic fibres and packing materials, particularly the nylonConditions Required for the crop:-• Jute grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year.• High temperature is required during the time of growth.Areas of Cultivation• West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and Meghalaya are the major jute producing states.
Technological And Institutional ReformsFOOD SECURITY
Causes for Introduction of NewReforms in Agriculture• Agriculture has been in practised in India for thousands of years.• · Continued uses of land without well-matched techno- institutional reforms lead to slow• down in the pace of agricultural development.• · In spite of development in irrigation most of the farmers in large parts of the country• still depend upon monsoon and natural fertility of soil.• · Our population grew at fast rate than agriculture production.• There has been a lot of injustice done with farmers with the current prices for their production.• Famines, droughts and other disasters ruined the entire crop produced putting farmers in dilemma.
Technological And InstitutionalReforms Introduced afterIndependence• Collective farming was introduced.• Land holdings were consolidated• Co-operative movement were started in Indian agriculture• Zamindari system was abolished,• Land reform’ was introduced in First Five Year Plan.• The Green Revolution and related technologies were introduced such as use of HYV of seed, fertilizers, modern machinery and inputs.• White Revolution (Operation Flood) was introduced to increase milk production.
Features Of Comprehensive Landdevelopment• Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease, establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest were some important steps in this direction.• Kissan Credit Card (KCC) was introduced for easy availability of inputs.• Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are some other schemes introduced by the Government of India for the benefit of the farmers.• Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on the radio and television.• The government also announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.