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Classification of-commodities2204-120114234912-phpapp02

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Classification of-commodities2204-120114234912-phpapp02

  1. 1. Commodities which are used in the kitchen can be broadly classified in to three main categories:  Perishables: Ingredients which have short shelf life ranging from six hours to six days at room temperature such as milk and dairy products, meats, fish, eggs, fruits and vegetables  Semi Perishables: Ingredients which have a longer shelf life ranging from a few weeks to a few months such as cereals, pulses, fats, oils, condiments, spices, flour, proprietary foods etc.  Non Perishables: Ingredients which can be stored indefinitely such as salts, mild acids, sugar, edible colours, some essences etc.
  2. 2. Under ground vegetables: roots, tubers, bulbs, rhizomes, pods,etc. Over ground vegetables: Shoots, stems, leaves, fruits, seeds, pods, flowers etc.
  3. 3. Underground vegetables
  4. 4. 1. Red Meat: Lamb, Beef, Pork, Mutton etc. 2. White Meat: Poultry birds such as Chicken, Duck, Turkey etc. and also Fish & Seafood: 3. Game Meat: Animals or Birds which are hunted for their meat and not farm reared, such as wild boar, hare, geese etc.
  5. 5. Types of Meats Beef Cattle are classified according to age and gender. 1. Steers are male cattle that have been castrated while young so that they will gain weight quickly. 2. Bulls are older uncast rated males, usually used in processed meats and pet foods. 3. Heifers, females that have not borne a calf, are also used for meat. 4. Cows are female cattle that have borne calves and this meat is less desirable than that from steers or heifers.
  6. 6. Types of Meats Veal Comes from calves of beef cattle, either male or female, between the ages of three weeks and three months. Calves three to eight months old are too old for veal and too young for beef.
  7. 7. Types of Meats Lamb and Mutton Lamb comes from sheep less than fourteen months old. Mutton from those over fourteen months.
  8. 8. Composition of Meats Meats are composed of a combination of: Water , Muscle, Connective tissue, Adipose (fatty) tissue, Bone 1. Collagen: A pearly white, tough, and fibrous protein that provides support to muscle and prevents it from over-stretching. 2. Marbling: Fat deposited in the muscle that can be seen as little white streaks or drops. 3. The animal’s age, diet, and species affect the color and texture of fat
  9. 9. Composition of Meats Exposure of meat to oxygen changes the color of myoglobin, and therefore the meat. Cooking meat initially converts the color of raw meat to bright red. The food industry uses several methods to keep meat products from turning brown. One such method is the addition of nitrites to processed meats. Extractives: Flavor compounds consisting of non protein, nitrogen substances that are end-products of protein metabolism.
  10. 10. Purchasing Meats To ensure that consumers are purchasing meat that is safe, federal laws require the inspection of animal carcasses. In addition to this mandatory inspection for safety, meat may also be assigned yield grades and the later quality grades to assist consumers in selection. The Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 made inspection mandatory for all meat crossing state lines or entering the United States through foreign commerce. The grading of meat is not under government mandate or control, but is a strictly voluntary procedure that the meat packer or distributor may have done under contract with the USDA.
  11. 11. Inspection
  12. 12. GRADES
  13. 13. Yield grade: The amount of lean meat on the carcass in proportion to fat, bone, and other inedible parts. Marbling: Fat deposited in the muscle that can be seen as little white streaks or drops.
  14. 14. Purchasing Meats Tenderness of Meats Overall, natural meat tenderness is due to factors such as the cut, age, and fat content. Meats can also be treated to make them more tender. Preparation temperatures and times also have an influence on tenderness. Grading is affected by Feed grass/hay vs. corn affects outer surface fat and muscle marbling Age at slaughter Breed and breeding history Type of cattle
  15. 15. Type of cattle Hereford vs. Angus vs. Longhorn
  16. 16. Meat cuts There are two major types of meat cuts, wholesale and retail.
  17. 17. Purchase Meat cuts Prior to reaching the supermarket, a carcass is divided into about seven wholesale or primal cuts. Wholesale (primal) cuts: The large cuts of an animal carcass, which are further divided into retail cuts. These wholesale cuts are then divided into the retail cuts purchased by consumers. Retail cuts: Smaller cuts of meat obtained from wholesale cuts and sold to the consumer.
  18. 18. Meat cuts
  19. 19. Variety meats: The liver, sweetbreads (thymus), brain, kidneys, hear t, tongue, tripe (stomach lining), and oxtail (tail of cattle).
  20. 20. Storage of Meats Meat contains high percentages of water and protein, both ideal for the growth of microorganisms. Consequently, meat should be stored in the refrigerator or freezer. Meats are best refrigerated at just above freezing (32°F/0°C), between 32°F and 36°F (0° to 2°C). Wrapping Meat Most retail meats are packaged with plastic wrap and can be refrigerated in their original wrap for up to two days. Frozen Meats to be frozen should be wrapped tightly in aluminum foil, heavy plastic bags, or freezer paper and stored at or below 0°F (18°C).
  21. 21. Storage of Meats Wrapping Meat Most retail meats are packaged with plastic wrap and can be refrigerated in their original wrap for up to two days. Frozen Meats to be frozen should be wrapped tightly in aluminum foil, heavy plastic bags, or freezer paper and stored at or below 0°F (18°C).
  22. 22. POULTRY AND GAME BIRDS
  23. 23. Classification of Poultr y Poultry have been domesticated for over 4,000 years Poultry Has a high protein content Is easier to raise and transport than cows and sheep Is considered a staple on most menus
  24. 24. Classification of Poultr y Types of poultry that may be graded Chicken, turkey, duck, geese, and guinea Chickens produce two major protein sources: eggs and meat Many different forms and packaging styles Turkey is popular as a deli meat and in whole bird roasters
  25. 25. Classification of game birds Feathered Game Refers to the remaining birds used in food service applications Wild turkey, goose, pheasant, duck, partridge, quail, and woodcock Must be farm-raised (includes free range) Game birds are available whole or precut into pieces Fresh, frozen, or canned (smaller birds) Factors affecting quality Age of the bird and manner of slaughter and packaging Should have springy skin and no “off ” odor
  26. 26. Composition of Poultr y and Game birds The composition of poultry (muscle tissue, connective tissue, etc.) is similar to meat. Pigments Turkeys and chickens have both white and dark meat.
  27. 27. Purchasing Poultr y and game birds Available from a variety of sources Broad line distributors to local merchants Know your supplier and ensure their sanitary practices Poultry should be delivered at freezing for fresh products or hard frozen Inspect for signs of temperature abuse Poultry has a very short shelf life Use fresh product within three days HACCP guidelines Store raw, un prepped product under raw, prepped product Cooked product should be stored on top Use separate coolers for raw and cooked
  28. 28. Purchasing Poultr y and Game Birds Types and Styles of Poultry “Type” refers to whether it is: Fresh Frozen Cooked Sliced Canned Dehydrated  “Style” describes the degree to which it has been cleaned or processed:  Live  Dressed  Ready-to-cook  Convenience categories
  29. 29. Purchasing Poultr y and Game Birds Processed Poultry  Processed chicken and turkey are commonly used in:  Canned or dried soups  Frozen dinners  Pot pies  Sausages  Hot dogs  Burgers  Bologna
  30. 30. Purchasing Poultr y and Game Birds How Much to Buy  Ready-to-cook poultry contains a good deal of inedible bone and unwanted fat  A good rule of thumb for most poultry is to buy 1 2 pound or ⁄ slightly more per serving.  One of the most economical ways to buy poultry is in its ready-to-cook whole state.
  31. 31. Preparation of Poultr y and Game Birds Thawing Frozen Poultry The refrigerator is the best place to thaw frozen birds, and its use requires planning ahead.
  32. 32. Preparation of Poultr y and Game Birds Changes During Preparation Properly prepared poultry is tender and juicy, but overcooking causes the flesh to become dry, tough, and stringy.
  33. 33. Preparation of Poultr y and Game Birds Determining Doneness  Poultry should always be heated until well done  Doneness may be determined by internal temperature, color changes, and/or touch and time/weight tables.  Poultry is sufficiently cooked when the internal temperature reaches 180° to 185°F (82° to 85°C).  A thermometer placed in the center of any stuffing must reach a minimum temperature of 165°F (74°C).
  34. 34. Preparation of Poultr y and Game Birds Color Change . Oven-roasted chicken or turkey will reach a golden brown color. The juices coming out of the bird should run clear. Touch When pressed firmly with one or two fingers, the well-done bird’s flesh will feel firm. White meat may be firmer than dark. Wiggle the drumstick
  35. 35. Preparation of Poultr y and Game Birds Dry-Heat Frying Preparation Sautéed Roasting Pan-fried Baking Deep-fried Broiling Stir-fried Grilling
  36. 36. Preparation of Poultr y and Game Birds Moist-Heat Preparation Braising Also called fricasseeing Stewing Poaching Microwaving The microwave manufacturers’ instructions should be followed for preparing poultry.
  37. 37. Storage of Poultr y and Game Birds Refrigerated Fresh, ready-to-cook poultry can be kept safely in the refrigerator at 40°F (4°C) or below for up to three days. It is best kept in the bottom portion of the refrigerator to prevent its drippings from contaminating other foods. Frozen Frozen whole poultry can be stored from six to twelve months at 0°F (18°C). Breaded or fried poultry should never be thawed and refrozen. Thawing Defrosting is recommended in the refrigerator. Once defrosted, poultry or any other meat should not be refrozen unless it has been cooked.
  38. 38. FISH AND SHELL FISH
  39. 39. Classification of Fish and Shellfish Vertebrate Finfish Finfish: Fish that have fins and internal skeletons. Invertebrate Shellfish which includes the invertebrate crustaceans and mollusks. Crustacean: An invertebrate animal with a segmented body covered by an exoskeleton consisting of a hard upper shell and a soft under shell. (crab, shrimp,lobster) Mollusk: An invertebrate animal with a soft un segmented body usually enclosed in a shell. (clams, oyster, mussels, scallops)
  40. 40. Classification of Fish and Shellfish Salt or Fresh Water Saltwater fish often have a more distinct flavor than freshwater fish. Some saltwater fish: Halibut, cod, and flounder Some freshwater varieties: Catfish, perch, and pike Lean or Fat Fish are not very fatty compared to most other meats.
  41. 41. Composition of Fish Structure of Finfish Collagen Fish are only 3 percent collagen. Amino Acid Content There is less of a certain amino acid (hydroxyproline). Muscle Structure The muscles of fish are shorter (less than an inch in length). This contributes to the characteristic flaking of prepared fish.
  42. 42. Purchasing Fish and Shellfish Retailers providing consumers with nutrition information must abide by the nutrition labeling values provided by the FDA for fish and shellfish. Fish processors may submit to inspection and grading on a voluntary basis. The National Marine Fisheries Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce is responsible for fish inspections.
  43. 43. Purchasing Fish and Shellfish Fish can be purchased fresh or frozen as whole, drawn, dressed, steaks, fillets, and sticks.
  44. 44. Purchasing Fish and Shellfish Signs of Decay in Fresh Finfish Changes that occur in a fish after death are that: The eyes flatten and become concave. The pupil turns gray or creamy brown. The cornea becomes opaque and discolored. The bright red gills turn a paler brown. Gaping is a sign of aging, or may be a result of rough handling.
  45. 45. Purchasing Fish and Shellfish Purchasing Processed Shellfish Shellfish can also be bought cooked in the shell and chilled or frozen. Shucked shrimp, scallops, oysters, and clams are often breaded and frozen. Oysters can be bought live in the shell, or shucked and then chilled, frozen, or canned. Clams can be bought in the same forms as oysters.
  46. 46. Preparation of Fish and Shellfish Dry-Heat Preparation Baking Broiling Grilling  Frying  Deep-Fat Fried Moist-Heat Preparation Poaching Simmering Steaming  Clambakes are underground steaming. Microwaving Raw Fish  Sashimi (raw fish)
  47. 47. Storage of Fish and Shellfish Fresh fish Fresh fish are best consumed within a day or two of purchase. Fish should be stored in the coldest portion of the refrigerator. It should also be tightly wrapped to prevent odors from coming in contact with other foods. Fresh Shellfish Fresh shellfish should be eaten the day they are bought. Crabs, usually sold precooked, should be stored in the coldest part of the refrigerator and used within a day or two.
  48. 48. Storage of Fish and Shellfish Frozen Freezing greatly extends the keeping time of fish that, depending on the type, can be stored in the freezer up to nine months. Thawing Fish is best thawed by transferring it from the freezer to the refrigerator one day before preparation. Canned and Cured
  49. 49. Fruits Fleshy: apple, pineapple, banana, papaya Vine : grape, water melon, cantaloupe Stone : plum, apricot, lychee, mango Citrus : orange, lime, kumquat Soft fruits : raspberry, blackberry, strawberry
  50. 50. Fresh Herbs Rosemary Thyme Holy Basil Marjoram Chervil Fenugreek Leaves Dill Mint leaves Hyssop Fennel Sage Lavender Lemon Grass Tarragon Borage Chives Coriander or Cilantro Curry Leaves Parsley Caraway
  51. 51. Dairy Products Milk Cheese Cream Butter Ghee Butter Milk Curd Yoghurt
  52. 52. Cereals and Millets Cereals are normally staple foods which constitute major consumption by populations of the world example: Rice Wheat Corn or maize Sorghum or Jowar or Egyptian millets Ragi or Bhajra or Millets
  53. 53. Pulses and Legumes These include all kinds of beans, dry peas, lentils, legumes and dals such as: Red gram or toor dal, green gram or moong dal, black gram or urad dal, bengal gram or channa dal, kidney bean or rajma, white broad beans, yellow beans, soya beans etc.
  54. 54. Spices Cardamom Cloves Mace Nutmeg Cinnamon Cumin Seed Mustard Chillies Turmeric Coriander Seed Ginger Garlic Pepper Corns Caraway Seed Fenugreek seed Fennel Seed Poppy Seed Onion Seed Saffron Sesame Seed
  55. 55. Nuts All nuts are about equal in terms of calories per ounce, and in moderation, are all healthy additions to any diet. It’s a mix of omega-3 fatty acids, protein, and fiber will help you feel full. Nuts are high in fiber and vitamin E, as well as minerals. Walnuts are rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
  56. 56. Spices Imagine your food without any spices. Unimaginable, is it? What are spices? In the culinary arts the word spice refers to any dried part of a plant, other than the leaves, used for seasoning and flavoring a recipe, but not used as the main ingredient. Why not the leaves? Because the green leafy part of a plant used in this way is considered an herb. Every other part of the plant, including dried bark, roots, berries, seeds, twigs, or anything else that isn't the green leafy part, is considered a spice.
  57. 57. Examples of Spices Star Anise Cinnamon Cardamom Bay leaves Curry leaves Chives Cloves Coriander
  58. 58. Coloring  A digestible substance used to give color to food; "food color made from vegetable dyes“. Color additives are important components of many products, making them attractive, appealing, appetizing, and informative. RED/PINK Beetroot or Cranberry YELLOW/ORANGE Carrots or turmeric powder
  59. 59. Flavoring A substance, such as an extract or spice, that imparts flavor. A substance used to give a particular flavor to food or drink. E.g.: Vanilla flavoring, chicken cube, Ajinomoto.

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