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Git basic

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Git Basic Commands

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Git basic

  1. 1. GIT BASIC
  2. 2. git init This will create a .git repository in project. A repository or "repo" is a collection of all the changes we’ve made to our project over time and will build a history of these changes. This is the first thing we want to do with a new project.
  3. 3. Empty Directory before git init
  4. 4. .git Directory After git init
  5. 5. .git directory structure HEAD file: holds a reference to the branch you are currently on. This tells Git what to use as the parent of your next commit. Config file: the main Git configuration file Description file: file is only used by the GitWeb program ( to display the description of the repo on the GitWeb page). GitWeb - Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories). hooks: This directory contains shell scripts that are invoked after the corresponding Git commands. For example, after you run a commit, Git will try to execute the post-commit script info: Additional information about the repository is recorded in this directory. objects: In this directory the data of your Git objects is stored – all the contents of the files you have ever checked in, your commits, trees and tag objects. refs: References are stored in subdirectories of this directory(i.e: heads, tags)
  6. 6. Create files and folders or use exist files and folder
  7. 7. git add Adds files changes in our working directory to our index git add filename add specify file in staging area or index. git add . add everything from the project folder to staging area or index.
  8. 8. git commit Takes the files from our staging area or index and commits them to our local repository. commit title git commit -m “title about commit” commit title and description git commit -m “title” -m “description” -m for message First -m for title only Second -m for description
  9. 9. git status Shows you the status of files in the index versus the working directory. It will list out files that are untracked (only in your working directory), modified (tracked but not yet updated in your index), and staged (added to your index and ready for committing).
  10. 10. git status before add file in index to local repo git status after add file into local repo from index
  11. 11. Create github Repo Code hosting platform 1. Github: https://github.com 2. Bitbucket: https://bitbucket.org/ 3. Gitlab: https://about.gitlab.com/
  12. 12. Creating new repository on github
  13. 13. After Repo Create on github before pushed anything
  14. 14. git remote add origin __path__ This adds the location of our remote repository. Everything up until now has been on our local repository on our computer
  15. 15. git remote show remote path git remote -v show remote path with details
  16. 16. git push Pushes all the modified local objects to the remote repository and advances its branches git push origin master push all modification on master branch git push origin head HEAD points to the top of the current branch. But we don't have to remember/type the current branch name. Also it prevents we from pushing to the wrong remote branch by accident. git push -u origin head Push changes to remote repository (and remember the branch) -u means --set-upstream
  17. 17. After push code from local to remote(github)
  18. 18. git pull Fetches the files from the remote repository and merges it with our local one. Show all change between remote branch and local branch. git pull origin head Fetches the files from the remote branch and merges it with our local current branch. remote branch == local branch git pull origin master(or any) Fetches the files from the remote master branch and merges it with our local current branch. remote branch(master) != local branch(dev or any)
  19. 19. git remote repo path
  20. 20. git clone {remote path} Example: git clone https://github.com/akbaruddin/gittutorial.git Creates a GIT repository copy from a remote source. Also adds the original location as a remote so we can fetch from it again and push to it if you have permissions
  21. 21. git branch Show list of exist branches. git branch -vv list mode, show sha1 and commit subject line for each head, along with relationship to upstream branch (if any). Twice, print the name of the upstream branch git branch -a Show list of exist branches, including remote branches
  22. 22. Create new branch git checkout -b {branch_name} Example: git checkout -b dev Create new branch and switch. git checkout -b {branch_name} {specific_branch} Example: git checkout -b fix__dev dev Create new branch from another specific branch without going that branch and switch to new branch.
  23. 23. Branch naming reason__details--tag Reason: label must be identical to the purpose of the branch ● feature/new_feature ● fix/hotfix/patch ● refactor ● enhancement/optimisation ● delete/remove/undo ● update ● Content change Details: A two or three short-word descriptions about the branch. Avoid long descriptive names for branches. Make them as short and descriptive as possible. fix__signup-routing fix__duplicate-images Tag: It is optional and can be used under special circumstance(any external tracker or extra details). feature__public-api--v2 fix__file-uploader--pdf
  24. 24. Switch branch & Discard changes of file git checkout {branch_name} Example: git checkout dev git checkout - Example: git checkout - Switch to the branch last checked out git checkout -- {file_name} Example: git checkout -- README.md Discard changes to a file
  25. 25. Delete branch git branch -d {branch_name} Example: git branch -d dev All codebase merged with main codebase we can delete branch without losing any history, if hasn’t been merged, command gives an error message. git branch -D {branch_name} Example: git branch -D fix__login Experiment failed, we want to remove the branch with regardless of its status, -D remove branch without any warning
  26. 26. git log Example: git log Shows a listing of commits on a branch including the corresponding details.
  27. 27. git diff Example: git diff # show all file differences git diff README.md # Specific file difference Generates patch files or statistics of differences between paths or files in our git repository, or our index or our working directory
  28. 28. git merge Example: git merge master # git merge {source_branch_name} Merge a branch into the active branch git merge master dev # git merge {source_branch_name} {target_branch_name} Merge a branch into a target branch
  29. 29. git stash Example: git stash | git stash save Save changes and return to clean branch git stash apply Apply saved changes without remove of saved change git stash pop Apply saved changes, also remove changes from list git stash list Show all list of stashes git stash clear remove all stashes
  30. 30. git rm Example: git rm -r README.md # git rm -r {file_name} Removes files from your index and your working directory so they will not be tracked
  31. 31. git reset Example: git reset --hard HEAD Resets our index and working directory to the state of our last commit