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Contents
• Introduction To Runways
• Runway Orientation
• Runway Configuration
• Runway Naming
• Runway Markings and Light...
Introduction To Runways
• According to the International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO), a runway is a "defined
rectan...
How Runway Orientation Is Decided?
• For normal fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous
to perform take-offs and landings i...
Factors Affecting Runway Orientation
• Wind
• Airspace Availability
• Environmental Factors
• Obstruction To Navigation
• ...
Runway Configuration
There are four types of Runway Layouts
• Single runway
This is the simplest of the 4 basic configurat...
• Parallel runways
There are 4 types of parallel runways. These are
named according to how closely they are placed
next to...
• Open-V runways
Two runways that diverge from different directions but do NOT
intersect form a shape that looks like an "...
• Intersecting runways
Two or more runways that cross each other are
classified as intersecting runways. This type of
conf...
Naming of Runways
• Runways are named by a number between 01
and 36, which is generally the magnetic azimuth
of the runway...
Runway Markings
• The area marked with yellow chevrons (V
shapes) are the blast pads, also referred to
as overrun areas or...
• The threshold is essentially the start or end
of the actual runway itself.
• The touch down zone is the target area for
...
Runway Lighting
• Runway end identifier lights (REIL) – unidirectional (facing approach
direction) or omnidirectional pair...
• Taxiway centerline lead-off lights – installed along lead-off
markings, alternate green and yellow lights embedded into ...
Runway Safety/Incidents
• Types of runway safety incidents include:
• Runway excursion - an incident involving
only a sing...
• Runway overrun (also known as
an overshoot) - a type of excursion where
the aircraft is unable to stop before the end
of...
• Runway incursion - an incident involving
incorrect presence of a vehicle, person or
another aircraft on the runway (e.g....
• Runway confusion - an aircraft makes use of
the wrong runway for landing or takeoff
(e.g. Singapore Airlines Flight 006,...
• Runway undershoot - an aircraft that lands
short of the runway (e.g. British Airways
Flight 38, Asiana Airlines Flight 2...
THANK YOU!
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Runways

  1. 1. Contents • Introduction To Runways • Runway Orientation • Runway Configuration • Runway Naming • Runway Markings and Lighting • Runway Safety/Incidentes
  2. 2. Introduction To Runways • According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". • Runways may be a man-made surface (often asphalt, concrete, or a mixture of both) or a natural surface (grass, dirt, gravel, ice, or salt).
  3. 3. How Runway Orientation Is Decided? • For normal fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform take-offs and landings into the wind. This is to increase the speed of air over the wings i.e. flying speed, at a relatively lower ground speed which reduces the actual take-off or landing distance needed. Thus, runway orientations are decided on the historical winds and directions. If the winds are more variable in direction and the airport is large enough to financially justify the investment, airports can have several runways in different directions, so that a runway can be selected that is most nearly aligned with the wind.
  4. 4. Factors Affecting Runway Orientation • Wind • Airspace Availability • Environmental Factors • Obstruction To Navigation • Air Traffic Control Visibility • Wild Life Hazards • Terrain And Soil Consideration
  5. 5. Runway Configuration There are four types of Runway Layouts • Single runway This is the simplest of the 4 basic configurations. It is one runway optimally positioned for prevailing winds, noise, land use and other determining factors. During VFR (visual flight rules) conditions, this one runway should accommodate up to 99 light aircraft operations per hour. While under IFR (instrument flight rules) conditions, it would accommodate between 42 to 53 operations per hour depending on the mix of traffic and navigational aids available at that airport.
  6. 6. • Parallel runways There are 4 types of parallel runways. These are named according to how closely they are placed next to each other. Operations per hour will vary depending on the total number of runways and the mix of aircraft. In IFR conditions for predominantly light aircraft, the number of operations would range between 64 to 128 per hour.
  7. 7. • Open-V runways Two runways that diverge from different directions but do NOT intersect form a shape that looks like an "open-V" are called open-V runways. This configuration is useful when there is little to no wind as it allows for both runways to be used at the same time. When the winds become strong in one direction, then only one runway will be used. When takeoffs and landings are made away from the two closer ends, the number of operations per hour significantly increases. When takeoffs and landings are made toward the two closer ends, the number of operations per hour can be reduced by 50%.
  8. 8. • Intersecting runways Two or more runways that cross each other are classified as intersecting runways. This type of configuration is used when there are relatively strong prevailing winds from more than one direction during the year. When the winds are strong from one direction, operations will be limited to only one runway. With relatively light winds, both runways can be used simultaneously.
  9. 9. Naming of Runways • Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, which is generally the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east (90°), runway 18 is south (180°), runway 27 points west (270°) and runway 36 points to the north (360° rather than 0°).[1] When taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane would be heading 90° (east). • A runway can normally be used in both directions, and is named for each direction separately: e.g., "runway 33" in one direction is "runway 15" when used in the other. The two numbers usually differ by 18 (= 180°).
  10. 10. Runway Markings • The area marked with yellow chevrons (V shapes) are the blast pads, also referred to as overrun areas or stopways. These areas are often constructed before the start of a runway to reduce the erosion of earth by the jet blast produced by large planes when they power up for take-off. Blast pads are often not as strong as the main paved surface of the runway and aircraft are not allowed to use it except in extreme emergencies.
  11. 11. • The threshold is essentially the start or end of the actual runway itself. • The touch down zone is the target area for pilots to stick the wheels of their aircraft on to the runway.
  12. 12. Runway Lighting • Runway end identifier lights (REIL) – unidirectional (facing approach direction) or omnidirectional pair of synchronized flashing lights installed at the runway threshold, one on each side. • Runway end lights – a pair of four lights on each side of the runway on precision instrument runways, these lights extend along the full width of the runway. These lights show green when viewed by approaching aircraft and red when seen from the runway. • Runway edge lights – white elevated lights that run the length of the runway on either side. On precision instrument runways, the edge- lighting becomes amber in the last 2,000 ft (610 m) of the runway, or last third of the runway, whichever is less. Taxiways are differentiated by being bordered by blue lights, or by having green centre lights, depending on the width of the taxiway, and the complexity of the taxi pattern. • Runway centerline lighting system (RCLS) – lights embedded into the surface of the runway at 50 ft (15 m) intervals along the runway centerline on some precision instrument runways. White except the last 900 m (3,000 ft): alternate white and red for next 600 m (1,969 ft) and red for last 300 m (984 ft). • Touchdown zone lights (TDZL) – rows of white light bars (with three in each row) at 30 or 60 m (98 or 197 ft) intervals on either side of the centerline for 900 m (3,000 ft).
  13. 13. • Taxiway centerline lead-off lights – installed along lead-off markings, alternate green and yellow lights embedded into the runway pavement. It starts with green light at about the runway centerline to the position of first centerline light beyond the Hold-Short markings on the taxiway. • Taxiway centerline lead-on lights – installed the same way as taxiway centerline lead-off Lights, but directing airplane traffic in the opposite direction. • Land and hold short lights – a row of white pulsating lights installed across the runway to indicate hold short position on some runways that are facilitating land and hold short operations (LAHSO). • Approach lighting system (ALS) – a lighting system installed on the approach end of an airport runway and consists of a series of light bars, strobe lights, or a combination of the two that extends outward from the runway end.
  14. 14. Runway Safety/Incidents • Types of runway safety incidents include: • Runway excursion - an incident involving only a single aircraft, where it makes an inappropriate exit from the runway (e.g. Thai Airways Flight 679).
  15. 15. • Runway overrun (also known as an overshoot) - a type of excursion where the aircraft is unable to stop before the end of the runway (e.g. Air France Flight 358).
  16. 16. • Runway incursion - an incident involving incorrect presence of a vehicle, person or another aircraft on the runway (e.g. Tenerife disaster ( Pan American World Airways Flight 1736 and KLM Flight 4805 ).
  17. 17. • Runway confusion - an aircraft makes use of the wrong runway for landing or takeoff (e.g. Singapore Airlines Flight 006, Western Airlines Flight 2605).
  18. 18. • Runway undershoot - an aircraft that lands short of the runway (e.g. British Airways Flight 38, Asiana Airlines Flight 214).
  19. 19. THANK YOU!

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