The Structural and Mechanical Basis for Passive‐Hydraulic Pine Cone Actuation
Advanced Science, Volume: 9, Issue: 20, First published: 14 May 2022, DOI: (10.1002/advs.202200458)
Hinweis der Redaktion
The Pinus wallichiana cone at different levels of humidity. Open cone at 30% relative humidity (rh, at 23 °C) and the corresponding bent shape of the scale in lateral view A). After 7 h at 80% rh (at 23 °C), the cone is slightly closed. The single scale shows a slight bending toward the cone axis B). A cone soaked in water will close completely. The individual scale is completely straight upright C). Schematic representation of a scale and its underlying architecture D,E). Longitudinal section. The adaxial epidermis (dark purple) and the abaxial epidermis (light pink) envelop the sclereid cells (green) and the sclerenchyma fiber strands (gray), which is embedded in a matrix of brown tissue (light brown) D). Top view on a scale. The sclerenchyma fibers extend as strands (gray) into scale periphery and are embedded by brown tissue (light brown). In the bending zone, almost no brown tissue can be found. Here, the structure can be considered as a functional bilayer E). Scale bars: 2 cm.
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