SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 45
Downloaden Sie, um offline zu lesen
1
Chapter 1
Introduction
TCP/IP Assignment
-by Harshwardhan Pusadkar
Bhavesh Bhandarkar
TCP/IP Protocol 2
OBJECTIVES:
 To give a brief history of the Internet.
 To give the definition of the two often-used terms in the
discussion of the Internet: protocol and standard.
 To categorize standard organizations involved in the Internet
and give a brief discussion of each.
 To define Internet Standards and explain the mechanism
through which these standards are developed.
 To discuss the Internet administration and give a brief
description of each branch.
TCP/IP Protocol 3
Chapter
Outline
1.1 A Brief History
1.2 Protocols and Standards
1.3 Standards Organizations
1.4 Internet Standards
1.5 Internet Administration
TCP/IP Protocol
4
1-1 A BRIEF HISTORY
A network is a group of connected, communicating
devices such as computers and printers. An internet
is two or more networks that can communicate with
each other. The most notable internet is called the
internet, composed of hundreds of thousands of
interconnected networks. Private individuals as well
as various organizations such as government
agencies, schools, research facilities, corporations,
and libraries in more than 100 countries use the
Internet.
TCP/IP Protocol
5
Topics Discussed in the Section
ARPANET
Birth of the Internet
TCP/IP
MILNET
CSNET
NSFNET
ANSNET
The Internet Today
World Wide Web
Growth of the Internet
TCP/IP Protocol
6
Figure 1.1 Internet today
TCP/IP Protocol
7
1-2 PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS
In this section, we define two widely used terms:
protocols and standards. First, we define protocol,
which is synonymous with “rule.” Then we discuss
standards, which are agreed-upon rules.
TCP/IP Protocol
8
Topics Discussed in the Section
Protocols
Standards
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
9
1-3 STANDARDS ORGANIZATION
Standards are developed through the cooperation
of standards creation committees, forums, and
government regulatory agencies.
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
10
Topics Discussed in the Section
Standards Creation Committees
Forums
Regulatory Agencies
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
11
1-4 INTERNET STANDARDS
An Internet standard is a thoroughly tested
specification that is useful to and adhered to by
those who work with the Internet. It is a formalized
regulation that must be followed. There is a strict
procedure by which a specification attains Internet
standard status. A specification begins as an
Internet draft. An Internet draft is a working
document with no official status and a six-month
lifetime.
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
12
Topics Discussed in the Section
Maturity Levels
Requirement Levels
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
13
Figure 1.2 Maturity levels of an RFC
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
14
Figure 1.3 Requirement levels of an RFC
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
15
1-5 INTERNET ADMINISTRATION
The Internet, with its roots primarily in the research
domain, has evolved and gained a broader user
base with significant commercial activity. Various
groups that coordinate Internet issues have guided
this growth and development. Appendix G gives the
addresses, e-mail addresses, and telephone
numbers for some of these groups. Figure 1.4
shows the general organization of Internet
administration.
INTERNET ARCHITECTURE
• Sometimes called TCP/IP
• Evolved from an earlier packet-switched network called ARPANET
• Internet and ARPANET were funded by ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency)
• Both existed before the OSI architecture
• Both affected the OSI model
INTERNET ARCHITECTURE
Internet Protocol Graph
Alternative view of the Internet
architecture. The “Network”
layer shown here is sometimes
referred to as the “sub-
network” or “link” layer.
INTERNET ARCHITECTURE
• Defined by IETF
• Three main features
• Does not imply strict layering. The application is free to bypass the defined transport layers and to
directly use IP or other underlying networks
• An hour-glass shape – wide at the top, narrow in the middle and wide at the bottom. IP serves as the
focal point for the architecture (host-to-host connectivity is separate from all channel types)
• In order for a new protocol to be officially included in the architecture, there needs to be both a protocol
specification and at least one (and preferably two) representative implementations of the specification
INTERNET ARCHITECTURE
• NET1, NET2, …
• Could be Ethernet, Wireless, etc.
• Encapsulate both hardware and data link layers from OSI model
• IP (Internet Protocol)
• Supports the interconnection of multiple networking technologies into a single logical
internetwork
• Analogy to the network layer in the OSI
• The routing protocol
INTERNET ARCHITECTURE
• TCP provides reliable, byte-stream channel (connection oriented protocol)
• UDP provides unreliable, datagram (message) delivery channel.
• TCP and UDP are called (besides Transport) end-to-end protocols
INTERNET ARCHITECTURE
• Application Protocols
• HTTP, FTP, Telnet (remote login), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and much
more
• Enables the interoperation of popular applications
• Many different web browsers interoperate with web servers because they all conform/use the HTTP
protocol
NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
Example of a layered network system
NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
Layered system with alternative abstractions available at a given layer
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
24
Figure 1.4 Internet administration
CONNECTIVITY
• Need to understand the following terminologies
• Scale: A system that is designed to support growth to an arbitrarily large size
• Link: Physical medium that connects nodes
• Node: a device (could be a computer, switch, etc) on the network
• Point-to-point: direct link between two nodes
• Multiple access: multiple nodes share the same link
(a) Point-to-point
(b) Multiple access
CONNECTIVITY
• Switched Network: a network that uses switches for forwarding
• Circuit Switched
• Telephone companies
• Dedicated/reserved when connection is established
• Less utilization of the resources
• Packet Switched
• Overwhelming majority of computer networks
• Messages are divided into pieces (discrete blocks) called packets
• No dedication is required
• More sharing, thus more utilization
• Store-and-forward: a switch stores the incoming traffic (packets) in its own buffers
then forwards them.
CONNECTIVITY
• Cloud: used to represent any kind of network technology
• Point-to-point, multiple-access, or switched network
• Hosts: nodes outside the cloud (usually computer or end users devices and use the
network)
• Switches: nodes inside the cloud and implement the network (store and forward
packets)
• Internetwork (or internet with small “i”): a set of independent interconnected
networks (clouds)
• Internet (with big “I”): is the globally known network
CONNECTIVITY
• Router/gateway: connects two or more networks (plays much the same role as a switch—stores and
forwards)
• Host-to-host connectivity: hosts can talk to hosts
• Address: the way to find nodes. It is a byte string that identifies a node.
• Routing: the process of determining systematically how to forward messages toward the destination node
based on its address
• Unicast: send to single destination
• Broadcast: send to all nodes on the network
• Multicast: send to subset of nodes
CONNECTIVITY
(a) A switched network
(b) Interconnection of networks
(a) (b)
LAN, MAN, WAN, AND SAN
• Characterize networks according to their size (they usually use diff. technologies):
• LAN: Local Area Network, typically less than 1km
• WAN: Wide Area Network, worldwide
• MAN: Metropolitan Area Network, tens of kilometers
• SAN: Systems/Storage Area Network, single room that has high-performance
components (like leading-edge storage devices) connected together
ABSTRACTION AND LAYERING
• Abstraction
• The hiding of details behind a well-defined interface
• Define a model
• Capture important aspects of the system
• Abstractions naturally leads to layering
• The general idea
• Start from services offered by the underlying hardware
• Add a sequence of layers, each providing a higher (i.e., more abstract) level of service.
• Manageability and Mudularity
PROTOCOALS
• The abstract objects the make up the layers of a network system
are called protocols
• Building blocks of a network architecture
• Each protocol object has two differentinterfaces
• service interface: operations on this protocol
• peer-to-peer interface: messages exchanged with peer (indirect
communication, except for the hardware)
INTERFACES
Service and Peer Interfaces
PROTOCOLS
• Protocol Specification:
• Written description (prose)
• pseudo-code
• state transition diagram
• Packet format
• RFCs: Request For Comments
• IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force
• Standardization body
• Ex. RFC 2616 for HTTP protocol
• Interoperable: when two or more protocols that implement the specification accurately
PROTOCOL GRAPH
Example of a protocol graph
nodes are the protocols and links the “depends-on” relation
ENCAPSULATION
High-level messages are encapsulated inside of low-level messages
ABSTRACTION AND LAYERING
• Abstraction
• The hiding of details behind a well-defined interface
• Define a model
• Capture important aspects of the system
• Abstractions naturally leads to layering
• The general idea
• Start from services offered by the underlying hardware
• Add a sequence of layers, each providing a higher (i.e., more abstract) level of service.
• Manageability and Mudularity
APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE
• Interface exported by the network
• Since most network protocols are implemented (those in the high protocol
stack) in software and nearly all computer systems implement their network
protocols as part of the operating system, when we refer to the interface
“exported by the network”, we are generally referring to the interface that the
OS provides to its networking subsystem
• The interface is called the network Application Programming Interface (API)
APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE (SOCKETS)
• Socket Interface was originally provided by the Berkeley
distribution of Unix
- Now supported in virtually all operating systems
• Each protocol provides a certain set of services, and the API
provides a syntax by which those services can be invoked in this
particular OS
SOCKET
• What is a socket?
• The point where a local application process attaches to the network
• An interface between an application and the network
• An application creates the socket
• The interface defines operations for
• Creating a socket
• Attaching a socket to the network
• Sending and receiving messages through the socket
• Closing the socket
BANDWIDTH
• Frequency band (measured in Hertz): we don’t mean that
• Number of bits per second that can be transmitted over a communication link
• Throughput vs. bandwidth (from the most confusing terms in computer networks.
• Bandwidth: the maximum data rate (bits per second)
• Throughput: number of bits per second that we actually transmit over the link in practice
• 1 Mbps: 1 x 106 bits/second = 1x220 bits/sec
• 1 x 10-6 seconds to transmit each bit or imagine that a timeline, now each bit occupies 1
micro second space.
• On a 2 Mbps link the width is 0.5 micro second.
• Smaller the width more will be transmission per unit time.
BANDWIDTH
Bits transmitted at a particular bandwidth can be regarded as having
some width:
(a) bits transmitted at 1Mbps (each bit 1 μs wide);
(b) bits transmitted at 2Mbps (each bit 0.5 μs wide).
LATENCY
• How long it takes a message to travel from one end of a network to the other.
• Measured in time
LATENCY
• Three components
• Speed-of-light propagation delay
• Different media at different speeds
• 3.0 × 108 m/s in a vacuum
• 2.3 × 108 m/s in copper cable
• 2.0 × 108 m/s in optical fiber
• Amount of time to transmit a unit of data
• Queuing delays (switches store packets)
THANK YOU!

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Ähnlich wie TCP/IP Protocol Suite Overview

Layers of tcpip.65 to 66
Layers of tcpip.65 to 66Layers of tcpip.65 to 66
Layers of tcpip.65 to 66myrajendra
 
1. RINA motivation - TF Workshop
1. RINA motivation - TF Workshop1. RINA motivation - TF Workshop
1. RINA motivation - TF WorkshopARCFIRE ICT
 
Datacom_Section_2_-_Protocols.ppt
Datacom_Section_2_-_Protocols.pptDatacom_Section_2_-_Protocols.ppt
Datacom_Section_2_-_Protocols.pptKristopher Hefner
 
INTERNET FUNDAMENTALS
INTERNET FUNDAMENTALSINTERNET FUNDAMENTALS
INTERNET FUNDAMENTALSbadri narayan
 
02 protocol architecture
02 protocol architecture02 protocol architecture
02 protocol architectureOrbay Yeşil
 
Sargation university's open system interconnection
Sargation university's open system interconnectionSargation university's open system interconnection
Sargation university's open system interconnectionKingPinYT
 
Computer network coe351- part2- final
Computer network coe351- part2- finalComputer network coe351- part2- final
Computer network coe351- part2- finalTaymoor Nazmy
 
Dc ch02 : protocol architecture
Dc ch02 : protocol architectureDc ch02 : protocol architecture
Dc ch02 : protocol architectureSyaiful Ahdan
 
Network architecure (3).pptx
Network architecure (3).pptxNetwork architecure (3).pptx
Network architecure (3).pptxKaythry P
 
Iso osi and tcp-ip reference models
Iso osi and tcp-ip reference modelsIso osi and tcp-ip reference models
Iso osi and tcp-ip reference modelsbhavanatmithun
 
presentation on TCP/IP protocols data comunications
presentation on TCP/IP protocols data comunicationspresentation on TCP/IP protocols data comunications
presentation on TCP/IP protocols data comunicationsAnyapuPranav
 

Ähnlich wie TCP/IP Protocol Suite Overview (20)

Osi model
Osi modelOsi model
Osi model
 
Layers of tcpip.65 to 66
Layers of tcpip.65 to 66Layers of tcpip.65 to 66
Layers of tcpip.65 to 66
 
1. RINA motivation - TF Workshop
1. RINA motivation - TF Workshop1. RINA motivation - TF Workshop
1. RINA motivation - TF Workshop
 
Datacom_Section_2_-_Protocols.ppt
Datacom_Section_2_-_Protocols.pptDatacom_Section_2_-_Protocols.ppt
Datacom_Section_2_-_Protocols.ppt
 
INTERNET FUNDAMENTALS
INTERNET FUNDAMENTALSINTERNET FUNDAMENTALS
INTERNET FUNDAMENTALS
 
TCP/IP Protocols
TCP/IP ProtocolsTCP/IP Protocols
TCP/IP Protocols
 
02 protocol architecture
02 protocol architecture02 protocol architecture
02 protocol architecture
 
Network Protocol and TCP/IP
Network Protocol and TCP/IPNetwork Protocol and TCP/IP
Network Protocol and TCP/IP
 
Sargation university's open system interconnection
Sargation university's open system interconnectionSargation university's open system interconnection
Sargation university's open system interconnection
 
Computer network coe351- part2- final
Computer network coe351- part2- finalComputer network coe351- part2- final
Computer network coe351- part2- final
 
section 4.3.pptx
section 4.3.pptxsection 4.3.pptx
section 4.3.pptx
 
Dc ch02 : protocol architecture
Dc ch02 : protocol architectureDc ch02 : protocol architecture
Dc ch02 : protocol architecture
 
Bhargava Presentation.ppt
Bhargava Presentation.pptBhargava Presentation.ppt
Bhargava Presentation.ppt
 
Bhargava Presentation.ppt
Bhargava Presentation.pptBhargava Presentation.ppt
Bhargava Presentation.ppt
 
Network architecure (3).pptx
Network architecure (3).pptxNetwork architecure (3).pptx
Network architecure (3).pptx
 
Intro RINA
Intro RINAIntro RINA
Intro RINA
 
Networking basics
Networking basicsNetworking basics
Networking basics
 
Iso osi and tcp-ip reference models
Iso osi and tcp-ip reference modelsIso osi and tcp-ip reference models
Iso osi and tcp-ip reference models
 
presentation on TCP/IP protocols data comunications
presentation on TCP/IP protocols data comunicationspresentation on TCP/IP protocols data comunications
presentation on TCP/IP protocols data comunications
 
Computer networks
Computer networksComputer networks
Computer networks
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

A Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance ToolboxA Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance ToolboxAna-Maria Mihalceanu
 
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to HeroUiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to HeroUiPathCommunity
 
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Kaya Weers
 
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024TopCSSGallery
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...Nikki Chapple
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Nikki Chapple
 
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and InsightsPotential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and InsightsRavi Sanghani
 
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDF
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDFAll These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDF
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDFMichael Gough
 
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Mark Simos
 
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality AssuranceInflectra
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...BookNet Canada
 
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Stronger
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better StrongerModern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Stronger
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Strongerpanagenda
 
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...panagenda
 
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App Framework
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App FrameworkReact Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App Framework
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App FrameworkPixlogix Infotech
 
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks and Compliance Requirements i...
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks  and Compliance Requirements i...Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks  and Compliance Requirements i...
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks and Compliance Requirements i...itnewsafrica
 
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdfLandscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdfAarwolf Industries LLC
 
QMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdf
QMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdfQMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdf
QMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdfROWELL MARQUINA
 
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyesHow to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyesThousandEyes
 
A Framework for Development in the AI Age
A Framework for Development in the AI AgeA Framework for Development in the AI Age
A Framework for Development in the AI AgeCprime
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

A Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance ToolboxA Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
 
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to HeroUiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
 
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
 
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
 
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and InsightsPotential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
 
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDF
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDFAll These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDF
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDF
 
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
 
How Tech Giants Cut Corners to Harvest Data for A.I.
How Tech Giants Cut Corners to Harvest Data for A.I.How Tech Giants Cut Corners to Harvest Data for A.I.
How Tech Giants Cut Corners to Harvest Data for A.I.
 
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...
 
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Stronger
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better StrongerModern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Stronger
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Stronger
 
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
 
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App Framework
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App FrameworkReact Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App Framework
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App Framework
 
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks and Compliance Requirements i...
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks  and Compliance Requirements i...Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks  and Compliance Requirements i...
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks and Compliance Requirements i...
 
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdfLandscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
 
QMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdf
QMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdfQMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdf
QMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdf
 
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyesHow to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
 
A Framework for Development in the AI Age
A Framework for Development in the AI AgeA Framework for Development in the AI Age
A Framework for Development in the AI Age
 

TCP/IP Protocol Suite Overview

  • 1. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction TCP/IP Assignment -by Harshwardhan Pusadkar Bhavesh Bhandarkar
  • 2. TCP/IP Protocol 2 OBJECTIVES:  To give a brief history of the Internet.  To give the definition of the two often-used terms in the discussion of the Internet: protocol and standard.  To categorize standard organizations involved in the Internet and give a brief discussion of each.  To define Internet Standards and explain the mechanism through which these standards are developed.  To discuss the Internet administration and give a brief description of each branch.
  • 3. TCP/IP Protocol 3 Chapter Outline 1.1 A Brief History 1.2 Protocols and Standards 1.3 Standards Organizations 1.4 Internet Standards 1.5 Internet Administration
  • 4. TCP/IP Protocol 4 1-1 A BRIEF HISTORY A network is a group of connected, communicating devices such as computers and printers. An internet is two or more networks that can communicate with each other. The most notable internet is called the internet, composed of hundreds of thousands of interconnected networks. Private individuals as well as various organizations such as government agencies, schools, research facilities, corporations, and libraries in more than 100 countries use the Internet.
  • 5. TCP/IP Protocol 5 Topics Discussed in the Section ARPANET Birth of the Internet TCP/IP MILNET CSNET NSFNET ANSNET The Internet Today World Wide Web Growth of the Internet
  • 7. TCP/IP Protocol 7 1-2 PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS In this section, we define two widely used terms: protocols and standards. First, we define protocol, which is synonymous with “rule.” Then we discuss standards, which are agreed-upon rules.
  • 8. TCP/IP Protocol 8 Topics Discussed in the Section Protocols Standards
  • 9. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 9 1-3 STANDARDS ORGANIZATION Standards are developed through the cooperation of standards creation committees, forums, and government regulatory agencies.
  • 10. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 10 Topics Discussed in the Section Standards Creation Committees Forums Regulatory Agencies
  • 11. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 11 1-4 INTERNET STANDARDS An Internet standard is a thoroughly tested specification that is useful to and adhered to by those who work with the Internet. It is a formalized regulation that must be followed. There is a strict procedure by which a specification attains Internet standard status. A specification begins as an Internet draft. An Internet draft is a working document with no official status and a six-month lifetime.
  • 12. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 12 Topics Discussed in the Section Maturity Levels Requirement Levels
  • 13. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 13 Figure 1.2 Maturity levels of an RFC
  • 14. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 14 Figure 1.3 Requirement levels of an RFC
  • 15. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 15 1-5 INTERNET ADMINISTRATION The Internet, with its roots primarily in the research domain, has evolved and gained a broader user base with significant commercial activity. Various groups that coordinate Internet issues have guided this growth and development. Appendix G gives the addresses, e-mail addresses, and telephone numbers for some of these groups. Figure 1.4 shows the general organization of Internet administration.
  • 16. INTERNET ARCHITECTURE • Sometimes called TCP/IP • Evolved from an earlier packet-switched network called ARPANET • Internet and ARPANET were funded by ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) • Both existed before the OSI architecture • Both affected the OSI model
  • 17. INTERNET ARCHITECTURE Internet Protocol Graph Alternative view of the Internet architecture. The “Network” layer shown here is sometimes referred to as the “sub- network” or “link” layer.
  • 18. INTERNET ARCHITECTURE • Defined by IETF • Three main features • Does not imply strict layering. The application is free to bypass the defined transport layers and to directly use IP or other underlying networks • An hour-glass shape – wide at the top, narrow in the middle and wide at the bottom. IP serves as the focal point for the architecture (host-to-host connectivity is separate from all channel types) • In order for a new protocol to be officially included in the architecture, there needs to be both a protocol specification and at least one (and preferably two) representative implementations of the specification
  • 19. INTERNET ARCHITECTURE • NET1, NET2, … • Could be Ethernet, Wireless, etc. • Encapsulate both hardware and data link layers from OSI model • IP (Internet Protocol) • Supports the interconnection of multiple networking technologies into a single logical internetwork • Analogy to the network layer in the OSI • The routing protocol
  • 20. INTERNET ARCHITECTURE • TCP provides reliable, byte-stream channel (connection oriented protocol) • UDP provides unreliable, datagram (message) delivery channel. • TCP and UDP are called (besides Transport) end-to-end protocols
  • 21. INTERNET ARCHITECTURE • Application Protocols • HTTP, FTP, Telnet (remote login), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and much more • Enables the interoperation of popular applications • Many different web browsers interoperate with web servers because they all conform/use the HTTP protocol
  • 22. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE Example of a layered network system
  • 23. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE Layered system with alternative abstractions available at a given layer
  • 24. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 24 Figure 1.4 Internet administration
  • 25. CONNECTIVITY • Need to understand the following terminologies • Scale: A system that is designed to support growth to an arbitrarily large size • Link: Physical medium that connects nodes • Node: a device (could be a computer, switch, etc) on the network • Point-to-point: direct link between two nodes • Multiple access: multiple nodes share the same link (a) Point-to-point (b) Multiple access
  • 26. CONNECTIVITY • Switched Network: a network that uses switches for forwarding • Circuit Switched • Telephone companies • Dedicated/reserved when connection is established • Less utilization of the resources • Packet Switched • Overwhelming majority of computer networks • Messages are divided into pieces (discrete blocks) called packets • No dedication is required • More sharing, thus more utilization • Store-and-forward: a switch stores the incoming traffic (packets) in its own buffers then forwards them.
  • 27. CONNECTIVITY • Cloud: used to represent any kind of network technology • Point-to-point, multiple-access, or switched network • Hosts: nodes outside the cloud (usually computer or end users devices and use the network) • Switches: nodes inside the cloud and implement the network (store and forward packets) • Internetwork (or internet with small “i”): a set of independent interconnected networks (clouds) • Internet (with big “I”): is the globally known network
  • 28. CONNECTIVITY • Router/gateway: connects two or more networks (plays much the same role as a switch—stores and forwards) • Host-to-host connectivity: hosts can talk to hosts • Address: the way to find nodes. It is a byte string that identifies a node. • Routing: the process of determining systematically how to forward messages toward the destination node based on its address • Unicast: send to single destination • Broadcast: send to all nodes on the network • Multicast: send to subset of nodes
  • 29. CONNECTIVITY (a) A switched network (b) Interconnection of networks (a) (b)
  • 30. LAN, MAN, WAN, AND SAN • Characterize networks according to their size (they usually use diff. technologies): • LAN: Local Area Network, typically less than 1km • WAN: Wide Area Network, worldwide • MAN: Metropolitan Area Network, tens of kilometers • SAN: Systems/Storage Area Network, single room that has high-performance components (like leading-edge storage devices) connected together
  • 31. ABSTRACTION AND LAYERING • Abstraction • The hiding of details behind a well-defined interface • Define a model • Capture important aspects of the system • Abstractions naturally leads to layering • The general idea • Start from services offered by the underlying hardware • Add a sequence of layers, each providing a higher (i.e., more abstract) level of service. • Manageability and Mudularity
  • 32. PROTOCOALS • The abstract objects the make up the layers of a network system are called protocols • Building blocks of a network architecture • Each protocol object has two differentinterfaces • service interface: operations on this protocol • peer-to-peer interface: messages exchanged with peer (indirect communication, except for the hardware)
  • 34. PROTOCOLS • Protocol Specification: • Written description (prose) • pseudo-code • state transition diagram • Packet format • RFCs: Request For Comments • IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force • Standardization body • Ex. RFC 2616 for HTTP protocol • Interoperable: when two or more protocols that implement the specification accurately
  • 35. PROTOCOL GRAPH Example of a protocol graph nodes are the protocols and links the “depends-on” relation
  • 36. ENCAPSULATION High-level messages are encapsulated inside of low-level messages
  • 37. ABSTRACTION AND LAYERING • Abstraction • The hiding of details behind a well-defined interface • Define a model • Capture important aspects of the system • Abstractions naturally leads to layering • The general idea • Start from services offered by the underlying hardware • Add a sequence of layers, each providing a higher (i.e., more abstract) level of service. • Manageability and Mudularity
  • 38. APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE • Interface exported by the network • Since most network protocols are implemented (those in the high protocol stack) in software and nearly all computer systems implement their network protocols as part of the operating system, when we refer to the interface “exported by the network”, we are generally referring to the interface that the OS provides to its networking subsystem • The interface is called the network Application Programming Interface (API)
  • 39. APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE (SOCKETS) • Socket Interface was originally provided by the Berkeley distribution of Unix - Now supported in virtually all operating systems • Each protocol provides a certain set of services, and the API provides a syntax by which those services can be invoked in this particular OS
  • 40. SOCKET • What is a socket? • The point where a local application process attaches to the network • An interface between an application and the network • An application creates the socket • The interface defines operations for • Creating a socket • Attaching a socket to the network • Sending and receiving messages through the socket • Closing the socket
  • 41. BANDWIDTH • Frequency band (measured in Hertz): we don’t mean that • Number of bits per second that can be transmitted over a communication link • Throughput vs. bandwidth (from the most confusing terms in computer networks. • Bandwidth: the maximum data rate (bits per second) • Throughput: number of bits per second that we actually transmit over the link in practice • 1 Mbps: 1 x 106 bits/second = 1x220 bits/sec • 1 x 10-6 seconds to transmit each bit or imagine that a timeline, now each bit occupies 1 micro second space. • On a 2 Mbps link the width is 0.5 micro second. • Smaller the width more will be transmission per unit time.
  • 42. BANDWIDTH Bits transmitted at a particular bandwidth can be regarded as having some width: (a) bits transmitted at 1Mbps (each bit 1 μs wide); (b) bits transmitted at 2Mbps (each bit 0.5 μs wide).
  • 43. LATENCY • How long it takes a message to travel from one end of a network to the other. • Measured in time
  • 44. LATENCY • Three components • Speed-of-light propagation delay • Different media at different speeds • 3.0 × 108 m/s in a vacuum • 2.3 × 108 m/s in copper cable • 2.0 × 108 m/s in optical fiber • Amount of time to transmit a unit of data • Queuing delays (switches store packets)