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Occupational exposure-limits

the occupational exposure limit (OEL) represents the maximum airborne concentration of a toxic substance to which a worker can be exposed over a period of time without suffering any harmful consequences.

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Occupational exposure-limits

  1. 1. Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL) Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 1
  2. 2. How many chemicals are in use today? • No one, not even the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), knows how many chemicals are in use today. • EPA has more than 85,000 chemicals listed on its inventory of substances that fall under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). • https://cen.acs.org/articles/95/i9/chemicals- use-today.html www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 2
  3. 3. • CAS substance collection, CAS REGISTRYSM contains : • 144 million organic and inorganic substances disclosed in literature since the early 1800s . • 67 million protein and nucleic acid sequences • Updated daily • https://www.cas.org/about/cas-content www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 3
  4. 4. OELs www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 4
  5. 5. Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) • In general, the occupational exposure limit (OEL) represents the maximum airborne concentration of a toxic substance to which a worker can be exposed over a period of time without suffering any harmful consequences. https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/hsprograms/occ_hygiene/occ_exposure_limits.html www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 5
  6. 6. Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) • These limits are set out by many professional organizations around the world. • They are established based on the chemical properties of the substance, experimental studies on animals and humans, toxicological and epidemiological data. https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/hsprograms/occ_hygiene/occ_exposure_limits.htm l www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 6
  7. 7. Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) • Different organizations may use different terminology for the OEL. • For example, the ACGIH term for OEL is "Threshold Limit Value" (TLV)® while the NIOSH term is "recommended exposure limits" (REL). • The OELs developed by the professional organizations are guidelines. Only the values adopted and prescribed by the legislation are enforceable. https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/hsprograms/occ_hygiene/occ_exposure_limits.html www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 7
  8. 8. What are TWA, PEL and REL? 1.USA OSHA www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 8
  9. 9. https://www.osha.gov/ www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 9
  10. 10. OSHA’s mandatory PELs in the Z-Tables https://www.osha.gov/dsg/annotated-pels/index.html www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 10
  11. 11. Facts About PELshttps://www.osha.gov/chemicalmanagement • PELs, are regulations that establish the acceptable concentration of a substance in the air in the workplace. • PELs are intended to protect workers from adverse health effects . • Of the thousands of chemicals used in workplaces, OSHA has PELs for about 500. www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 11
  12. 12. Facts About PELshttps://www.osha.gov/chemicalmanagement • Many of the PELs have not been updated since 1971 • The outdated PELs are not sufficiently protective of worker health. • In 1989, OSHA attempted to update or set new PELS for more than 350 chemicals in a single rulemaking……………………. The entire rulemaking was ultimately removed by the Court. • Since 1971, OSHA has been successful in establishing or updating PELs for only about 30 chemicals. www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 12
  13. 13. Other occupational exposure limits (OELs) • It shall be noted that other occupational exposure limits (OELs) are also used in the United States. They shall be included in SDSs if available. • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) • California OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) • NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits (RELs) www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 13
  14. 14. Layout of the Z Tables of OSHA ACGIH TLVs NIOSH RELsCalifornia OSHA PEL OSHA PELs https://www.osha.gov/dsg/annotated-pels/tablez-1.html www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 14
  15. 15. Limit variations ( CO as example) 50 ppm OSHA 35 ppm Ca/OSHA 25 ppm ACGIH ???????????????? Carbon monoxide 630-08-0 50 55 25 ppm (C) 200 ppm 35 ppm (C) 200 ppm 25 ppm Substance CAS No.(c) Regulatory Limits OSHA Recommended Limits OSHA PEL(b) Cal/OSHA PEL(f) (as of 4/4/2018) NIOSH REL(g) (as of 7/7/16) ACGIH® 2018 TLV® (h) ppm(d) mg/m3(e) 8-hour TWA (ST) STEL (C) Ceiling Up to 10-hour TWA (ST) STEL (C) Ceiling 8-hour TWA (ST) STEL (C) Ceiling www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 15
  16. 16. What are TWA, PEL and REL? 1.USA NOISH www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 16
  17. 17. NIOSH NPG www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 17
  18. 18. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (NPG) • The “NPG” gives general industrial hygiene information for hundreds of chemicals/classes. • The NPG presents key data for chemicals . • NIOSH offers four versions of the NPG: – print, – online, – PDF, and – mobile web app. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/default.html www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 18
  19. 19. What are TWA, PEL and REL? 1.USA ACGIH www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 19
  20. 20. https://www.acgih.org/ www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 20
  21. 21. • Threshold Limit Value (TLV®) occupational exposure guidelines are recommended for more than 700 chemical substances and physical agents. • There are more than 50 Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs®) that cover more than 80 chemical substances www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 21
  22. 22. TLVs & BEIs • Threshold Limit Values (TLVs®) • Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs®) are determinations made by a voluntary body of independent knowledgeable individuals. www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 22
  23. 23. TLVs & BEIs • TLVs of the ACGIH represent the opinion of the scientific community that has reviewed the data described in the Documentation, that exposure at or below the level of the TLV® or BEI® does not create an unreasonable risk of disease or injury. www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 23
  24. 24. TLVs & BEIs • TLVs® and BEIs® are not standards. • They are guidelines designed for use by industrial hygienists in making decisions regarding safe levels of exposure to various chemical substances and physical agents found in the workplace. www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 24
  25. 25. TLVs & BEIs • TLVs® and BEIs® are health- based values established by committees that review existing published and peer- reviewed literature in various scientific disciplines www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 25
  26. 26. TLVs® and BEIs® are based solely on health factors, there is no consideration given to economic or technical feasibility.www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 26
  27. 27. What are TWA, PEL and REL? 2.EC www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 27
  28. 28. ‫األوزوبي‬ ‫اإلتحبد‬ •‫توجٌهات‬ ‫أربعة‬ ً‫األوروب‬ ‫اإلتحاد‬ ‫أصدر‬Directives (‫عام‬ ‫من‬1991ً‫حت‬2009)‫التعرضات‬ ‫قٌم‬ ً‫عل‬ ‫شملت‬ ً‫اجمال‬ ‫لعدد‬ ‫بها‬ ‫الموصى‬ ‫المهنٌة‬123‫كٌماوٌة‬ ‫مادة‬. •‫بها‬ ‫الموصى‬ ‫القٌم‬ ‫وسمٌت‬«ً‫المهن‬ ‫التعرض‬ ‫حدود‬OELs ً‫االوروب‬ ‫لالتحاد‬-EU Community Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs)» ‫بها‬ ‫الخاصة‬ ‫الوطنٌة‬ ‫القٌم‬ ‫تضع‬ ‫بؤن‬ ‫باالتحاد‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫لكل‬ ‫الحرٌة‬ ‫ترك‬ ‫مع‬ ً‫المهن‬ ‫التعرض‬ ‫لحدود‬. www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 28
  29. 29. In Europe ( EU-OELs ) • In Europe, there are two types of occupational exposure limits for chemical agents: 1. EU community exposure limits (set by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work) 2. National exposure limits (taking into account the Community values. National exposure limit values may be different from the community values) https://www.chemsafetypro.com/Topics/EU/EU_Occupational_Exposure_Limits_(OELs).htmlwww.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 29
  30. 30. EU Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs) • https://www.chemsafetypro.com/Topics/EU/EU_Occupational_Exposure_Limits_(OELs).html • https://www.chemsafetypro.com/type?action=main&id=4 DIRECTIVE 2009/161/EC •19 chemical substances; DIRECTIVE 2006/15/EC •33 chemical substances; DIRECTIVE 2000/39/EC •61 chemical substances; DIRECTIVE 91/322/EEC •10 chemical substances; The EU Community Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs) are specified in various directives and are updated regularly. The table below summarizes the update history of EU community OELs. ( Total - 123 Substances ) www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 30
  31. 31. • COMMISSION DIRECTIVE 2000/39/EC • of 8 June 2000 • establishing a first list of indicative occupational exposure limit values in implementation of Council Directive 98/24/EC on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 31
  32. 32. ‫االتحبد‬ ‫تىجيهبث‬ ‫حسب‬ ‫بهب‬ ‫انمىصي‬ ‫انقيم‬ ‫نجدول‬ ‫مثبل‬ ‫االوزوبي‬ Einecs (1) CAS (2) Name of agent Limit values Notati onEight hours Short-term mg/m3 ppm mg/m3 ppm 200-467-2 60-29-7 Diethylether 308 100 616 200 — 200-662-2 67-64-1 Acetone 1 210 500 — — — 200-663-8 67-66-3 Chloroform 10 2 — — Skin 200-756-3 71-55-6 1,1,1- Trichloroethane 555 100 1 110 200 — INDICATIVE OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES (1) Einecs: European inventory of existing chemical substances. (2) CAS: Chemical abstract service registry number.www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 32
  33. 33. What are TWA, PEL and REL? 3.Egypt ‫البٌئة‬ ‫وزارة‬ www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 33
  34. 34. ‫انبيئت‬ ‫قبوىن‬ ‫زقم‬ ‫قبوىن‬4‫نسىت‬1994 ‫بإصداز‬‫زقم‬ ‫ببنقبوىن‬ ‫وانمعدل‬ ‫انبيئت‬ ‫شأن‬ ‫في‬ ‫قبوىن‬9‫نسىت‬2009 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 34
  35. 35. ‫انبيئت‬ ‫نقبوىن‬ ‫انتىفيريت‬ ‫انالئحت‬ ‫قرار‬ ‫رقم‬ ‫الوزراء‬ ‫مجلس‬ ‫رئٌس‬338‫لسنة‬1995 ‫البٌئة‬ ‫لقانون‬ ‫التنفٌذٌة‬ ‫الالئحة‬ ‫بإصدار‬ ‫رقم‬ ‫بالقانون‬ ‫الصادر‬4‫لسنة‬1994 http://www.egyptera.org/Downloads/Laws/a-enviroment_law.pdf www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 35
  36. 36. ‫انتىفيريت‬ ‫انالئحت‬ ‫مالحق‬‫نهقبوىن‬ •-1‫لبعض‬ ‫والمواصفات‬ ‫المعاٌٌر‬‫فى‬ ‫تصرٌفها‬ ‫عند‬ ‫المواد‬‫البٌئة‬‫البحرٌة‬. •-2‫تخضع‬ ‫التى‬ ‫المنشآت‬‫البٌئى‬ ‫للتقٌٌم‬. •-3‫نموذج‬‫سجل‬‫البٌئة‬ ‫على‬ ‫المنشؤة‬ ‫نشاط‬ ‫تؤثٌر‬(‫البٌئٌة‬ ‫الحالة‬ ‫سجل‬) •-4ً‫الط‬‫إمساكها‬ ‫أو‬ ‫قتلها‬ ‫أو‬ ‫صٌدها‬ ‫المحظور‬ ‫البرٌة‬ ‫والحٌوانات‬ ‫ور‬. •-5‫لملوثات‬ ‫القصوى‬ ‫الحدود‬‫الخارجى‬ ‫الهواء‬ •-6‫فى‬ ‫الهواء‬ ‫لملوثات‬ ‫بها‬ ‫المسموح‬ ‫الحدود‬‫اإلنبعاثات‬ •-7‫بها‬ ‫المسموح‬ ‫الحدود‬‫الصوت‬ ‫لشدة‬‫له‬ ‫اآلمن‬ ‫العرض‬ ‫ومدة‬. •-8‫الهواء‬ ‫لملوثات‬ ‫القصوى‬ ‫الحدود‬‫أماكن‬ ‫داخل‬ ‫العمل‬‫كل‬ ‫لنوعٌة‬ ‫وفقا‬‫صناعة‬. •-9‫درجتى‬ ‫من‬ ‫لكل‬ ‫األدنى‬ ‫والحد‬ ‫األقصى‬ ‫الحد‬‫والرطوبة‬ ‫الحرارة‬‫ومدة‬ ‫لها‬ ‫التعرض‬‫الوقاٌة‬ ‫ووسائل‬‫منها‬. www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 36
  37. 37. ‫زقم‬ ‫انمهحق‬(8) ‫كم‬ ‫نىىعيت‬ ‫وفقب‬ ‫انعمم‬ ‫أمبكه‬ ‫داخم‬ ‫انهىاء‬ ‫نمهىثبث‬ ‫انقصىي‬ ‫انحدود‬‫صىبعت‬ ‫عمودٌن‬ ً‫عل‬ ‫الجدول‬ ‫ٌحتوي‬ •‫االول‬ ‫العمود‬:‫المادة‬ ‫اسم‬(ً‫لحوال‬ ‫سرد‬280‫مادة‬) •ً‫الثان‬ ‫العمود‬:‫قٌم‬‫العتبٌة‬ ‫الحدود‬‫أعمدة‬ ‫ثالث‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫تقسٌمه‬ ‫وتم‬ ‫فرعٌة‬: •ً‫الجزئ‬ ‫المتوسط‬ •‫قصٌرة‬ ‫لفترة‬ ‫التعرض‬ ‫حدود‬ •‫مالحظات‬(‫الجلد‬ ‫و‬ ً‫السقف‬ ‫الحد‬ ‫بها‬ ‫وضع‬) www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 37
  38. 38. ‫زقم‬ ‫انمهحق‬(8) ‫كم‬ ‫نىىعيت‬ ‫وفقب‬ ‫انعمم‬ ‫أمبكه‬ ‫داخم‬ ‫انهىاء‬ ‫نمهىثبث‬ ‫انقصىي‬ ‫انحدود‬‫صىبعت‬ ‫العتبٌة‬ ‫الحدود‬ ‫الحدود‬‫التى‬ ‫الهواء‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الكٌمٌائٌة‬ ‫المواد‬ ‫تركٌزات‬ ‫هى‬ ‫العتبٌة‬ ‫حدوث‬ ‫دون‬ ‫ٌوم‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫ٌوما‬ ‫العاملون‬ ‫لها‬ ‫ٌتعرض‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ٌمكن‬ ‫أنواع‬ ‫ثالث‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫وتنقسم‬ ‫صحٌة‬ ‫أضرار‬: .1‫الحدود‬‫العتبٌة‬-8‫ساعات‬. .2‫الحدود‬‫العتبٌة‬–15‫دقٌقة‬. .3‫الحد‬‫السقفى‬ www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 38
  39. 39. ‫العتبٌة‬ ‫الحدود‬ •1.‫الحدود‬‫العتبٌة‬-‫المتوسط‬‫الزمنى‬:‫وهى‬‫لٌوم‬ ‫الزمنى‬ ‫المتوسط‬ ‫عادى‬ ‫عمل‬(8‫ساعات‬)‫العامل‬ ‫لها‬ ‫ٌتعرض‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ٌمكن‬ ‫والتى‬5‫أٌام‬‫فى‬ ‫األسبوع‬‫صحٌة‬ ‫أضرار‬ ‫حدوث‬ ‫دون‬ ‫عمله‬ ‫فترة‬ ‫طوال‬. •2.‫العتبٌة‬ ‫الحدود‬-‫قصٌرة‬ ‫لفترة‬ ‫التعرض‬ ‫حدود‬(‫العتبٌة‬ ‫الحدود‬ 15‫دقٌقة‬)‫تركٌز‬‫الملوث‬‫بإستمرار‬ ‫العاملون‬ ‫لها‬ ‫ٌتعرض‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ٌمكن‬ ‫التى‬ ‫قصٌرة‬ ‫لفترة‬.‫مدة‬15‫فترة‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫حال‬ ‫بؤى‬ ‫تجاوزها‬ ‫ٌجوز‬ ‫ال‬ ‫والتى‬ ‫دقٌقة‬ ‫من‬ ‫أكثر‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫ٌتكرر‬ ‫أن‬ ‫وال‬ ‫العمل‬4‫أن‬ ‫وٌجب‬ ‫الواحد‬ ‫الٌوم‬ ‫فى‬ ‫مرات‬ ‫ٌلٌه‬ ‫والذى‬ ‫قصٌر‬ ‫تعرض‬ ‫كل‬ ‫بٌن‬ ‫الفترة‬ ‫تكون‬60‫األقل‬ ‫على‬ ‫دقٌقة‬. •3.‫ا‬‫السقفى‬ ‫لحد‬:‫هو‬‫الذي‬ ‫الحد‬‫وعندما‬ ‫للحظة‬ ‫ولو‬ ‫تجاوزه‬ ‫ٌجوز‬ ‫ال‬ ‫توضع‬ ‫التعرض‬ ‫زٌادة‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫عامال‬ ‫الجلد‬ ‫طرٌق‬ ‫عن‬ ‫االمتصاص‬ ‫ٌكون‬‫إشارة‬ (+‫جلد‬)‫العتبى‬ ‫الحد‬ ‫أمام‬. www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 39
  40. 40. ‫زقم‬ ‫انمهحق‬ ‫مكىوبث‬8 : :‫يهي‬ ‫مب‬ ‫انيه‬ ‫مضبفب‬ ً‫انسئيس‬ ‫انجدول‬ •‫للتعرض‬ ‫العتبٌة‬ ‫الحدود‬‫لآلتربة‬‫المعدنٌة‬(‫معادالت‬ ‫و‬ ‫سرد‬) •‫العتبٌة‬ ‫الحدود‬‫المضاٌقة‬ ‫تسبب‬ ‫التى‬ ‫لؤلتربة‬‫فقط‬(‫سرد‬) •‫العتبٌة‬ ‫الحدود‬‫المسرطنة‬ ‫للمواد‬‫والتى‬‫أنها‬ ‫فى‬ ‫ٌشتبه‬ ‫مسرطنة‬(‫جدول‬-27‫مادة‬) •‫مواد‬‫عتبٌة‬ ‫حدود‬ ‫لها‬ ‫ولٌس‬ ‫سرطانى‬ ‫تأثٌر‬ ‫ذات‬‫ال‬ ‫معروفة‬ ‫أو‬ ‫بمالمستها‬ ‫للعاملٌن‬ ‫ٌسمح‬‫بأى‬ ‫له‬ ‫التعرض‬‫طرٌقة‬(‫سرد‬) •‫مواد‬‫صناعٌة‬ ‫عملٌات‬ ‫أو‬‫مسرطنة‬ ‫أنها‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫ٌشتبه‬(‫سرد‬) •‫ا‬‫لتهوٌة‬‫أماكن‬ ً‫ف‬‫العمل‬ www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 40
  41. 41. ‫زقم‬ ‫نهمهحق‬ ً‫انسئيس‬ ‫انجدول‬ ‫عسض‬ ‫طسيقت‬8 ‫حىاني‬ ‫به‬280‫كيمبويت‬ ‫مبدة‬ 12 3 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 41
  42. 42. What are TWA, PEL and REL? 3.Egypt ‫العاملة‬ ‫القوى‬ ‫وزارة‬ www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 42
  43. 43. ‫انعمم‬ ‫قبوىن‬ ‫ا‬‫بالجرٌدة‬ ‫المنشور‬ ‫الرسمٌة‬‫العدد‬14‫مكرر‬‫بتارٌخ‬7/4/2003 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 43
  44. 44. ‫انعمم‬ ‫قبوىن‬ ‫ا‬‫لمادة‬213‫من‬‫رقم‬ ‫العمل‬ ‫قانون‬12‫لسنة‬2003 ‫بالجرٌدة‬ ‫المنشور‬‫الرسمٌة‬‫العدد‬14‫مكرر‬‫بتارٌخ‬7/4/2003 •ً‫عل‬ ‫ٌنص‬ •‫األمان‬ ‫حدود‬ ‫ببٌان‬ ‫قرارا‬ ‫المختص‬ ‫الوزٌر‬ ‫ٌصدر‬ ‫المبٌنة‬ ‫المخاطر‬ ‫لدرء‬ ‫الالزمة‬ ‫واالحتٌاطات‬ ‫واالشتراطات‬ ‫بالمواد‬(208،209،210،211،212)‫القانون‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫من‬ ‫المعنٌة‬ ‫الجهات‬ ‫رأي‬ ‫أخذ‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫وذلك‬. www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 44
  45. 45. ‫زقم‬ ‫قساز‬211‫نسىت‬2003 •‫والهجرة‬ ‫العاملة‬ ‫القوى‬ ‫وزارة‬ ‫رقم‬ ‫قرار‬211‫لسنة‬2003 ‫لدرء‬ ‫الالزمة‬ ‫واالحتٌاطات‬ ‫واالشتراطات‬ ‫األمان‬ ‫حدود‬ ‫شأن‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫الفٌزٌائٌة‬ ‫المخاطر‬ ‫بٌئة‬ ‫وتأمٌن‬ ‫والسلبٌة‬ ‫والكٌمٌائٌة‬ ‫والبٌولوجٌة‬ ‫والمٌكانٌكٌة‬ ‫العمل‬ •ً‫ف‬ ‫منشور‬ ‫المصرٌة‬ ‫الوقائع‬-‫العدد‬277(‫ب‬ ‫تابع‬)ً‫ف‬5-10-2003 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 45
  46. 46. ‫انجدول‬(15) ‫انعمم‬ ‫بيئت‬ ‫في‬ ‫انتعسضبث‬ ‫و‬ ‫نهمهىثبث‬ ‫انعتبيت‬ ‫انحدود‬ ‫الصفحة‬ ‫من‬80‫الي‬183 ‫انجدول‬ ‫نشكم‬ ‫ومىذج‬(‫االول‬ ‫انجزء‬-ً‫أون‬ ‫صفحت‬) www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 46
  47. 47. ‫انجدول‬(15) ‫انعمم‬ ‫بيئت‬ ‫في‬ ‫انتعسضبث‬ ‫و‬ ‫نهمهىثبث‬ ‫انعتبيت‬ ‫انحدود‬ ‫الصفحة‬ ‫من‬80‫الي‬183 ‫انجدول‬ ‫نشكم‬ ‫ومىذج‬(‫انجزء‬‫انثبوي‬:‫صفحت‬‫ثبويت‬) www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 47
  48. 48. ‫بجدول‬‫انعتبيت‬ ‫انحدود‬‫تىجد‬645‫مبدة‬ ‫انمهىثبث‬ ‫مه‬‫و‬‫انتعسضبث‬ www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 48
  49. 49. Remember! A legal limit or guideline (OEL) should never be viewed as a line between "safe" and "unsafe". www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 49
  50. 50. Remember! The best approach is to always keep exposures or the risk of a hazard as low as possible. • As an example, carcinogens are not usually defined by an exposure limit. With many carcinogens, it is difficult to say for certainty that if exposure is below a set point, the agent is not likely to cause harm. For this reason, for carcinogens and other specific agents (such as allergens), the "As Low as Reasonably Practicable" (ALARA) principle should be applied. ALARA, in practical terms, means that exposure should be eliminated or reduced as much as possible. https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/hsprograms/occ_hygiene/occ_exposure_limits.html www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 50
  51. 51. Adopted limits are not sufficiently protective of worker health • Industrial experience, new developments in technology, and scientific data clearly indicate that in many instances these adopted limits are not sufficiently protective of worker health. • Many large industrial organizations have felt obligated to supplement the existing OSHA PELs with their own internal corporate guidelines. www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 51
  52. 52. Adopted limits are not sufficiently protective of worker health • OSHA’s Hazard Communication standard (1910. 1200 Appendix D) requires that safety data sheets list not only the relevant OSHA PEL but also the ACGIH® TLV® and any other exposure limit used or recommended by the chemical manufacturer, importer, or employer preparing the safety data sheet. www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 52
  53. 53. Adopted (PELs) of OSHA are not sufficient to protective worker’s health • To provide employers, workers, and other interested parties with a list of alternate occupational exposure limits that may serve to better protect workers, OSHA has annotated the existing Z-Tables with other selected occupational exposure limits. OSHA has chosen to present a side-by-side table with the Cal/OSHA PELs, the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits (RELs) and the ACGIH® TLVs®s. www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 53