4. ‘Earths are common,’ NASA scientist says
We are surrounded by dozens of habitable planets. We just can’t see them yet,
according to a researcher-geoscientist Jim Kasting
Kasting is the chair of NASA’s Exoplanet Exploration Program Analysis Group.
This image made from video provided by NASA shows an artist's rendition of what an
Earth-like planet might look like. (AP FILE PHOTO)
5. Exoplanets found orbiting Trappist-1 raise
hope that the hunt for alien life beyond the
solar system can start much sooner than
A huddle of seven worlds, all close
in size to Earth, and perhaps warm
enough for water and the life it can
sustain, has been spotted around a
small, faint star in the constellation
39 light years away
6. Some cultures were interested in astronomical events, as evidenced by stone
structures that were designed to match up with solstices (Carnac, Newgrange
Tomb, Stonehenge, Giza Pyramids & Sphynx)
A BRIEF PEEP IN TO HISTORY OF ASTRONAMY
7. Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC)
•Proved that the earth is spherical
•Believed that the earth is the
center of the solar system and that
everything revolves around it
•Believed that all stars are fixed
points which rotate on a single
9. Aristarchus (310-230 B.C.)
to place the sun at the center of the universe, but
his ideas were to radical for anyone to accept.
•1750 years BEFORE Copernicus!
Eratosthenes (276 - 195 B.C.)
person able to measure the circumference of the
Hipparchus (190-120 B.C.)
•Compiled first star catalog
•Developed a scale for star brightness
•Accurately calculated distance from Earth to the
10. Ptolemy (90 – 168 AD)
• Earth-centered model which included a complex system of Epicycles and perfect circles for the orbits of planets, sun, and moon around Earth
• Assumed that the imperfect Earth was surrounded by perfect heavenly spheres
worked so well, it
was not challenged
for 1300 years!
11. Copernicus (1473-1543, Poland)
• Popularized the sun-centered,
“heliocentric” model of universe
• Stated that the earth spins once per day
on its axis and revolves around the sun
in one year
• Published in Des Revolutionibus in 1543
(on his death bed).
12. Johannes Kepler (1571- 1630)
•Worked with Tycho Brahe and kept his equipment and
•Proposed that orbits of planets are ellipses, not circles
•Developed 3 simple laws to explain planetary motion in 1609
law- Orbit of all planets are ellipses with the
sun at one focus
law – Law of Equal Areas which defines
planetary speed as they go around the Sun
law – As planet distance from the Sun
increases, orbital period increases
13. Galileo Galilee (1564–1642, Italy)
• Father of observational astronomy
• Discovered mountains, craters, and
plains on Moon
• Discovered phases of Venus similar
to the moon
16. Isaac Newton (1642-1727, England)
•Mathematically derived Kepler’s 3 Laws.
•Calculated the existence of other planets due to orbital
anomalies of outer known planets
•Law of Gravity:
•Gravity exists between any 2 objects that have
•Gravity is always attractive, never repulsive
•Gravity increases with increasing mass
•Gravity decreases with increasing distance
•3 Laws of Motion
17. Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955 A.D.)
Came up with many theories which expanded our understanding of the universe
Space and time are not separate units but rather one unit called space-time
Gravity is the curvature of space-time.
The more massive the object, the greater the curvature.
(This is the basis of Einstein’s General Relativity Theory)
*** Einstein explained the true nature of gravity.
That it’s not a force but a pathway that a mass takes around more
massive objects. This theory was proven correct by the deflection of
starlight observed during a 1919 eclipse.
Most Famous for the Equation E=mc2
which led to the development of the atomic
18. Einstein first proposed the cosmological constant. In its simplest form, general
relativity predicted that the universe must either expand or contract. Einstein
thought the universe was static, so he added this new term to stop the
The Cosmological Constant-Einstein
Till 1930-Science believed that Universe is Static
Universe is static-Sir Issac Newton
Newton’s Law of Gravitation
Monseigneur Georges Lemaître, a Belgian
Catholic Priest, was the originator of what
would become known as the "Big Bang
19. Qur’ an 41: 11
And the heaven, we have built it with power. Verily, we are expanding it.
CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE AND THE EXPANSION OF THE SAME.
20. Edwin Powell Hubble (1889-1953) was an American astronomer.
He played a crucial role in establishing the fields of extragalactic astronomy and
observational cosmology and is regarded as one of the most important astronomers of all
V= velocity of expansion
Ho =Hubble’s constant, 20000 m/s/107
R=distance from us/earth
Expansion is like dots in a balloon while being inflated
Big Bang Theory-Edwin Powell
22. Stephen Hawking (1942 - ):
•Combined the theories of general relativity and quantum physics to prove that black
holes emit radiation
•Has written several books that explain complicated subjects in astronomy, physics,
and cosmology to the general public.
•Completely paralyzed due to ALS, yet his computer generated voice is very famous.
24. ORGANIZATION OF THE UNIVERSE
Qur’ an 55: 5
Qur’ an 14: 33
Number of galaxies
Movement of the Sun, movement of the whole Solar System
Movements within the Solar System
Planets in Solar System
Earth’s Magnetic field
Mechanism of day and night + Reasons of seasons
Phases of Moon
Shape Of The Earth
28. How do the Sun move?
A galaxy is a huge collection of gas, dust, and billions of stars and their solar systems.
A galaxy is held together by gravity.
This is the picture taken by the Hubble Space Telescope showing thousands of galaxies. Even
the tiny dots are whole galaxies. The universe is a very big place!
Number of galaxies
29. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, also has a supermassive black hole in the middle.
The average velocity of the solar system is 828,000 km/hr.
At that rate it will take about 230 million years to make one complete orbit around
Movement of the Sun, movement of the whole Solar System
30. The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy. It is believed that it consists of a central bulge, 4 major
arms, and several shorter arm segments. The Sun and the rest of our solar system is located
near the Orion arm, between two major arms, Perseus and Sagittarius. The diameter of the
Milky Way is about 100,000 light years and the Sun is located about 28,000 light-years from
the Galactic Center.
Light Year: a unit of astronomical distance equivalent to the distance that light travels in
one year, which is 9.4607 × 1012
km (nearly 6 million million miles).
34. Venus takes 224.7 Earth days to complete one orbit around the Sun. So a year on Venus is 0.62 as long
as an Earth year.
One interesting fact about Venus is that a day on Venus is actually longer than a year on Venus. A
Venusian day lasts 243 days, and a year is 224 days. That means that the day on Venus is 19 days longer
than the year.
Another interesting fact is that a Venus rotates backwards compared to the other planets in the Solar
System. So on Venus, the Sun rises in the West, and sets in the East. Of course, since it takes 243 days to
complete a year, one of these days lasts a long long time.
42. To find north, humans look to a compass. But birds may just need to open their
eyes, a new study says.
Scientists already strongly suspected birds' eyes contain molecules that are thought to
sense Earth's magnetic field. In a new study, German researchers found that these
molecules are linked to an area of the brain known to process visual information.
Magnetic surveys are typically carried out by ships or aircrafts, with magnetometers
mounted on a boom - an extension from the body of the craft.
43. ADVANTAGES OF THE EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD
1.To deflect most of the solar wind, whose charged particles would otherwise strip
away the ozone layer that protects the Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation.
2.It protects the atmosphere of earth. The study reveals that the dissipation of the
magnetic field of Mars caused a near total loss of its atmosphere.
3.The study of past magnetic field of the Earth is known as Paleomagnetism.
The polarity of the Earth's magnetic field is recorded in igneous rocks.
It help the paleomagnetists to track the past motion of continents.
It also provide the basis for magnetostratigraphy, a way of dating rocks and
The magnetic anomalies can be used to search for deposits of metal ores.
It helps to explore oil reserves.
The magnetic field of the earth judge the possibility of the rising of the sun from
44. Mechanism of day and night + Reasons of seasons
Earth Revolution Speed=107,000 km/hr = 30 km/sec
48. PHASES OF THE MOON
Why does the Moon seem to change shape?
The half of the Moon that points toward the Sun looks bright because it is lit by sunlight. The Moon
appears to change shape because we see different amounts of the lit part as the Moon orbits Earth. When
the Moon is between Earth and the Sun, the lit side is hidden from us. As it moves around Earth, more
and more of the lit side comes into view. Then it begins to disappear again.
50. “And the earth, moreover, hath He made egg shaped.”
(Al Quran Chapter 79 Verses 30)
In early times, people believed that the earth was flat.
For centuries, men were afraid to venture out too far, for fear of falling off the edge
It was only in 1597 when Sir Francis Drake sailed around the earth and proved that
the earth is spherical in shape.
But The Quran had already told the exact spherical shape of the Earth about a
1000 Years earlier than that.
The word used in above verse DAHAH literary means an egg and it is specifically
referred to the Egg of an Ostrich.
That resembles the exact shape of the Earth.
SHAPE OF THE EARTH